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# studysoupchemweek8.pdf CHE 106 - M001

Syracuse

GPA 3.7

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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrea Scota on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by R. Doyle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry Lecture I in Chemistry at Syracuse University.

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Date Created: 10/25/15

mentioned in class Chem Week 8 Notes TEXTBOOK CHAPTER 6 continued Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals 65 0 describe the electron in an atom 1392 location when in allowed energy state According to the uncertainty principle can t know the exact location if momentum but 0 1392 is probability densityelectron density 0 Orbitals each has characteristics shapeenergy described by a combination if an integer and letter corresponding to values of three quantum numbers 0 n is a positive integral 123 As n increases the orbital becomes larger the electron spends time farther away from the nucleus A higher n equals higher energy 1 can have values from 0 to n1 de nes the shape of the orbital and each has a letter 39 S 0 p 1 d 2 f 3 o ml can have values from l to 1 describes the orientation of the orbital in space 0 collection of orbitals with same n value is the electron shell 0 Orbitals with the same number of n and 1 values is called subshell Representations of Orbitals 66 0 Radial probability density tells us the probability that the electron will be found a certain distance away from the nucleus 0 Noteworthy points on graphs of peaks how spread out distribution is gives sense of size of orbital Comparing radial probabilities o 1 For an ns orbital the number of peaks n outermost gt innermost o 2 For ns orbital number of nodes n1 o 3 As n increases electron density spreads out grater probability of nding it farther away from the nucleus Wave function for p orbital has 2 lobes on opposite side of nucleus on XY Z axis D orbitals shapes with 4 lobes around nucleus Many Electron Atoms 67 Shapes of orbitals of many electron atoms same energies of orbitals are changed Energies of various subshells in given shell are different because of electronelectron repulsion In a manyelectron atom for a given value of n the energy of an orbital increases with the increasing value of l o nsltnpltndltnf Orbitals with the same energy are degenerate When scientists studied line spectra of electrons discovered red 1 line has 2 very close lines due to electron spin which causes the electron to have intrinsic property causing each to spin on its own axis ms can have value of 12 or 12 1 opposite directions of spin produce oppositely directed magnetic fields no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers n 1 ml and ms every atom has an infinite of possible electron configurations Electron Con gurations 68 0 Most stable is the ground state electrons at lowest possible energy state Orbitals are lled in order of increasing energy with no more than 2 electrons per orbital Can depict pictorially in there is a box and F o Electrons with opposite spin are quotpairedquot when in the same orbital Hunds rule states for degenerate orbitals the lowest energy is attained when the number of electrons having the same spin is maximized o F 0 Elements in any given group have the same type of electron arrangements in outermost shells o For all elements with atomic numbers of 30 or less all the outer shell electrons are Electron Con gurations and the Periodic Table 69 Can place 2 electrons in each orbital each shell accommodates up to Zn2 electrons 2818 or 32 The structure of the periodic table allows us to write the electron con guration of an element from its position in table tantrumII rimmi d HanLi Iranmm EIH L FI EL iI39illl39i ll W L39a H I t 115 IT I mm mm land 191 16m wa 39 1 39 39 quot21quot fr 39 um I11 ill in quot1 H l j 39 JET T imi ra fi39e fr aquot Hquot h l mentioned in class Chem Week 8 Notes TEXTBOOK CHAPTER 6 continued Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals 65 0 describe the electron in an atom 1392 location when in allowed energy state According to the uncertainty principle can t know the exact location if momentum but 0 1392 is probability densityelectron density 0 Orbitals each has characteristics shapeenergy described by a combination if an integer and letter corresponding to values of three quantum numbers 0 n is a positive integral 123 As n increases the orbital becomes larger the electron spends time farther away from the nucleus A higher n equals higher energy 1 can have values from 0 to n1 de nes the shape of the orbital and each has a letter 39 S 0 p 1 d 2 f 3 o ml can have values from l to 1 describes the orientation of the orbital in space 0 collection of orbitals with same n value is the electron shell 0 Orbitals with the same number of n and 1 values is called subshell Representations of Orbitals 66 0 Radial probability density tells us the probability that the electron will be found a certain distance away from the nucleus 0 Noteworthy points on graphs of peaks how spread out distribution is gives sense of size of orbital Comparing radial probabilities o 1 For an ns orbital the number of peaks n outermost gt innermost o 2 For ns orbital number of nodes n1 o 3 As n increases electron density spreads out grater probability of nding it farther away from the nucleus Wave function for p orbital has 2 lobes on opposite side of nucleus on XY Z axis D orbitals shapes with 4 lobes around nucleus Many Electron Atoms 67 Shapes of orbitals of many electron atoms same energies of orbitals are changed Energies of various subshells in given shell are different because of electronelectron repulsion In a manyelectron atom for a given value of n the energy of an orbital increases with the increasing value of l o nsltnpltndltnf Orbitals with the same energy are degenerate When scientists studied line spectra of electrons discovered red 1 line has 2 very close lines due to electron spin which causes the electron to have intrinsic property causing each to spin on its own axis ms can have value of 12 or 12 1 opposite directions of spin produce oppositely directed magnetic fields no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers n 1 ml and ms every atom has an infinite of possible electron configurations Electron Con gurations 68 0 Most stable is the ground state electrons at lowest possible energy state Orbitals are lled in order of increasing energy with no more than 2 electrons per orbital Can depict pictorially in there is a box and F o Electrons with opposite spin are quotpairedquot when in the same orbital Hunds rule states for degenerate orbitals the lowest energy is attained when the number of electrons having the same spin is maximized o F 0 Elements in any given group have the same type of electron arrangements in outermost shells o For all elements with atomic numbers of 30 or less all the outer shell electrons are Electron Con gurations and the Periodic Table 69 Can place 2 electrons in each orbital each shell accommodates up to Zn2 electrons 2818 or 32 The structure of the periodic table allows us to write the electron con guration of an element from its position in table tantrumII rimmi d HanLi Iranmm EIH L FI EL iI39illl39i ll W L39a H I t 115 IT I mm mm land 191 16m wa 39 1 39 39 quot21quot fr 39 um I11 ill in quot1 H l j 39 JET T imi ra fi39e fr aquot Hquot h l

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