Weeks five and six lecture notes
Weeks five and six lecture notes HIS 101 Cr.3
UW - L
Popular in Global Origins of the Modern World
Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Hansen on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 101 Cr.3 at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse taught by Dr. Gerald Iguchi in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Global Origins of the Modern World in History at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Vermeer s Net 0 quotFar away in the heavenly abode of the great god Indra there is a wonderful net which has been hung by some cunning artificer in such a manner that it stretches out indefinitely in all directions In accordance with the extravagant tastes of deities the artificer has hung a single glittering jewel at the net s every node and since the net itself is infinite in dimension the jewels are infinite in number There hang the jewels glittering like stars of the first magnitude a wonderful sight to behold If we now arbitrarily select one of these jewels for inspection and look closely at it we will discover that in its polished surface there are reflected all the other jewels in the net infinite in number Not only that but each of the jewels reflected in this one jewel is also reflecting all the other jewels so that the process of reflection is infinitequot o The Avatamsaka sutra 0 Francis H Cook HuaYen Buddhism The jewel net of Indra 1977 Extrapolating from what you already know about Early Modern History how does it connect with or how is it related to the the idea of lndra39s Net 0 quotThe paintings into which we will look to find signs of the seventeenth century might be considered not just doors through which we can step to rediscover the past but as mirrors reflecting the multiplicity of causes and effects that have produced the present Buddhism uses a similar image to describe the interconnectedness of all phenomena It is called lndra39s net When lndra fashioned the world he made it a web and at every knot in that web is tied a pearl jewel Everything that exists or has ever existed every idea that can be thought about every datum that is true every dharma in the language of Indian philosphy is a pearl in lndra39s net Not only is every pearl tied to every other pearl by virtue of th eweb on which they hang but on the surface of every pearl is reflected every other jewel in the net Everything that exists in lndra39s web implies all else that existsquot Brooks 22 Context dates 0 Even before Luther calls for reform in Netherlands from within Catholic Church o Lutheranism has little effect in Netherlands but other preCalvinism Protestants do Anabaptists Mennonites Calvinism hits Netherlands in 1560s becomes hit and Spanish rulers attempt to suppress leading to rebellion By 1570s Netherlands was becoming majority Calvinist o Eighty Years39 War or Dutch War for Independence from Spain 15881648 something like a Cold War that heated up every once in a while independence support split along religious lines o Notably during the War from Dutch perspective all Spanish ships were fair game for Dutch piracy 0 Union of Spain and Portugal 15801640 led to Dutch learning trade secrets of Portuguese which they fully exploited later AND after 1588 meant that all Portuguese ships and trade posts in Asia were also fair game 0 Last 30 years of war joined greater European conflict that ended in Peace of Westphalia that recognized independence of some former areas of Holy Roman Empire Switzerland Dutch Republic and religious freedom of rulers in others northern Germany 0 As Dutch Independence war continued Calvinism became state orthodoxy moreorIess the state church but relative tolerance of Catholics Jews Anglicans Lutherans and other Protestants developed 0 Declaration of Dutch independence 1581 Belgium and Luxembourg remained part of Habsburg and Holy Roman Empire AustrianSpanish Catholic orbit refuge for Catholics of Low Countries which included these and what became Republic of Netherlands 0 By 1512 Dutch pushing Portuguese out of Amboina and Ternate the Spice Islands sources of cloves flavoring preservative perfume breath freshener o VOC or Vereenigde OostIndische Compagnie founded in 1602 as confederation of traders with taxfree monopoly for 21 years Authorized to build forts establish colonies maintain armed forces and mint coins Main focus is securing access to Moluccas the Spice Islands VOC slowly push Portuguese out 1609 first VOC outpost in Japan By 1616 settlements in South AmericaCaribbean 1619 VOC capital at Batavia which became Jakarta 1624 VOC establishes trading settlement in FormosaTaiwan which lasts un l1662 o 1641 VOC drives Portuguese out of Malaaca VOC forced to move all Japanese operations to Deshima manmade island in harbor of Nagasaki where they get monopoly from Japan39s Tokugawa leaders with Dutch as only Europeans allowed to trade in Japan until the 1850s 0 1658 VOC drives Portuguese out of Ceylon VOC control lasts until 1798 o VOC uses monopoly on Spice Island clove production ruthlessly manipulating supply to keep prices high and taking strict measures to prevent propagation of cloves elsewhere OOOO VOC control of Spice Islands destroys power of Portugal but also causes English East India Company to focus on Indian subcontinent o VOC began using Cape of Good Hope for supply station and set up colony around what became Cape Town in 1651 Dutch colony