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Week 9 Lecture Notes

by: AJ Ponte

Week 9 Lecture Notes PSYCH 1000 - 01

AJ Ponte
GPA 3.94
General Psychology
Ines Segert

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About this Document

These notes include information on treating phobias, positive and negative reinforcement and punishment, and observational learning. Pictures and tables included!! If you have trouble understanding...
General Psychology
Ines Segert
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by AJ Ponte on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Ines Segert in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
Week 9 Psych Lecture Notes Treating Phobias 0 Exposure Therapy 0 Basically extinction presenting CS without US Counterconditioning o Reversing a learned response 0 Take CS and pair it with a new US that produces opposite response of the learned response 0 Systematic Desensitization o Gradual subtype of counterconditioning o Structured process I Replace anxiety with relaxation Starts with exposure to the least scary version of the feared thing Instruct the person to relax while exposed to stimulus Gradually move to progressively stronger versions until full or normal exposure is reached Drug Addiction and Classical Conditioning Conditioned Cravings Environmental drug cues CS 0 EX A room friends drug apparatus 0 Cravings CR Sight of drug cues 0 Activation of reward center of brain in expectation that the drug high will ow Treatment 0 Exposure Therapy 0 Extinction of CR drug cravings to environmental cues Ex Hang out with friends without doing drugs Helps extinguish responses to the cues Prevents them from triggering cravings Conditioned Tolerance Environmental stimuli associated with drug produce compensatory CR 0 Opposite to normal UR produced by drug 0 Ex Heroin US decreases your heartrate UR so when you go into the same room you always do heroin in CS your heartrate automatically increases CR Week 9 Psych Lecture Notes This is why there is a high overdoes risk in new settings If addicts take their usual large dose in a new place than normal they are more likely to OD because their bodies will not respond sufficiently to compensate Operant Conditioning What is it 0 An association between a behavior and an outcome 0 Thorndike and Skinner Behavior Consequencel likelihood of behavior increases or decreases BF Skinner 0 Operant chamber skinner box 0 Described effects of reinforcement and punishment on behavior Spreaer Pellet Signal s g dispen 3 er 9th 7 Aging 72 quot x quot Dispenser lube T0 SHOCK enentor iFoodmp Eiedric gnd 7 Reinforcement Increases Behavior o Reinforcement is something given after a behavior occurs that makes it more likely the behavior will occur again Punishment Decreases Behavior 0 Punishment is something given after a behavior that makes it less likely the behavior will occur Reinforcement vs Punishment 0 Reinforcement l increase behavior 0 Punishment l decrease behavior 0 Both can be positive or negative Week 9 Psych Lecture Notes Positive Reinforcement 0 Presenting a stimulus after a behavior to increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated 0 Ex Big Bang Theory 0 Penny gets a chocolate after every time she lowers her voice Negative Reinforcement 0 Removing a stimulus after a behavior to increase the likelihood of the behavior occurring again 0 Ex Buckle up your seat belt to turn the alarm off 0 Buckling behavior is increased 0 Removal of stimulus alarm 0 NOT THE SAME AS PUNISHMENT because this negative reinforcement increases behavior Schedules of Reinforcement o How often should reinforces be given 0 Continuous reinforcement o A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced each time it occurs 0 Quick learning 0 Once reinforcement stops behavior stops 0 Partial reinforcement o A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittently o Slower learning 0 Slower extinguish time Ratio vs Interval Schedules Ratio reinforcement is based on the number of times the behavior occurs Interval reinforcement is provided after a speci c unit of time 0 Ratio reinforcement generally leads to greater responding than does interval reinforcement Ration Schedules 0 W reinforcement is provided after a speci c number of occurrences 0 Ex A punch card 0 Variable ratio reinforcement is provided after a variable number of occurences 0 Ex Gamblers will win a jackpot every nquotth pull Week 9 Psych Lecture Notes Interval Schedule 0 Fixed ratio reinforcement is provided after a speci c amount of time 0 Ex Employees get paid once a week 0 Variable ratio Reinforcement is provided after a variable amount of time 0 Ex Getting facebook updates Behavioral Persistence 0 Continuous reinforcement o Quickest learning 0 Fastest extinction if reinforcement is stopped 0 Partial reinforcement 0 Behavior is more persistent there than with continuous reinforcement 0 Why gambling is addictive Punishment 0 Something given after a behavior that makes it less likely the behavior will occur 0 Sometimes this can back re Positive Punishment Presenting a stimulus after a behavior to decrease the probability of the behavior reoccurring Meant to decrease behavior 0 Apply aversive stimulus vs in negative reinforcement you remove the aversive stimulus Negative Punishment Removing a positive stimulus after a behavior to decrease the probability that the behavior will occur 0 Ex Parent takes away child s phone when they back talk 50 which is better Reinforcement or punishment 0 Punishment is most effective right after the behavior however reinforcement usually works better to create the desired behavior Week 9 Psych Lecture Notes Confused Just look at this Add Stimulus Remove Stimulus Increase Behavior Positive Negative Reinforcement Reinforcement Decrease behavior Positive Punishment Negative Punishment Third type of learning Observational Learning 0 For our purposes modeling and observational learning are the same thing 0 Observational learning is the acquisition of modi cation of a behavior after exposure to at least one performance of that behavior 0 Humans are not the only ones who do this Chimp Examples 0 New fashions one chimp decided to put a piece of grass in her ear and soon all the other chimps she lived with did the same Bandura39s Observational Studies Two groups of preschoolers shown a video of adults interacting with a 8080 doll 0 There was a video of an adult playing aggressively or quietly with the 8080 doll 0 Kids where then brought into a room with a 8080 doll Results 0 Video 91 o Other studies related 0 Reallife aggressive model 83 of the kids were aggressive 0 Cartoon 98 Week 9 Psych Lecture Notes 0 No model control group 51 0 Non aggressive model 40 Vicarious Learning 0 Learning the consequences of an action by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the action Vicarious Reinforcement o Likelihood of observer s behavior is increased if model s behavior is reinforced Vicarious Punishment 0 Likelihood of observer s behavior is decreased if the model s behavior is punished Gender Differences in Observational Learning 0 No consequence boys 35 girls 20 0 Model rewarded boys 35 girls 15 0 Model punished boys 27 girls 05 Does exposure to media violence make children aggressive 0 Correlation is strong increase hours of video games increase in aggression Causation NO third variable 0 Some studies demonstrate desensitization to violence after exposure to violent video games but there still is no evidence Mineka Studies Labreared monkeys are not afraid of snakes 0 Wild monkeys are Fears can be learned through observation 0 Lab monkeys were shown a wild monkey interact with a snake and showing fear then were presented a snake and also showed fear 0 Fear was unlearned when the lab monkeys watched another lab monkey interact with a snake without fear Biological Preparedness Evolutionary signi cance Week 9 Psych Lecture Notes 0 Animals are genetically programmed to fear speci c objects Easier to learn to be afraid of a snake than a sofa due to genetic programming


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