Sparta and Athens
Sparta and Athens History 1A
Popular in Introduction to Western Civilization: Ancient Civilizations, Prehistory to circa A.D. 843
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Doberneck on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 1A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Phillips in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Western Civilization: Ancient Civilizations, Prehistory to circa A.D. 843 in History at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Continuation of Homer We see genuine Mycenaean elements and Bronze Age in uences other characteristics from the intervening dark ages that get muddled in the poems The poems mostly bring up using bronze weapons which was an accurate memory for the time period the poems took place 0 However occasionally iron weapons are mentioned which is impossible because they didn39t know how to make iron at this time 0 Also boar tusk helmets are mentioned This is a backward inaccuracy because boar tusk helmets have phased out by the time of the Trojan War This detail tells us that the tradition of storytelling is older than the Trojan War 0 Chariots are another forward inaccurism They remembered that chariots were used in war but they didn t know how In reality soldiers would stay in the chariot to fight while in the poems they would get out of it to fight Archaic period 7764798 Rise of the polis has a lot of in uence in coming out of the dark ages Polis is the dominant form of political and social order in the greek world for many years 0 Defined as quota community of several villages that possesses the goal of virtually complete selfsufficiencyquot by Aristotle 4th century BC 0 Polis came into being through villages uniting 0 Because of their goal of selfsufficiency they are known as city states 0 Selfsufficiency can39t be realized because of the poor soil in Greece the lack of natural such as minerals to make metal Led to a high dependence on trade Resumption of overseas trade in a large scale with the near east and Egypt Return of literacy in the form of the alphabet 776 is known as the beginning of the archaic period because that is what is known as the first year of the Olympics 4798 is chosen as the end because that39s when the Persian war ended Literature of archaic period Begins with Homer who is the first and greatest poet of the Greeks Next was Hesiod lived in late 8th andor early 7th century 0 Epic poet like Homer but were much shorter o Theogony had a traditional subject material about the origin of the gods a time of heroes and the distant past 0 The Works and Days takes place in present day rather than the past Didactic meaning instructional poem The works talks about how to respect the gods and be successful The day39s talks about when to plant what crop who to marry etc The Lyric 0 New genre of poetry that developed during this time period 0 Uses many different meters o Epics write about the distant last with gods and heroes Usually the narrator is a detached third person character 0 With a lyric it39s first or second person This makes it more personal 0 They talk about the present not the past 0 Sappho 0 Woman from the island of lesbos 0 One of the very few female authors whose voice survived from the ancient world 0 Literature was a man s business but there were some woman we have a lot of Sapphos works 0 Won awards for poetry and in the Olympics 0 Had a lot of erotic literature mostly about other females Age of Colonization 750550 0 Colonies were sent out all over the place for many city states With the rise of the polis increased standard of living increased population led to not having enough food 0 Causes if civilization 1 Need for more food 2 Trade interests 3 Lost a war and were kicked out 0 A colony is always founded as an independent polis from their mother cities so there was never a revolution because they weren39t politically subject 0 Colonized around the shores of the Mediterranean around the Black Sea 0 Density varies 1 Heavily around the eastern Mediterranean Italy 2 Less heavily in the west toward Europe and in the southern coast 0 Results of colonization More money because easy access to trade Access to materials they didn39t have in Greece Population expansion Various city states begin fighting each other over land alliances were made 0 Political fragmentation PWF 1 Hundreds of city states all in competition 2 Common culture in languageliterature and religion that tired them together 0 Although different dialects they recognized they all spoke Greek 0 Common pool of literature thanks to Homer He writes for a broad Greek audience as does Hesiod Later authors follow their lead 0 Innumerable differences with how to worship gods and heroes locally They all worshiped the 12 Olympian gods including Zeus Aries jades Poseidon Hera The Olympic Games 0 Held in Olympia 0 There was a festival every 4 years in honor of Zeus There was a truce that protected people atgoing toleaving the games The myth today is that all warfare ceased which is false Myth Olympians were amateurs They were actually professionals When they returned home they would be praised and loved forever 0 Controversial but said to be started in 776 0 The first event was a 200 m sprint 0 Heavy events boxing wrestling 0 Events were mostly for men there was one for women but it wasn39t popular 0 This was a unifying event because if you were athletic male and Greek you could compete Tyranny 0 Political phenomenon 0 Used to be a neutral term just meant any type of untraditional single ruler 0 Traditional Kings had limited power either through custom or law 0 Tyrants would gain power at the expense of traditional monarchs 0 Examples of tyrants O Pheidon of Argos known for interfering with the Olympic Games He essentially took over the games and ran them himself He broke the peace treaty and offended Zeus O Cleisthenes from Sicyon Famous for a tribal reform where he renamed all 4 tribes in the state He named his quotruler of the peoplequot and named the others after pigs donkeys and swine 0 Cypselus executed large numbers of his enemies His son Periander of Corinth built a stone drag way across the isthmus This benefits nautical trade and Corinth He is also known as one of the 7 wise men of the Ancient Greek world but some wanted him to be left off this list because he is said to have murdered his wife Sparta 0 Very conservative