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Chapter 4 Notes

by: Nadia Shibly

Chapter 4 Notes Chemistry 112

Nadia Shibly
GPA 3.74
Principles of Chemistry I
Mark Lonergan

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About this Document

Periodic Table of Elements and some of Chapter 5
Principles of Chemistry I
Mark Lonergan
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nadia Shibly on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry 112 at University of Oregon taught by Mark Lonergan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Principles of Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of Oregon.

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Date Created: 10/25/15
Chapter 4 Ionic Compounds 41 Ion Formation and Ionic Compounds Ions By losing or gaining electrons an atom can be converted into a charged particle Cation When an atom loses an electron or more they are said to have a positive charge known as the cat ion Anion When an atom takes an atom gains it becomes a negatively charged ion known as the anion 42 Periodic Properties and Ion Formation Ionization energy The energy needed to remove one electron from an atom in the gas state Electron Af nity The energy needed to gain an electron to form a negatively charged anion lonization Atom energy Cation Electron Af nity Atom electron anion energy 0 43 Ionic Bonds Opposite electrical charged attract each other the positive and negative are said to be held together by an ionic bond Ionic Solid A crystalline solid held together by multiple bonds Ionic Compounds A compound that contains ionic bonds 44 Some Properties of Ionic Compounds The attractive force between opposite charged particles very strong if they want to loosen their grip it must be heated to an extreme temperature to allow them to freely move about lonic solids shatter if they are struck sharply If the solids dissolve in water they are able to break apart if not they stick together until struck or heated to its optimum temperature 45 lons and the Octet Rule Group 1A The alkaline metals all have one valence electron Group 7A Halogens and Alkaline 1A are extremely reactive because they want the electron con guration of a noble gas The noble gases are stable and do not want to create an ionic bond because their shell is full The desire for an element to gain its full shell is referred to as the Octet Rule Metals lose electrons to look like the noble gas con guration before them Nonmetals gain electrons to look like the noble gas after them 46 lons of Common Elements Elements of the same group form ions of the same charge Octet Rule most common for the main group elements Group 1A 2A and 7A Transition Metals Do not follow the noble gas con guration 0 47 Naming Compounds Main group metalcations 1A2A and 3A are named by identifying the metal and add the word ion at the end With Transition metals there are two ways of naming them The old way the ion with the smaller charge is named ous and the larger with ic The New Way The charges indicated are written as roman numerals For the anions they typically have ide after the element with the word ion afterwards 48 Polyatomic lons lons that are made up of more than one atom Polyatomic Ions Mostly oxygen and another element The atoms in a polyatomic ion are held by a covalent bond 0 49 Formulas of lonic Compounds If the ions have different charges or an unequal number of anions and cations they must combine in a balanced formula Ex 2 potassium atoms for one oxygen atom OR 2 atoms for anion and one for the cation The formula of an ionic compound shows the lowest possible ratio of the atoms in a compound which is also known as the formula unit 41O Naming lonic Compounds Cation then the anion goes after 2 types of lonic Compounds Main Group Elements More than one charge atomselements Group 1A 2A and Aluminum We need to specify the all the charges are the same charge on the cations by the so no need for the charges old or new way to be written 411 H and OH lons An Intro to Acids and Bases Hydrogen cations H and the hydroxide anion OH Hydrogen cation a proton when an acid dissolves in water it is described that the proton attaches to a molecule as H3O or H For a hydroxide ion it is a polyatomic ion with an oxygen covalently bonded to a hydrogen atom Chapter 5 Notes 51 Molecules and Covalent Bonds Bonds that are ionic are formed by sharing electrons between atoms Covalent bonds the group of atoms held together molecules The octet rule still applies here as elements share electrons to reach the 8 valence electrons The electrons act like a glue to bind the two nuclei together into a H2 molecule The optimum distance between nuclei in a covalent bond the bond length Diatomic Two atoms of the same element H2 Cl2 52 Covalent Bonds and The Periodic Table A compound made up of molecules rather than ions like in an ionic compound molecular compound Octet Rule useful guideline but there are also exceptions to this rule as some elements can only make 3 bonds 0 53 Multiple Covalent Bonds Some atoms need more than one bond 2 shared electrons in this case more than 2 electrons are shared creating multiple covalent bonds Sharing 2 electrons single bond Sharing 4 electrons double bond Sharing 6 electrons triple bond


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