POLS 112 Lecture Notes: The Federal Solution
POLS 112 Lecture Notes: The Federal Solution 8616
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This 6 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Julia Gladding on Friday January 16, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to 8616 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Michael Latner in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 117 views. For similar materials see POLS 112- American and California Government in Political Science at California State Polytechnic University.
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Date Created: 01/16/15
Wednesday January 14 2015 POLS 112 Week 2 Wednesday Lecture The Federal Solution Current Events Publication of a satirical newspaper with Muhammed drawn on it in France and internationally today in a symbolic defense of freedom of speech From Defection to The Tragedy of the Articles The Articles of Confederation to form a government in order to fight the British The Logic of Confederation 4 of 13 Articles extreme caution of national government Each state retains its sovereignty freedom and independence and every power jurisdiction and right which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated one of the working definitions of a confederation decentralizing diffusing power Each State gets one vote in The United States equality of states not equality of individuals hugely different populations Expenditures of the United Staes will be paid for by taxes raised by the state legislatures Taxation without representation Purposefully limited the power of the federal government to raise its own money Nine of Thirteen States required to pass legislation to make it difficult for the national government to act Missing from this document Wednesday January 14 2015 No executive State legislatures were going to play a strong role once they achieved independence Cooperation is only going to occur when its in the state s interest No judiciary state legislatures responsible for adjudicating federal laws Problems facing The young United States after gaining Independence massive debt need to raise revenue internal amp external More populous states are underrepresented Tragedy of the Articles No uniform system of currency No interstate commerce regulation No power of taxation No independent judiciary No executive to represent in foreign affairs Inability to deal with internal and external threats Each sate had one vote Difficulty passing laws Rigid amendment process Madison s Solution A Hybrid Confederal Unitary System Extend the sphere and you take in a greater variety of parties and interests you make it less probable that a majority of the whole will have a common motive to invade the rights of other citizens Federalist 10 Plan to create a stronger national government which would help to protect our rights better than the Articles of Confederation Strong enough to govern the governed the people and strong enough to govern itself have a level of interdependency Wednesday January 14 2015 If you run a government through majority rule the majority will take care of itself It s not majority rights that we have to worry about The real threat in a popular government is how can we protect the rights of the minorities Nothing to protect minorities in state legislatures The key by forcing people to compromise because there is a diverse national body you reduce the probability of sanctions on minorities because it is harder to get anything done Madison s first plan the Virginia Plan basically a unitary government seated according to the population that the states hold a national executive a president which would be elected by the legislature parliamentary democracy the executive is usually called a prime minister looks like a parliament The New Jersey Plan smaller states rejected the Virginia plan looks more like the Articles of Confederation much weaker executive than Madison s plan Congress appointed by state governments no direct election fundamentally more agreeable to smaller states The Great Compromise Two Separations The legislature is the strongest branch of the US government but it would reflect the federal system Congress Two appointed by state legislature gt state equality House of Representatives elected proportionally New problem who counts as a citizen Federal government s solution 35 Compromise Federal judiciary created Federal executive created chief clerk of the government power in the policy veto Primary design feature accountability and interdependence Wednesday January 14 2015 Anti Federalist Opposition to Federalism 26 not enough to represent all the views of the people a government by the few for the many The Logic of Federalism Federal System 0 Levy larrtfs and taxes Regulate trade linlerstale and loreignl 0 Corn money 0 Maintain armed forces 0 Declare war 0 Establrsh post ollrces o Establrsh courts cumuluscm clown 39MIIOIOV omuumptulcm ammonium 0 Tax cumin 0 Control public education 0 Punish criminals 0 Protect public health and safely 0 Conduct elections 0 Eclablixh local government 0 Make marriage laws Leave morality to the states because no agreement on what morality is Give federal government things the states cannot provide for themselves if the states become subject to coordination problems ie public defense Wednesday January 14 2015 The Nationalization Evolution of Public Federal Policy The nationalization of public policy grew out of the requirements of collective action Adopt policies that outstripped the resources of sates during national bursts of policy Comes at time of crisis War militarization of the economy Detroit no longer made cars but made planes tanks bombs for two years Roosevelt s New Deal The Great Depression Johnson s War on Poverty Great Society States have solicited federal intervention Sometimes easier for the majority to work through Washington DC than through each of the fifty states Total Spending Graph Obama s actions puny to what Roosevelt did in WWII Action Federal spending in order to create liquidity in the economy Since the 1950s the federal government has taken on more and more responsibility infrastructure interstate highways create jobs gt people get salaries gt people spend money defense spending social welfare ie social security Constitutional Paths Supremacy Clause conflict between states and feds Constitution is the supreme law of the land Feds win Incorporation Theory 14th Amendment Wednesday January 14 2015 14th Amendment explicitly sates that the Bill of Rights apply to all citizens regardless of what state they live ins end ofdual federalism Striking down of state laws Necessary and Proper Clause Article 8 The Federal government has the power to enact any laws that are necessary and proper to enforce all other laws aka The Elastic Clause Regulation of Interstate Commerce Federal government s power to regulate interstate commerce