BSC 101 Helms Week 10 Lecture Notes 10/19-10/23
BSC 101 Helms Week 10 Lecture Notes 10/19-10/23 BSC 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daniel Hemenway on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 101 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Helms in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
BSC 101 Helms 10191023 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 159 Corals as a result of producing calcium carbonate skeletons are an important for storing C02 Corals Keystone species of a reef Colonies of asexually reproducing polyps Secrete hard calcium carbonate exoskeleton and this provides a habitat for the rest of the ecosystem Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 160 More about corals 95 of energy is received from photosynthetic symbiotic algae The algae are sensitive To temperature To acidity In order to understand why coral bleaching happens we need to first understand nutrient cycles on next page of notes In the last 30 years 95 of coral in the Caribbean and the Florida Keys has died Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 161 In all nutrient cycles there are reservoirs of the stored nutrient 1 Biological reservoirs all living things 2 Nonliving reservoirs quotAbioticquot atmosphere soil aquifers ice of glacier oceans Water cycle continual movement of water on above or below Earth s surface The sun is the provider of energy for the movement of water Water changes states in various stages of the water cycle Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 162 Water has three physical states Solid 0 Liquid Gas Condensation vs evaporation condensation is gas to liquid while evaporation is liquid to gas Melting vs freezing Melting is solid to liquid while freezing is liquid to solid BSC 101 Helms 10191023 Sublimation vs frost formation Sublimation is solid straight to gas while frost formation is gas straight to solid Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 163 Most water is not salt free clean or available to us Freshwater naturally occurring water from ice lakes rivers and groundwater aquifers Excludes all real salt water Can have very small amounts of dissolved salt 97 of Earth s water is found in the ocean Of the remaining 3 68 of that is not readily available Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 164 Residence time the average amount of time that a molecule stays in a reservoir What types of reservoirs are these in this table Nonliving quotabioticquot Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 165 Carbon Primarily makes up mass of all living things Most important in living things organic Stored in inorganic reservoirs 5 major reservoirs Sedimentary rock Oceans Oil and gas Soil Atmospheric COZ Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 166 Inorganic reservoirs have a residence time that is very long Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 167 Living reservoirs have relatively rapid residence times Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 168 Human activities impact the carbon cycle Use of oil has increased greatly Changing residence time of carbon in abiotic reservoirs Increasing amount of Carbon that is going into the atmosphere BSC 101 Helms 1019 1023 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 169 Nitrogen Amino acids Nucleic acids Primary gas 78 in atmosphere Unavailable to living organism as a gas Nitrogen cycle N2 movement between reservoirs Microorganisms nitrogen fixation Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 170 Rhizobium bacteria live in root nodules of legume plants Capable of taking in atmospheric N2 Converts NZ to N3 What type of specie interaction is this Mutualism Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 171 Human effects on the nitrogen cycle Increase the amount of nitrogen globally through the production of chemical fertilizers Polluted water with high levels of nitrogen leading to eutrophication High nitrogen levels cause alga blooms Algae dies Bacteria decompose them The bacteria use up the oxygen in the water Dead zones are created due to the lack of oxygen Nothing can survive because of the low oxygen levels Gulf of Mexico dead zone due to runoff of chemicals from agricultural fields Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 172 Climate Weather describes daytoday measures of conditions Climate refers to long term statistical averages of weather patterns over large areas over large periods of time BSC 101 Helms 10191023 Global climate change global changes of long term statistical averages of weather patterns over the world over long periods of time Historical fluctuated because it is influenced by Continental Drift Sunsolar energy output Tilt and rotation of the Earth have changed In modern times it refers to those human activities that have had a direct impact on global factors such as temperature Evidence for changing climate Ice cores Tree rings Carbon concentrations Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 173 Greenhouse gases Any atmospheric gas that absorbs heat from the sun or can trap it in our atmosphere Greenhouse effect Light energy enters the atmosphere and some of that sunlight is absorbed by the surface and heats the Earth Some is radiated back off the surface Some of the energy is trapped by the greenhouse gases and warms the Earth like a blanket Greenhouse gases absorb and trap heat energy A portion of the energy radiated goes through the atmosphere and back into space Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 175 Global warming long term increase in average temperature near Earth s surface Global warming is strongly correlated with C02 levels in the atmosphere quotClimate change more descriptive of what is happening on a more local scale because some regions are only experiencing an increase in temperature Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 176 Consequences of climate change Ecosystem and species extinctions Example changes in sea level reduce and destroy habitats BSC 101 Helms 1019 1023 Sealevel se Example settlements in Fuji relocation US Example Miami and New Orleans More severe and unpredictable storms Acidification of oceans Shifting of seasons Coral bleaching Shifting of distributions of crops away from the poles Example it is predicted that by the year 2050 we won t be able to grow wheat here because it will be too warm