BIO 1144 Sec 03 Week of Mar 21 Notes
BIO 1144 Sec 03 Week of Mar 21 Notes BIO 1144
Popular in Biology II Thomas Holder
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaren Davis on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Biology II Thomas Holder in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
• Sarcomere ◦ Functional unit of skeletal muscle cells ◦ The distance from one z-line to the next ◦ The sarcomere shortens during skeletal muscle contraction ‣ It's quick ◦ Overlapping of thick and thin filaments produces the striations ◦ Anatomy of a Muscle Fiber ‣ Sarcolemma • Plasma membrane of the skeletal muscle fiber ‣ Sarcoplasmic Reticulum • Specialized end opossum reticulum • Stores and releases calcium ions (required for contraction) ‣ T (Transverse) Tubules • Transverse invaginations of the sarcolemma • Allow for rapid propagation of a muscle action potential ◦ Contraction ‣ "Sliding filament" model "Relaxed" muscle cells "Contracted muscle cells Myosin "heads" attached to actin filaments and "pull" together, "shortening" of sarcomere ◦ Energy required - high energy bond of the 3rd P of ATP High energy ◦ Applied to sarcomere for contraction ‣ It's quick ◦ Muscle cells contain many mitochondria - "powerhouse" of cell ‣ Site of bulk of ATP is formed ‣ Requires O2 for aerobic cellular respiration Circulatory System • Cardiovascular System ◦ Cardio - heart ◦ Vascular - tubes • Blood - connective tissue ◦ Transported through body ◦ Protect ◦ Regulate body temperature ◦ Plasma - 55% blood volume ‣ 90% of plasma is water ‣ 10% of plasma are amino acids, glucose, gases (oxygen), enzymes, hormones ‣ Intracellular fluids - fluid within cell ‣ Extracellular fluids - fluid outside cell • Blood plasma • Interstitial fluid ◦ Fluid between cells ◦ Formed elements - cells ‣ Platelets - clotting • Cell fragments or pieces of bone marrow ◦ Contain chemicals in these pieces ‣ Leukocytes (white blood cells) • Not the most abundant cell type • Easy to distinguish ◦ Large nuclei • Nucleated • 7000/cc • Neutrophils ◦ Phagocytic ‣ Consumers ‣ Engulfs bacteria ◦ Usually the first leukocytes into an inflamed area ◦ Clean up debris • Lymphocytes ◦ B-Cells ‣ Produced in bone marrow ◦ T-Cells ‣ Produced in thymus gland • Found in neck ‣ Sometimes called killer cells because they sometimes attack virus infected cells and cancer cells • Monocytes ◦ Phagocytic ◦ Clean up extra red blood cells ◦ The number increases during chronic infection • Eosinophils/Basophils ◦ Limit inflammatory response ‣ Erythrocytes • Red blood cells • Anucleate - mammals ◦ No nucleus • O2 transport • Produced in red bone marrow ◦ Spleen also produces red blood cells • Life span : 120 days (4 months) • 5,000,000/cc • Contain hemoglobin ◦ Iron contained protein ◦ Reddish tint comes from iron ◦ Binds to oxygen ◦ 200,000 hemoglobin molecules per red blood cell • Red blood cell - biconcave • Blood Vessels ◦ Tubes carrying blood ◦ Lined with simple squamous epithelium ◦ Arteries ‣ & arterioles (small artery) ‣ Carry blood away from heart ‣ Smooth muscle layer in wall is thicker than veins ◦ Capillaries ‣ Smallest diameter ‣ Arranged in clusters (beds) ‣ Thin walled - 1 cell thick (epithelium) ‣ Function: gas exchange site between blood and organs and tissues of body • Oxygen diffuses out of vessel • CO2 diffuses in ◦ Veins ‣ & venules (small veins) ‣ Carry blood towards the heart ‣ Thinner smooth muscle layer ‣ Lower pressure vessels ‣ Blood to heart ‣ Some with valves - prevent back flow of blood ◦ Cross Section of Vessels
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