lasts until British takeover in 19951903 and again in 1906 o 1621 Dutch West India Company chartered by republic and takes over South AmericanCaribbean possessions o 1624 Dutch company settles 30 families in New Netherlands in area the VOC previously had explored by Henry Hudson in 1609 o 1628 Dutch company captures major Spanish fleet off Cuba yielding large profits 0 1664 Dutch company gives up to British in New Netherlands New Amsterdam becomes New York 0 Dutch Republic ends in 1795 with Batavian Republic modeled on French Republic which then ended in 1806 with Kingdom of Holland and Louis Bonaparte taking throne Kingdom ended in 1810 and Netherlands annexed directly by France until 1913 In 1915 the United Kingdom of the Netherlands under local nobleman William I the Netherlands it included Belgium until 1830 Became constitutional monarchy in 1848 and remains that to the present 0 1800 VOC charter expired age became British Johannes Vermeer 16321675 0 Baptized in Dutch Reform Calvinist Church perhaps converted to Catholicism to satisfy motherinIaw 0 Holland 20 of land and 21 of population below sea level Estuary of three rivers forming RhineMeuseScheldt delta Dikes polders canals Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 0 16321723 0 Father of Mircobiology who first recorded muscle fibers blood flow in capillaries spermatozoa 0 Dutch Reformed Calvinist Bookkeeper and cashier for clothmaker Obtained degree in surveying in 1669 o Bailif in 1676 Inspector of wine and beer in 1679 Executor of Vermeer39s estate in 1675 quotLeeuwenhoek poses as a man of science not of business Yet without scholars like him who devoted their energies to the accumulation of useful knowledge the merchants would have not had their maps The two impulses knowledge and acquisition worked togetherquot Brooks 114 0 Land of forced labor of dragooned Indios and people from all over Europe and South America who came to the barren site to get as quotrich as potosiquot Violence erupted between lndios Spaniards Creoles people of European ancestry born in the Americas and Basques who often controlled refineries and fought with all the other groups Official Panama Cadiz Seville Backdoor Rio de la Plata river of silver Argentina land of silver Buenos Aires and Portuguese merchants Lisbon exchanged for commodities bound for Peru particularly slaves Lisbon and Seville and London and Amsterdam to the quottomb of silverquot China Where silver could buy gold arbitrage noun the simultaneous buying and selling of securities currency or commodities in different markets or in derivative forms in order to take advantage of differing prices for the same asset Where Europeans had little else besides firearms to sell Dutch traded silver for spices textiles tea coffee porcelain Third route accounting for twice as much in volume Acupulco a very quotmutliculturalquot Manila South China Manila galleonChina galleon met 40 junks carrying silk china gunpowder sulphur iron steel mercury copper flour walnuts chesnuts biscuits dates textiles writing desks etc From Manila to all dkec ons LONG 18th Century Industrialization Enlightenment Imperialism and NationState Too The long eighteenth century meaning starting in the late decades of the seventeenth perhaps and then into the early decades of the nineteenth was the time of three interrelated processes 1 the Enlightenment which was primarily a philosophical movement dedicated to the scientific and RATIONAL mastery of the world which is deeply connected with the near complete abolishing of feudalism and the intheory eventual extension of political freedoms to almost all 2 the industrial revolution which is inextricably related to the development of capitalist social relationships which means among other things the reification or naturalization of new class identities and relationships along with new definitions of private property and 3 the beginnings of an intensification of imperialism which was part and parcel with new definitions of rationally or scientifically determined ownership of the world by those who were supposedly scientifically or rationally mastering it Systematization and rationality had temporality time as a governing or organizing principle it was no longer stuff happens but stuff happens as part of movement towards accumulation expansion and development of knowledge capital or wealth and territory time now has a singular direction onwards and upwards towards PROGRESS EVOLUTION POSITIVE CHANGE This new temporality becomes connected to the naturalization or rationalization of hierarchies that are thus no longer supposedly arbitrary as feudalism was some people are supposedly developmentally superior the colonizers or those who determine rationally or scientifically and some people are supposedly developmentally inferior the colonized or those who are rationally or scientifically determined time also becomes important as the measure of the value of labor following the industrial revolution which goes hand in hand with the rationalizationquantification of all land as private property time AND space are money In other words in the eighteenth century it becomes the case that TIME IS EVERYTHING But this is in several senses Afundamental thing to understand is that before the eighteenth century accurate and reliable clocks were rare but with industrialization they become common and came to be used to measure everything from the value of labor to spatial