Islam week 1
Islam week 1 Rels 2403
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Tang on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Rels 2403 at University of Oklahoma taught by Charles A. Kimball in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Comparative Religion in Religious Studies at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Islam at a Glance week 1 Early Islam Muhammed last of the prophets Abraham Jesus Moses Mary is the mother of heaven Sinless prophet Jesus Islam succeed prolifically becomes a threat to the Christian world 1095 pope calls upon Christians of Europe for a crusade series over 100ys with Christians and Muslims Muhammad not highly visible Only conveys speaks word of Qu 39ran god is speaking through him Most mentioned prophets 0 Moses 0 Abraham 0 Jesus 93 times quotThere is no God but Godquot God created everything that exists From moment to moment he sustains it The reason this world is coherent bc of God We will be kept accountable God is the ultimate judge of creation If you embrace that view what are you going to be accountable to 0 God has not left us alone He has shown us what we need to know Scribes that attributed things to Moses and Jesus were inaccurate O Notion ofJesus39 divinity is controversial 0 Any kind of claim of the divinity ofJesus Muslims would think that s false No prophet would say that key factor of the difference between Christianity and Islam 0 Quran is the foundation in principle that s your base point 0 Hadith Islam is a monotheism It39s economic social all rolled into one 0 Everyone is equal before God All power has been challenged Even the status of women had been changed 0 Trying to get rid of Muhammad a group of people from medina Guthro To be the leader of the community 0 Hashed a plot where each person would go into Mohammed while he was sleeping and all spear him and God told Muhammed to leave His cousin took his place No one killed him Muhammad fled to medina O 622 marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar 0 Community is founded builds the first mosque 0 Calendar Islam follows a lunar calendar 12 months in one year but based on cycles of the moon 2829 days 0 Islamic year is 11 days shorter than our year 0 Any date in Islam that s on our Gregorian calendar the corresponding day moves 11days against our calendar I Fast during Ramadan always move by 11days For now it39s in the summer Sun up to down fast Lol in December you might fast for only 2 hrs 39 Ramadan is actually of a month 0 1434 Islamic calendar 0 5776 2015 39 AH after hitra Islam Discipline Rashidun 1 Abu Bakr 6324 CE 2 39Umar 634 44 3 39Uthman 644 56 4 39Ali 656661 CE 5 Pillars 1 Shahadah confession of faith obligatory daily confession quotno other Godquot and quotMuhammad is the messenger of Godquot aWhispered when you39re a baby and on the death bed bMakes you a Muslim c Everyone does this rich or poor 2 Salat Muslims are obliged to pray 5 times a day set in stone a small window to when you39re supposed to pray nursing and sick best interest of the mom and child accommodate awhen they pray devotional ritual duty reciting books of Qur39an repeating verses bdifferent verses for each person c Pray towards mecca axis mundi in mecca you circle around it dMen and women are separated decorum eOrigin very few miracles associated with Muhammad he didn t do what Moses did or what Jesus did but he did do the night journey to heaven AKA quotMirajquot short versecryptic that Muhammad was taken farther away from mecca He was asleep in Mecca early in prophetic ministry spiritually taken to Jerusalem where he praise with Jesus and Moses etc oxa mosque and then a few ways away is the dome of the rock sacred space David made Jerusalem the capital dome of the rock was where Isaac almost died then Muhammad was taken on a white horse to heaven goes up into 7heavens and encounters God promises god he will pray 50 times a day Moses warned him to go back up to negotiate with God to pray 5 times a day then returned i Fulfill promise ii Muhammad is worthy iii God is more personal you can have a conversation iv Muhammad is in the line of Abraham they go to Jerusalem affirming what Christians and Jews don t believe and has this experience 1 Jerusalem becomes very sacred to Muslims holy sites dome and mosque 3 Sawm self denial 4 Zakat obligation to provide chartable olms give 25 of your overall wealth and resources a some places its voluntary other times gov attaches to your income bsafety net of the