Phylogenetic Trees and Prokaryotes
Phylogenetic Trees and Prokaryotes Bio 114 (Science, Dr. Hyman, Organisms)
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Sawyer on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 114 (Science, Dr. Hyman, Organisms) at James Madison University taught by Dr. Oliver Hyman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms (Bio 114) in Biology at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Bio Lecture Notes October 19 2015 Recall Evolution does not prefect things but rather it is something that takes place naturally to accomplish something else 7bday s Main Points Phylogeny Understand scienti c knowledge is a process not cold hard facts Systematics Understanding Descent Phylogenetic tree diagram of a phylogeny Phylogeny a hypothesis describing the history of descent of a group of organisms o This is all based on anatomical traits behaviors fossils DNA etc Reading a Phylogenetic 77quotee Vocabulary o Taxa are the groups of organisms could be domain species phyla etc they are placed on the ends of the branches 0 Nodes these are the points where the branches divide and the show the common ancestor Mere eleeelly39 related Mere Recent a Derived 3 Made Eemmen Aneester Time at 3th birds at mammals net eh pibi Mfg t r V 39 r fir a Meade a ute iT Il llFIl EEEt lquot Palm 5 Ancestral m m Ilfishi binds mammals SIDE so as you move forward on the tree going from left to right you are moving in time going from ancestral to modern Keep in mind that nodes can rotate 3H ypethesis 1 Help nth eeie E llwetll ie sis El l H l H Each one is equivalent to each other So for example Reeent lirne BIKE EEG D EH l 39 EH x x am y Feet tirne Species B is most closely related to D and species A C and D share a common ancestor Reading a phylogenetic tree cont Characteristics are placed on the branches based on where they have rst appeared A characteristic of all three would typically not be placed on all three branches separately it would be pace don their ancestral branch More recent traits are derived less recent are ancestral Homologous 7739ait trait shared by 2 or more taxa that was inherited from a common ancestor Analogous traits aka homopasies similar traits that have evolved independently 0 Shared but NOT from a common ancestor o Derived by convergent evolution similar adaptations evolve independently Examples echoocation wings and succulence What s the goal in phylogeny Answer have the most accurate tree to be the most parsimonious Parsimony the fewer times a trait has to arise the better 0 Where ever evolution is not having to do the most work Phylogeny Terminology Monophyetic group an evolutionary unit that includes an ancestral population and all of its descendants but not other aka lineage or a clade 0 Has to pass the One Snipquot test If you can snip a tree the following groups after the snip all fall off if passed 0 Synapomorphy de ned by monophyletic groups trait found in two or more taxa that is present in their most recent common ancestor but is missing in more distant ancestors Paraphyetic group a group that includes an ancestral population and some of its descendants but not all 0 Fails One snipquot test When sniped off not all the traits fall off behind it
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