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HD205-Week 1

by: Courtney Green

HD205-Week 1 HD 205-001

Courtney Green
GPA 3.79
Child Development- Preschool
Blanche C. Komara

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About this Document

A combination of in-class notes, class discussion, and highlights from the textbook!
Child Development- Preschool
Blanche C. Komara
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Green on Friday January 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HD 205-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Blanche C. Komara in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 207 views.


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Date Created: 01/16/15
HD 205001 Infants and Children Prenatal through Middle Childhood Chapter 1 01162015 What is Child Development 0 Changes in developmental functioning from conception when the sperm and egg connect to adolescence age of 18 o Is a part of a larger eld developmental science includes all changes we experience throughout the lifespan Domains of Development 0 Physical Domain 0 Changes in Body size amp proportions height weight appearance Functioning of body systems Perceptual amp motor capacities Physical health 0 Cognitive Domain 0 Changes in Intellectual abilities I Attention memory academic and everyday knowledge problem solving imagination creativity and language Emotional and Social Domain 0 Changes in Emotional communication Selfunderstanding knowledge about others Interpersonal skills amp intimate relationships friendships Moral reasoning amp behavior Periods of development 0 Prenatal o conception to birth 0 AKA pregnancy 0 The most rapid time of change Infancy and toddlerhood o birth to 2 years 0 dramatic changes in the body and brain that support motor perceptual and intellectual capacities 0 beginning of language and intimate ties Early childhood 0 2 to 6 years 0 motor skills re ned o selfcontrol and selfsuf ciency arise 0 make believe imaginary play begins this supports psychological development thought and language expand sense of morality develops OO O friendships with peers Middle childhood 0 O O O O O 6 to 11 years master new responsibilities improved athletic ability participation in organized games with rules more logical thought processes master fundamental reading writing math and other academic skills selfunderstanding morality and friendship growth Adolescence 0 000000 11 to 18 years transition to adulthood pube y thought becomes abstract and idealistic prepare for higher education or work establish autonomy independence de ne personal goals and values 0 Emerging adulthood 0 Theory 18 to 25 years 0 An orderly integrated set of statements that O Describes behavior o Explains behavior 0 Predicts behavior Basic Issues in Development 0 Continuous Development change occurs gradually and smoothly as children add more of the same types of skills Curvilinear a EX Growing from small tree to a large one o Discontinuous Development change occurs suddenly and abruptly as children step up to a new level and then plateau with very little change for a while Steplike a EX Changing from a caterpillar to a butter y 0 Stages people everywhere follow the same sequence of development most children learn how to talkspeak o Contexts unique combinations of circumstances result in different paths of change environment can affect development 0 Nature lnborn biologic givens Based on genetic inheritance quotwhat you are born withquot a i e abilities musical athletic intelligence somewhat height etc o Nurture Physical and social world In uences biological and psychological development quotenvironment shapes youquot a i e your environment helps to breed you to be a good writer athlete musician etc 0 Stability individuals high or low in a characteristic remain so at later ages early experience may have a lifelong impact 0 Plasticity change is possible based on experiences Can continue to learn through all ages even older age Stroke patients often have to relearn certain activities speech walking eating Balanced Viewpoint Continuous AND discontinuous Universal features AND those unique to individuals Heredity AND environment In the past psychologists and scientists would choose a side of the issue whereas today many believe in the combination of the different sides working together Resilient Children What makes a child resilient 0 Personal characteristics 0 A warm parental relationship or another adult relationship aunt or uncle grandmother teacher mentor pastor 0 Social support outside the immediate family 0 Community resources and opportunities Historical Views of Childhood Medieval Era 0 Childhood to age 7 or 8 regarded as separate phase with special needs protections After that belonged to adult society Children spent a lot of time playing Boys hunting Girls crochetingsewing 0 Very little if any education 16th Century 0 Puritan quotchild depravityquot views 0 Children born evil and stubborn had to be civilized 0 Adults believed that children were born evil and needed to be quottaughtquot or beaten to become civilized 17th Century 0 16321704 quottabula rasaquot or quotblank slatequot view 0 Believed children were born innocent and needed