institutions of Islam c God knows what39s in your heart Hajj month but days that are dedicated Ritual devotional that are obligatory for all Muslims if they are able to do them 0 To do the pilgrimage you must be financially and physically able your family can39t suffer something that all aspire to do in the hadith 0 Everyone is equal symbolically equal all before God Community bonding and equality It39s a form of discipline back to jihad we need discipline otherwise we wander off We need structure 0 Fundamental problem in Islam every religious predicated that something is wrong 0 Biblically sin sin separates us from creator 9quot o In Islam they know we are selfish but the problem is FORGETFULNESS 0 We forget who He is and who we are 0 If god creates and the reason why we exist is because of God So we should constantly be remember who we are and who He is 0 Human beings tend to be forgetful for our duty 0 All humans are born with the knowledge that there is God Ramadan a month dedicated to fasting from sunup to sundown Jihad obligation for all Muslims quotstruggling and striving in the way of Godquot 0 do God39s will 0 Can involve in fighting and ware in defense if God 0 Outward struggle is the lesserjihad quotsecondaryquot O The struggle within ourselves to do what39s right knowing what God wants and doing it more importantjihad O This world is a testing place caught between God and evil what you do here has eternal consequences 0 10year truce come back into mecca Muhammad came back the next year last trip to mecca hajj 0 Farewell pilgrims We can lose salvation one day be accountable for what you did The Start of Islam 0 Demographics 2nd largest world religion global religion 55 countries Muslim majorities 0 India predominant religious community over 85 are Hindu 0 Indonesia Muslim prominent o Baptist largest protestant in America 0 Most Muslim are in China over 30 million Christian and Muslims are missionary requirement take the message out evangelizing make up 45 of the world woven together historically often constructive yet with mutual antipathy adversarial 0 Also Buddhism never as aggressive to evangelize 0 Usually evangelize for monotheism o Majority of population in Lebanon is Christian 0 Islam is the quotone true religionquot bc prophets say so 0 Understands itself as the continuation same religion as Judaism and Christianity 0 Nothing different from the gospel and the Torah Reference to Jesus and other books that have been revealed They think it39s not completely true not completely false In Islam no god but god Jesus is a fantastic prophet not divine because that would be adultery and polytheism 0 They think the people wrote the scripture might have put words in Jesus39 mouth 0 Jesus is NOT God39s Son 0 7th century Islamic selfunderstanding Muhammad is the LAST prophet He is the SEAL No more prophets after Muhammed Center of Islam o Is no God but God Islam is a radical monotheism this is the bottom line starting point 0 God can39t be associated with anything 0 When Muslims talk about God He is referred to as Allah the God of the bible God of Abraham john the Baptist Jesus no room for ambiguity o 7 in the middle east are Christians pray to Allah because they speak in Arabic 0 Islam orientated from Ishmael o Pilgrimage is connected to Abraham drink form the well of zamzam commemorating Hagard s journey 0 Muslims draw a lot from the bible 0 Good resource but multiple errors no crucifixion 0 Abraham and Ismael built the first 0 Muhammad ibn Abdullah born in 570 632ce in mecca O Mecca was in an oasis people on caravans will stop and caba became a place of polytheistic worship 0 Big part of the mecca economy was built on religious tourism and pilgrimage o Mecca government catered to whatever 39 Father died while his mother was pregnant Raised by his uncle because he was an orphan I Tribe that ruled over mecca at the time Quraysh 39 Age 25 married Khadijah wealthy women who owned her own business and proposed to him I Age 40 he would go out of town for two or three days for spiritual retreat awareness of monotheism 0 MT Hera saw angle of Gabriel he is told to reciteread Muhammad is illiterate read and write he has this experience and tells his wife He is scared thinks he39s gone insane He39s in disbelief appalled doesn39t39 think he39s worthy o Qur39an is the sacred text 610 Muhammad is receiving revelations o Recites the Qur39an these are not his words it39s God39s he just the human instrument that quotes God 0 Nonmuslims say quotMuhammad