people 0 Always known as being opposed to tyranny o Anomalies 0 Doesn39t have a true city at the core 0 Strange social structure 0 Sparriates the only real citizens males could vote 0 Periodie free people but not citizens They are bound to provide troops to the Spartan army and don39t have any say in the foreign policy of the state 0 Helots slaves In other polis states belonged to individuals and were treated like property of an individual and could be sold or traded etc in Sparta the helots belong to the state and are loaned to individuals This means that their chances of becoming free is much lower than in other states 0 Lycurgus 0 If real lived during the 8th century 0 Many scholars believe that Lycurgus wasn39t a real person But he may have been a real person who was the main founder of Spartan society 0 Known for laying the foundations of the constitution of Sparta He said he went to an oracle and was given the great retra which was a set of laws 0 Sparta had 2 kings ruling at a time probably originated in a power sharing agreement when the 4 villages came together to form the polis They keep their kings for longer and with more power than other city states 0 Council of elders 30 members Included the 2 kings and 28 other males who were elected based on age and virtue They were to come up with bills that had to go before the assembly before becoming law 0 Assembly all male citizens over 30 Must pass a bill by a majority vote Originally assembly was the final say but then they amended the law so that the other two groups have more power 0 Ephors 5 men elected annually served as a power check on the King 0 Mycenaean war First ca 736716 Second ca 660650 0 Mycenaeans lost the war Sparta got a lot of new helots that hated them 0 Caused Sparta to become a militarized state 0 Citizens no longer had to do their own farming and could dedicate themselves completely to military efforts 0 Agoge discipline upbringing Lasts 13 years turns Spartan boys into military academy 0 Had to construct their own bed 0 Purposely underfed so that they would steal food and develop sneakiness and cunning 0 When you graduate you seek membership in a communal eating group and live in the barracks for the next 10 years Women 0 Received physical education 0 Two healthy parents were needed to create a healthy child 0 Understood the important role of women in raising children for the state 0 Has more rights than many other women in ancient civilizations 0 Still couldn39t vote or hold political office 0 40 of land in Sparta was controlled by women probably the result of massive wartime casualties but the fact that they were allowed to own it is noteworthy Oracles 0 Any individual or group can consult the oracle of Apollo in Delphi 0 You would go to the temple talk to the priest and ask your question someone would inhale something and go into a trance Her response would be translated into dactylic hexameter and that39s the answer 0 Tagean con icts with oracle advice 0 One of the only instances where we see the Spartan military set back 0 They think the oracle says they will beat the Tageans when actually the Tageans lose and bind the Spartans with the ropes meant to capture them 0 After they win they decide they won39t helotize any other conquered people 0 Argos O Defeat Argos in battle 0 Don39t compel Argos into alliance with them Foreign policy 0 Begin to expand their alliances throughout the Peloponnese 0 Unite basically every country except Argos Culture 0 Political power spread culture declined 0 Imports and exports diminish 0 Lack of fine arts no more monumental architecture 0 Everywhere except Sparta starts using coinage Sparta bans it 0 No Artists or metal worker or merchants are going to come to Sparta because they can39t be paid Athens 0 Principal city of the region of Attica 0 Athens and Attica encompass the same ideas and can be used to talk about the same thing 0 Politics 0 Citizenship is extended to all free people 0 Got rid of kings replaced them with a board of 9 men elected annually 0 Council of the Areopagus were advisors to the king then changed so that after you were in the board for a year you served in the council until you died 0 Only the aristocracy were eligible to be in these positions 0 In 6210 Athenians decided they wanted a written set of laws Draco write a set of laws This was only a temporary solution because later all his laws except the ones about homicide are repealed and replaced 0 Solon elected 5943 given the ability to change and fix the constitution and set of laws 0 The main problem at this time was they Athenians were largely in debt 0 Most Athenians were small farmers and had bad crop years They could then either starve or take out a loan 0 They would ask a wealthy neighbor and out up their land as collateral If they had a second bad year and couldn39t pay back then the loan giver owned the land and kept the farmer as a sharecropper They worked the land and gave 16 of their crops to the lender 0 If they had a third bad year and couldn39t pay rent then the lender could make you slaves and either sell you or keep you whatever he wanted 0 Solon decided to eliminate debt 0 He forgave all debt 0 Liberated all Athenians who had been sold abroad as slaves 0 Divided people into 4 social classes based in income 0 Political power became tied to ones social class making Athens go from an aristocracy to a timocracy Solon temporarily delayed civil strife and bound the people to following his laws Peisistraus became a tyrant 5610 then again in 5656 then gets kicked out and is back 575 until he dies Then he left the tyranny to his sons 0 He was known as a good tyrant who followed the laws and constitution 0 Low taxes 0 Coinage was introduced into Athens 0 Patronage of the arts sponsorship of state religious festivals involving dramatic competition of plays and comedies His sons Hippias and Hipparchus become joint rulers 0 Hipparchus is assassinated 0 Hippias goes on a reign of terror 0 Sparta helps Athens help kick them out 0 Tyrant becomes a negative word 5087 Cleisthenes Democratic reforms o Tribal reform creates 10 tribes from the 4 original divided based on varying geographical location He divided Attica into 140 deems of 3 large sections interior coast city took one deem from each and made a tribe with representation from each region Tribal membership was hereditary Each tribe had equal political representation