distances Progressive time becomes important but the space of a clock and the cyclical movement of its hands measure progress as accumulation of value as well as space Note that time as we make sense of it Solar versus Lunar Calendar Months Weeks Days Hours Minutes Seconds is NOT natural Naturalization or rationalization of supposedly scientific orderings of the world may be understood in terms of progressively fine segmentations of space by time as in this map which was made possible by John Harrison39s 1773 marine chronometer maritime clock and the ultimately global decision in the nineteenth century to structure the world spatiotemporally around the Royal Observatory in Greenwich London England Along with all of this the end of 18th century is also when we see the beginnings of the full development of the ideal of homogenous nationstates as opposed to feudalism Immanuel Kant What is Enlightenment 1784 Kant 17241804 philosophy professor from Konigsberg Prussia raised as a Pietist a version of Lutheranism that connected with more radical strains of Protestantism like Puritanism that focused on individual piety o 1784 essay in Berlin Monthly Let39s Analyze these parts 0 Enlightenment is man39s emergence from his selfimposed immaturity lmmaturity is the inability to use one39s understanding without guidance from another This immaturity is selfimposed when its cause lies not in lack of understanding but in lack of resolve and courage to use it without guidance from another 0 The guardians who have so benevolently taken over the supervision of men have carefully seen to it that the far greatest part of them including the entire fair sex regard taking the step to maturity as very dangerous not to mention difficult Having first made their domestic livestock dumb and having carefully made sure that these docile creatures will not take a single step without the gocart to which they are harnessed these guardians then show them the danger that threatens them should they attempt to walk alone Now this danger is not actually so great for after falling a few times they would in the end certainly learn to walk but an example of this kind makes men timid and usually frightens them out of all further attempts 0 Rules and formulas those mechanical aids to the rational use or rather misuse of his natural gifts are the shackles of a permanent immaturity 0 But that the public should enlighten itself is more likely indeed if it is only allowed freedom enlightenment is almost inevitable For even among the entrenched guardians of the great masses a few will always think for themselves a few who after having themselves thrown off the yoke of immaturity will spread the spirit of a rational appreciation for both their own worth and for each person39s calling to think for himself 0 Now in many affairs conducted in the interests of a community a certain mechanism is required by means of which some of its members must conduct themselves in an entirely passive manner so that through an artificial unanimity the government may guide them toward public ends Here one certainly must not argue instead one must obey ln Kant39s reasoning who determines who commands and who obeys Why How Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations 1776 Smith 17231790 professor of moral philosophy father of free market economic thought or the liberal philosophy championed by today39s conservatives Smith was a champion of liberty free speech and reason An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations 1776 famous for invisible hand thesis which is related to the idea of laissez faire letting things take their own course without interfering and its exposition of the idea of the division of labor and has lead on a global level to the doctrine of comparative advantage 0 What do you think quotinvisible handquot means with regard to economic processes 0 What are the economic implications of laissez faire o What are the advantages of the division of labor What do you think division of labor internationally or between industrialized nations and their colonies might mean 0 ln Wealth of Nations Smith wrote It is not from the benevolence of the butcher the brewer or the baker that we expect our dinner but from their regard to their own interestquot What does this mean Smith also wrote 0 As soon as stock has accumulated in the hands of particular persons some of them will naturally employ it in setting to work industrious people whom they will supply with materials and subsistence in order to make a profit by the sale of their work or by what their labor adds to the value of the materials In exchanging the complete manufacture either for money for labor or for other goods over and above what may be sufficient to pay the price of the materials and the wages of the workmen something must be given for the profits of the undertaker of the work who hazards his stock in this adventure What are possible problems with or objections to free competition in practice French Revolution 1789 Abolition of monarchy by the third estate and eventual foundation of republic Declaration of rights of man quotMen are born and remain free and equal in rights Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general goodquot etc Formation of Modern nationState premised on socialeconomicpolitical homogeneity AND ethnicraciallinguisticculturalsometimes political homogeneity
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