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Week 8 Notes

by: Chaelin Despres

Week 8 Notes SCED 305

Chaelin Despres
GPA 3.76
Adolescent Development
Dr. Jamie Silverman

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About this Document

Chapters 8 and 10.
Adolescent Development
Dr. Jamie Silverman
Class Notes
towson, towson university, Education, secondary education
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chaelin Despres on Saturday October 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SCED 305 at Towson University taught by Dr. Jamie Silverman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Development in Education and Teacher Studies at Towson University.

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Date Created: 10/24/15
Chapter 8 StudentCentered and Constructivist Approaches to Instruction What is the Constructivist View of Learning Constructivist Theory learners must individually discover and transform complex information to make it their own 0 Constantly checking new information against old rules and revising said rules 0 Studentcentered instruction Student Centered Instruction teacher becomes the guide instead of the stage helping students to discover their own meaning instead of controlling all classroom activities Four key principles play an important role derived from Vygotsky 0 Social Learning children learn through interaction with adults and more capable peers 0 Zone of Proximal Development learn best the concepts that are in their zones of proximal development 0 Cognitive Apprenticeship process by which a learner gradually acquires expertise through interaction with an expert Student Teaching 0 Mediated Learning scaffolding Students should be given complex realistic tasks and then be given enough help to achieve these tasks Top Down Processing 0 Students begin with complex problems to solve and then work out the basic skills required 0 Experience of hearing others ideas trying out and getting immediate feedback and discussing different approaches Peer Interaction 0 Students will more easily discover and understand difficult concepts if they can take with each other about the problems 0 Peers model appropriate ways of thinking and exposechallenge misconceptions Discovery Learning 0 Students are encouraged to learn on their own through active involvement with concepts and principles 0 Teachers encourage students to have experiences and conduct experiments that permit them to discover principles for themselves 0 Arouses curiosity motivates students learn independent problemsolving and criticalthinking skills SelfRegulated Learning 0 Have knowledge of effective learning strategies and howwhen to use them 0 Motivated by learning itself not gradesapproval 0 Stick to a long term task Scaffolding 0 Ability to direct memory and attention in a purposeful way and to think in symbols 0 Assisted learningmediated learning teacher is the cultural agent who guides instruction so students will master and internalize the skills that permit higher cognitive functioning Constructivist Methods in the Content Areas 0 Reading Reciprocal Teaching teacher working with small groups of students help low achievers in elementarymiddle school Teacher models the behavior they want their students to be able to do on their own and changes role from teacher to facilitator and organizer Questioning the Author engage in dialogues with the authors Students then take responsibility for formulating questions on intent and meaning ConceptOrientated Reading Instruction Emphasizes 5 key elements 0 Content Goals 0 Giving Students Choices o Hands on Activities in Relation to Text o Variety of informational texts 0 Collaboration among students 0 Writing Engage students in small peerresponse teams to work together to help one another write compositions 0 Math Students work together in small groups Teachers pose problems and then walk among groups to facilitate the discussion of strategies Begin with real problems for students to solve and letting students use their existing knowledge of the world 0 Science Discovery group work and conceptual change Hands on investigative laboratory activities How is Cooperative Learning Used in Instruction Students in mixedability groups varying group sizes Cooperative Learning Methods 0 Student TeamsAchievement Divisions STAD Fourmember learning teams of diverse performance level gender and ethnicity Students work together to make sure everyone has understood the lesson Individual quizzes on the material Teams scores are summed to form team scores to earn rewards and judge on past performances o Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition CIRC Students working in fourmember cooperative learning teams Engage in activities with one another reading making predictions writing responses spelling vocabulary o Jigsaw Assigned to sixmember teams to work on material that has been broken down into sections Students meet with experts of the other sections and discuss the material Learning Together Students work in fourfive member heterogeneous groups on assignments Group hands in a single completed assignment and receive praiserewards based 0 the group product Group Investigation General classroom organization plan Students work in small groups using cooperative inquiry