to be nurtured and that adults must provide experiences in order to shape their children into who they would eventually become 18th Century 0 17121778 Believed children born as quotnoble savadesquot Natural maturation quotGod makes all things good man meddles with them and they become evilquot Believe more that nature rather than nurture shapes children Born with the skills that you would always possess OOO a EX If the father was a great hunter than the son would be a good hunter Early Scienti c Study of Development 0 Evolutionary theory 18091882 0 Darwin s ideas of natural selection and survival of the ttest are still in uential o Normative Approach 18441924 0 Agerelated averages based on measurements of large numbers of children EX Children learn to walk at age 1 Children say their rst word at age 1 Children learn to reason at age 4 0 Mental Testing Movement 0 Early Developers of intelligence tests Freud s Three Parts of the Personality Id o Largest portion of the mind 0 Unconscious present at birth 0 Source of biological needs and desires o Ego o Conscious rational part of the mind 0 Emerges in early infancy o Redirects ld impulses acceptably Superego o The conscience morality o Develops from age 3 to 6 Freud s psychosexual stages 0 Oral birth1 year thumbsucking breastfeeding 0 Anal 13 years Toilet Training Phallic 36 years OedipusElectra con ict looking at parent of the opposite sex from the child why the parent of the opposite sex is quotdifferentquot sexually competing with same sex parent for the opposite sex parent s attention 0 Latency 611 Superego strengthens Genital adolescence Sexual impulses reappear Erikson s Psychological Stages 0 O O O O O O Birth1 yr Do parents take care of your basic needs Trust parents take care of needs and provides intimacy cuddling cooing at baby providing toys blankets music Mistrust a parent fails to provide the baby with basic needs or any intimacy 13 yrs Autonomy being independent A parent lets the child explore and experience on their own e letting a child explore the cabinet and play with pots and pans Shame and Doubt Being punished for exploring e punishing a child for playing with pots and pans Doubtful of the child s independent ability O O O O O O 0 36 years lnitiative exploring amp asking why Wondering about the world and asking why and how things work Parents take the time to explain and answer questions Guilt A parent ignores punishes or does not have time to answer questions or explainexplore the child feels guilty for bothering a parent 611 years Industry Being productive Feeling good about yourself and con dent in your abilities lnferiority Feeling quotnot good enoughquot about your abilities and doubting yourself Thinking others are better than you Adolescence Identity exploring values and goals to establish a personal identity Role Confusion confusion about future roles because they did not explore values or goals do not possess a sense of self Emerging adulthood o Intimacy establish intimate relationships 0 Isolation because of earlier disappointments some individuals cannot form close bonds and remain isolated o Adulthood o Generativity giving to the next generation through child rearing caring for others or productive work 0 Stagnation failing to give back to the next generation results in an absence of meaningful accomplishment 0 Old age 0 Integrity results from feeling that life was worth living as it happened 0 Despair dissatis ed with the life that was lived results in the fear of dying Behaviorism amp Social Learning 0 Classical conditioning o Stimulus response There is a stimulus ie food that causes a response droolingsalivating when you pair that stimulus with another ringing a bell the new stimulus will eventually elicit the same response salivating by itself Operant conditioning o Reinforcers amp punishments Reinforcing good behavior Praising or giving positive consequences for a behavior encourages the behavior Punishing bad behavior Giving negative consequences for a bad behavior spanking timeout discourages the behavior 0 SocialCognitive Approach 0 Modeling Children looking at adults or other peers and doing what they are doing 0 Selfef cacy the belief that their own abilities and characteristics will help them succeed Social Learning Theory 0 Modeling or observational learning 0 Baby claps her hand after her mother does 0 Teenager dresses like her friends Cognition o Stressed today 0 Socialcognitive approach 0 Personal Standards 0 Children begin to believe their own abilities will help them succeed Behavior Modi cation Combines conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses 0 Example four and ve year olds unruliness in preschool was reduced using tokens given for good behavior that could be traded for candy 0 Example children being treated for acute burn injuries played a virtual reality game that distracted them from the procedure and caused their levels of pain and anxiety to drop dramatically Limitations of Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory 0 Too narrow a view of important environmental in uences Bandura s work is unique in that it grants children an active role in their own learning


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