NHM 101 Notes- Week 9
NHM 101 Notes- Week 9 NHM 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Libo Tan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Intro Human Nutrition in Environmental Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
B6 Folate BIZ Vitamin C Especially important for pregnant people Vitamin C9 healing wounds Vegans BlZ deficiency B6 Pyridoxine Functions 0 Part of coenzyme PLP I Involved in amino acid metabolism I Neurotransmitter synthesis from amino acids Recommendations 0 RDA adults 13 mgday 0 UL is 100 mgday 0 Food 0 Meat poultry fish 0 Soy o Legumes o Noncitrus fruits o Veggies Deficiency 0 Depression confusion 0 Low levels associated with cancer and CVD Folate Folic Acid Functions 0 Coenzyme I Helps DNA synthesis and cell division Form of embryo neural tube during pregnancy RBC s I Help conversion of VB12 to coenzyme form Recommendations 0 RDA 400 mcgday 0 UL 4000 mcgday Food Sources 0 Legumes fruits dark green leafy grain Deficiency o Megaloblastic Anemia I Important to RBC s division I Continuing cell growth without division 0 Large fragile RBC s decreased RBC s o Neural tube defects I Spinal bifida Folate supplements to help Vitamin BlZ Functions 0 Coenzyme I Helps with conversion of folate to coenzyme form Each depends on the other I Helps with DNA synthesis and cell division I Nervous system 0 Recommendations I 24mcgday 0 Food sources I Almost exclusively in animal products I At risk vegans and older adults Decreased gastric juice secretion 0 Symptoms of Deficiency I Megaloblastic anemia I Impairs cognition Vitamin C Absorbic Acid Functions 0 Antioxidant decreases adverse effects of free radicals o Antioxidants neutralize free radicals by donating electrons and protecting cells from free radical damage 0 Synthesis of collagen o Enhances iron absorption in small intestine 0 Common cold yesno Recommendations 0 Men 90 mgday 0 Women 75 mgday o Smokers higher I Men and women add 35 mg per day 0 UL 2000 mg day Food sources 0 Fruits vegetables Deficiency o Scurvy I Symptoms Bleeding gums hemmorhages muscle degeneration rash wounds don t heal lose teeth I Toxicity GI disease diarrhea A D E K insoluble in watery juices of GI tract require bile efficient absorption needs adequate dietary fats When absorbed go to lymph system bloodstream Excess stored in liver and adipose tissue Risk of toxicity is greater Vitamin A Retinol alcohol Retinal aldehyde Retinoic Acid acid Cartenoids yellow orange piments in plants some can be converted to Vitamin A betacarotene Functions 0 Vision I Convert light energy to nerve impulses at retina o Retinoic Acidhormone I Regular protein synthesis cell differentiation I Maintain health of epithelial cells Vitamin A protects from sun damage I Support immune function I Support reproduction regulate growth Sperm development Fetal growth I BetaCarotene antioxidant vitamin A is NOT an antioxidant Recommendations 0 Men 900mcgday 0 Women 700 mcgday 0 UL 3000 mcgday Food Sources 0 Animal foods milk eggs liver 0 BetaCarotene plant foods I Deep orange fruits and vegetables I Dark green leafy vegetables Deficiency o Uncommon in US and developed countries 0 Major problem in developing I 250 million children I 12 become blind 0 night blindness 0 total blindness o infectious disease Toxicity 0 Liver damage 0 Hemorrhage 0 Death 0 Increase vitamin A during pregnancy birth defects I Excess beta carotene will not be converted to Vitamin A yellowing of skin Vitamin D D2 plant foods D3 animal foods 0 Synthesized in the skin I UV rays from the sun hit a precursor cholesterol in the skin and convert it to D3 Fun on o Hormone I Maintain calcium homeostasis and bone health 0 Protect against TB high blood pressure and cancer Recommendations 0 RDA 15 mcgday 0 70 20 mcgday 0 UL 100 mcgday Food Sources 0 Naturally in few foods 0 Fatty fish 0 Eggs I Food fortified Deficiency 0 Common 0 Factors I Dark skin breastfeeding without supplementation lack of sunlight not fortified milk 0 Vitamin D deficiency calcium deficiency o Osteomalacia Osteoporosis I Common in older adults 0 Children rickets I Inadequate bone mineralization bowed legs Toxicity o Raises concentration of blood calcium 0 High amounts kidney stones Vitamin E Functions 0 Antioxidants reduces risk of heart disease Recommendations 0 RDA 15 mgday 0 UL 10000 mgday 0 Food 0 Vegetable oils 0 Margarine dressing Deficiency 0 Rare 0 Neuromuscular dysfunction Toxicity o Interfere with blood clotting Vitamin K Functions 0 Blood clotting 0 Bone mineralization 0 GI tract bacteria can synthesize 39 12 needed Recommendations 0 No RDA 0 Al I Men 120 mcgday I Women 90 mcgday Food Sources 0 Liver dark green Leafy vegetable oils Deficiency 0 Problem with fat absorption cause 0 Antibiotics cause 0 Excessive bleeding 0 Newborns single dose at birth Toxicity 0 Not common high doses can work against anticoagulant drugs
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