group discussions and cooperative planning and projects Form their own groups PeerAssisted Learning Strategies PALS Structured cooperative learning method where students work in pairs taking turns as teachers and students Cooperative Scripting Discuss material they have readheard in class One student summarizes while the other corrects any errorsomissions then they switch roles until all material is covered Informal Cooperative Learning Structures Numbered Heads students are given a secret number and then work in groups to make sure everyone knows the material The teacher will then call out for one of the numbers to answer questions based on the material ThinkPairShare students sit in pairs teachers ask students to think discuss with their partners and then share their answers as a pair Cooperative learning methods have had positive effects on outcomes such as improved intergroup relations How are ProblemSolving and Thinking Skills Taught The ProblemSolving Process 0 General Problem Solving Strategies identify problemsopportunities define goals and represent the problems explore possible strategies anticipate outcomes and act look back and learn MeansEnds Analysis familiarizing students with problems in a variety of situations and types so they are able to have a greater chance to think through the problem Extracting Relevant Information clear away all extraneous information and identifying the relevant information Representing the Problem graphic representation diagrams flowcharts outlines summarizingdepicting the critical components of a problem Teaching Creative Problem Solving O O Incuba on Avoid rushing to a solution pause and reflect on the problem and think through several alternative solutions before choosing a course of action Suspension of Judgement Suspend judgment and consider all possibilities before trying out a solution 0 Brainstorming 0 Appropriate Climates Creative problem solving is enhanced by a relaxed environment Students must feel as though their ideas will be accepted 0 Students will be less afraid of making mistakes or appearing foolish 0 Analysis Analyze and juxtapose major characteristicsspecific elements of a problem 0 Engaging Problems Provide problems that intrigue and engage students to increase motivation 0 Feedback Provide students with a great deal of practice on a wide variety of problem types Give feedback not only on correctness but on their process Teaching Thinking Skills 0 Create a culture of thinking by incorporating thinking skills into daily lessons and classroom experiences Chapter 10 Motivating Students to Learn What is Motivation An internal process that activates guides and maintains behavior over time Can vary in intensity and direction 0 Intensity may depend on the intensity and direction of motivations to engage in alternative activities 0 Students who are motivated use higher cognitive processes in learning and absorbretain more More likely to transfer their learning to new situations Motivation can come from many sources 0 Can be a personality characteristic 0 Can come from sources extrinsic to the task What are Some Theories of Motivation Motivation and Behavioral Learning Theory 0 Rewards and Reinforcement Inadequate explanation for motivation because human motivation is highly complex and contextbound 0 Determining the Value of an Incentive Motivational value of an incentive cannot be assumed o It is dependent upon each individual and various factors Motivation and Human Needs 0 Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs Needs that are lower in the hierarchy must be partially satisfied before moving on to higherlevel needs Introduced the distinction between deficiency needs and growth needs 0 Deficiency Needs physiological safety love and esteem Are critical to a physical and psychological wellbeing 0 Growth Needs need to know and understand things appreciate beauty grow and develop in appreciation of others 0 SelfActualization The desire to become everything that one is capable of becoming Maslow Acceptance of selfothers spontaneity openness relatively deep relationships with others creativity humor independence 0 Implications of Maslow s Theory for Education Free breakfastlunch programs to meet students basic needs A school that emphasizes socialemotional learning might create an environment that is more conductive to academic as well as social emotional learning Motivation and Attribution Theory 0 Attribution Theory understand explanations and excuses especially when applied to success or failure Have three characteristics o Whether the cause is seen as internal or external o Whether it is seen as stable or unstable o Whether it is perceived as controllable Assumption is that people will attempt to maintain a positive selfimage o Attribute success to own effortsabilities and failures to factors over which they have no control 0 More likely to respond to a classmate s request for help if they believe that the classmate needs help because of a uncontrollable factors 0 Attributions for Success and Failure Four explanations for success and failures in achievement situations Ability internal to individual Effort internal to individual Task Difficulty external 0 Luck external 0 Loss of Control and SelfEfficacy


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