said thisquot rejects that God said it 0 114 chapters AKA surahs the individual verses are called ayah meaning miracle 0 Every little verse is considered a miracle from God 0 About 34 the length of New Testament 0 Not in chronological order almost reverse 0 Earliest revelations are found at the end tend to be much shorter the longest chapters tend to be in the front 0 Occasions of revelation eg came in mecca See the truths in it Understand circumstances commentary included 0 eg he frowned from mecca everyone deserves to know about Islam Don39t turn away 0 Qur39an does not flow in orderstory Unlike biblical gospel narratives Arabic Lesson Shalom peace in Hebrew 3 consonants give a basic idea 0 eg KTB convey the notion of writing 0 eg KTAB reading 0 Islam religion of peace 0 No higher peace than doing the will of God 0 Muslim a practitioner of peace ABU father IBN son of someone ABD servant of or slave of o The only ONE you should be a slave of is God 0 God is merciful judge Justice in Islam 1 247 AM 0 quotWhy did God let this happenquot 0 quotDid God cause this to happenquot 0 In obituaries it usually says quotit39s part of God39s planquot 0 God is merciful judge just different attributes 0 When Muhammad flees to medina 622 less than a 100 12 years after he proclaimed the message in mecca still a minority slow and growing process very O O O 632 after 10 years in medina Muhammad died at age 62 created a crisis in the community no leadership Muhammed is no longer there revelation ceases Determination of a new leader Caliph Khalifa God39s agent on earth on economics social life religious life however no more prophecy no direct word 0 Group of people quotShi39itesquot were the factiongrouppartisans of Ali that stepped up that Muhammad designated Ali 1st cousin and soninlaw o Abu Bakr 6324 controls the tribes for two years Substantial leader Early converts When he dies 0 39Umar 63444 military leader quotapostle Paul of Islam with a swordquot evangelize that s connected to military conquest Muslims come out of Arabia and conquer Jerusalem Move into Cairo and Mesopotamia Saudi Arabia Lebanon Iran Iraq etc very dramatic expansion of Islam Sunnis vs Shi39ites Sunnis believe the most righteous person gets the succession not just hereditary o 39Uthman 644656 finalized the collection of the Qur39an I Assassinated 0 39Ali 656661 community chosen Tumultuous reign The community is united I When he dies they believe it should be in the line of the family I Imam quotthe one out frontquotleader o Sunni Islam believed that Theoretically everyone is equal 0 Shi39ites hierarchy because of divine light in the family of the prophet o 680 two rival forces 5th imam Mualia declared calif moves Islam civilization Then his son becomes calif 25 years after Muhammad dies it becomes dynastic I Open civil war leader is decapitated 0 Expansion of Islam is dramatic The 100 years out of Arabia and conquer up to Spain Charlemagne turned them back Dominated in Spain Islamic influence 0 No forced conversion no compulsion in force of nature How did Muslims succeed in conquest 0 quotit39s what God wantedquot 0 Marriage laws structured to favor Islam 0 A Muslim women can39t marry a Muslim man But a Muslim man can marry a Christian woman but child must be Muslim John of Damascus lived in the city where Muslims ruled Wrote several times about how Islam is a Christian heresy because it rejected the divinity of Jesus Muhammad valued literacy Put into place a principle if a prison of war will teach a Muslim to read and write if they will teach someone to learn to read and write 0 Became a very sophisticated society 0 Islam played many factors in US math Arabic numbers almost any word that starts with quotalquot came from Islam With the different gospels with different accounts of eyewitness so do the Qur39an O the Qur39an said polygamy is okay But many Islamic countries beg to differ Marry more than one woman treat them all equally practically impossibledifferent debates Different interpretations Hadith major source must remember 0 Analogy ruling is needed no precedent for it by analogy you can apply that principle is established 0 Consensus of scholars if Hadith and Qu39ran didn39t suggest A collection of sayings often times story is repeated because they can39t tell the different so they put both in there are reasons to be doubtful that this is to be A lot of stuff is thrown out Chain of references 0 break Ramadan with dates and milk
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