Week 9: Cell Cycle and Mitosis & DNA Replication I
Week 9: Cell Cycle and Mitosis & DNA Replication I Bio 107
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Johnson on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 107 at Washington State University taught by William Davis in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Cell Cycle and Mitosis II Checkpoints 339 G1 cell size nutrients growth factors and DNA damage 339 G2 cell size and DNA replication 0 v M chromosome attachment to spindle Cyclin Proteins 0 v Control checkpoint progression A cyclin for each checkpoint only looking at cyclin B which controls the G2 checkpoint 0 v Levels change during the cycle Increase from cyclin gene expression and decrease from ubiquitin dependent proteolysis 0 v Function in conjunction with cyclin dependent kinase Cdk Cdk levels don t change Cell Cycle and Mitosis III M Phase Overview 0 09 O 0 Sister chromatids have already been synthesized but must be separated Cell cleavage must occur Late G2 Early M Phase 0 09 Interphase G2 Chromosomes are duplicated but uncondensed Prophase DNA condenses Sister chromatids are together Early mitotic spindle forms Nucleus is still intact Prometaphase DNA condenses Nuclear envelope begins deteriorating Poles form Metaphase Chromatids align at the metaphase plate Spindle attaches to each of the chromatids kinetochores Anaphase Chromatids are pulled apart Telophase Chromosomes move into each half Cleavage furrow forms Cytokinesis Cell pinches into two Metaphase Anaphase Transition 0 v Cell needs to be sure all kinetochores are attached to microtubules DNA Replication I DNA Replication 0 v Bacteria don t go through the same cycle with checkpoints as eukaryotes Binary fission replication by division Daughter cells are two nearly identical bacteria cells 339 The process is similar to transcription 339 DNA replication bacteria need to make an exact copy of their chromosomes before dividing Starts with a double stranded circle and ends with two double stranded circles Semiconservative Replication 0 v Each daughter cell contains one strand from the parent cell and one newly synthesized strand 339 Parent strands are pulled apart and each strand is copied Initiation 0 v Occurs at the origin of replication Short DNA sequences recognized by proteins 339 DNA strands separate at origin Results in a replication bubble Produces two replication forks that move independently but at the same time 339 Proteins needed Helicase unzips the DNA Single strand binding protein keeps strands separated and prevents the cell from thinking the DNA is damaged Topoisomerase relieves tension ahead of fork to prevent the DNA from uncontrolled breaking by breaking untwisting and reattaching the DNA strand Primase synthesizes a small piece of RNA that attaches to the 3 end and is used to start DNA synthesis Temporary structure it s removed later on in the process
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