Bio 110 Week 10 Notes
Bio 110 Week 10 Notes BIOL 112L
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angelina Notetaker on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 112L at University of New Mexico taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Biology Laboratory for Non-Majors in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Bio 110 Week 10 Notes Chapter 8 Plant and Fungal Diversity 0 Going back in time 0 Archean Eon 35 Billion years ago I Life evolves and changed the Earth 0 Cyanobacteria and the evolution of photosynthesis Photosynthesis Water Carbon Dioxide Energy Glucose Carbohydrate Oxygen 6H20 6C02 energy C6H1206 602 L a a 0 Life changed the Earth 0 The evolution of photosynthesis slowly added oxygen to the atmosphere 0 Proterozoic Eon 2500 550 Million years ago I Oxygen changed the surface of the Earth A B C dinosaurs 3332222 I l 10 J aeeric metabolism Percent oxygen in atmosphere Atmospheric Oxygen 01 h m on em o os esis 0 The oxygen revolutlon led to blue 399 p yquot 001 skies and water rst cell I Emergence of multicellular life mm w I m 0 Protist are the precursor of animals 4 3 2 1 today BIIIIons ofyears ago fungus and plants Any organism belonging to the kingdom Protista originally including bacteria protozoans algae and fungi I Single celled algae evolved into multicellular plants 0 Diversification of the protists diversity in small packages 0 Endosymbiosis and the evolution of planet cells 0 First Eukaryotes evolved about 2 billion years ago I A eukaryote engulfed a cyanobacteria F hmteasyni rhetir proterye ie Chliereplast Mimchendrim taumm oralranges 0 The Earth 450 Million Years ago O The Earth was bare for 4 billion years 0 First land plants 440 million years ago 0 What is a plant 0 Multicellular I Having or consisting of many cells or more than one cell to perform all Vital functions 0 Photosynthetic Autotrophic I An organism that obtains energy from sunlight for the synthesis of organic compounds I Capable of fiXing carbon Sun39s energy CBH1206 02 Carib n Water 39 39 Su 3er D quot en dioxide g quot W9 39 Chlorophyll O Altemation of generation I Plant life cycle 0 The plant life cycle begins with a seed The seed will sprout and produce a tiny immature plant called a seedling The seedling will grow to adulthood and form a mature plant The mature plant will reproduce by forming new seeds which will begin the next life cycle 0 First land plants were bryophytes mosses 470 MYA 0 First Vascular Plants 420 MYA I Ferns were the first vascular seed plants 0 The Earth became lush and green between 420 360 MYA 0 Carboniferous 359 299 MYA 0 Major forest very swampy 0 Origins of coal deposits 0 Seeds and Pollen Grains 355 MYA 0 Novel adaptations of seed plants 0 Modern conifers I Adaptation to cooler and drier environments 0 First owering plants 115 MYA 0 Angiosperms Evolved owers I A plant that has owers and produces seeds enclosed within a carpel The angiosperms are a large group and include herbaceous plants shrubs grasses and most trees Diversity Begets Diversity 0 Evolution of owers and pollinators O Pollinator I An agent as an insect that pollinates owers I Batesian minicry to avoid predation 0 An edible animals is protected by its resemblance to a noxious one that is avoided by predators O Predator I EvoTved to catch pollinators I Cryptic coloration to catch prey V 0 CompleX Life Cycle to Reduce Intraspecific Competitions 0 Parasitoids 0 An insect whose larvae live as parasites that eventually kill their hosts 0 Predation 0 Plants can be predators too 0 Fruits 0 Methods of Dispersal I For example 0 Wings on some plants 0 Seeds within berries 0 Barbs O Aid in seed Dispersal 0 Grasses 0 Seeds spread by the wind 0 There are three of our most important food crops I Wheat I Rice I Corn 0 Plants have to fend themselves against herbivory 0 Chemicals from plants 0 Caffeine I A crystalline compound that is found especially in tea and coffee plants and is a stimulant of the central nervous system 0 THC tetrahydrocannabinol I Is the chemical responsible for most of marijuana s psychological effect It acts much like the cannabinoid chemicals made naturally by the body 0 Vitamin C 0 Medicines from plants 0 Acetylsalicylic Acid aspirin O Taxol I A compound originally obtained from the nark of the Pacific yew tree that has been found to inhibit the growth of certain cancers 0 Poisonous Plants 0 Hemlock Conium Sp I Death of Socrates 399 BC I Neurotoxic death in 15 20 minutes 0 Monkshood Acom tum sp I Neurotoxic and cardiotoxins O Deadliest plant in the world I Nicotiana Rustica Tobacco 0 Contains chemicals called alkaloids Caffeine Nicotine and Morphine 0 Smoking kills 5 million peopleyear 0 Most nutritious plants 0 Kale A 0 Garlic 0 Blueberries O Broccoli O Spinach 0 Cannabis O A distant relative to roses 0 Origins Central and Southeast Asia 0 History Used by peoples in Asia and the far east for more than 4000 years possibly 8000 years 0 Uses Hemp comes from the stem used in I Rope I Canvas for ship products sails I Cloth for fabric I Pulp for paper 0 Medical Uses I Ease nausea resulting from weight loss I Improve apatite I Reduce agitation in Alzheimer s patients I May lead to better glaucoma treatment 0 Active ingredient I Tetrahydrocannabinol THC 0 In large doses THC can cause hallucinations 0 Cause euphoria 0 Cause anXiety 0 It may increase the risk of O Schizophrenia O Bipolar disorder 0 Depression 0 Reduced memory capacity 0 The war on drugs has failed I The country would approximately 8 15 billion on taxes alone 0 Side effects known and unknown There has been a general lack of study on Cannabis I Lower sperm count I Lower testosterone I Loss of libido I Depression I Can be addictive I Short term forgetfulness Fungus Overview of fungi 0 Evolutionary origins of fungi O The Earth was bare for 4 billion years 0 Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs that feed by absorption 0 Fungi colonized the surface with plants 480 million years ago 0 Total diversity is not well understood approximately 100000 species I Macroscopic diversity 0 Fungi eXhibit diverse lifestyles I Decomposers 0 Return nutrients back to the environment so they can be recycled O Fungi most colonized the land with plants I Plants have mycorrhizae to help plants absorb nutrients in the soil 0 Fungi are also mutualist O Fungi exhibit lifestyles I Mutualists 0 Lichens have a symbiotic algae that provides carbohydrates 0 Symbiotic relationships 0 Are a special type of interaction between species Sometimes beneficial sometimes harmful these relationships are essential to many organisms and ecosystems and they provide a balance that can only be achieved by working together I Parasites 0 Cordyceps fungus Fungi and Amphibian Declines 0 Chytrid fungus Practical uses of fungi 0 Making food 0 Beer an ancient beverage Ethanol and carbon dioxide I Beer gave us civilization I But you really have to love distillation 0 Sugar 0 Yeast Fermentation 0 Antibiotics O Penicillin Toxic Mushrooms 0 Ergot O A fungal disease of rye and other cereals in which black elongated fruiting bodies grow in the ears of the cereal Eating contaminated food can result in ergotism O Implicated in the Salem Witch Trails End of Week 10 notes 0 Also Week 11 Notes will hopefully be upload by next Friday or Saturday at the latest Thank you for using Studysoup and have a great three day weekend