Week of Notes 10/19-10/23
Week of Notes 10/19-10/23 CH 101
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rani Vance on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CH 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
BSC 116 Week of Notes 10191023 1019 Antigen receptors composed ob variable and constant regions B cell receptor Y shaped 4 polypeptides 2 identical heavy chains amp 2 identical light chains heavy chains linked by sulfide bonds heavy chains transmembrane each chain has constant c and variable v regions c transmembrane With sulfide bonds v at tips form 2 asymmetrical antigen binding sites antibodies immunoglobulin similar no transmembrane region soluble T cell receptor a and b linked by sulfide bonds c and v regions but With 1 antigen binding site Antigen recognition by a T cell only bind to presented antigens antigen is free broken off With an epitope Lymphocyte diversity arises from genomic shuf ing followed by filtering right chain composed of three regions variable joining constant each With multiple options 40 V X 5 X 1C 200 recombinase enzyme randomly linked to a V and a J all subsequent daughter cells identical genome changed DNA deleted between randomly selected V and J segments heavy chain similar but With even more options lymphocytes tested for selfreactivity inactivated or destroyed for selftolerance Infection leads to selection for activation of specific antigen receptors With so many random antigen receptors unlikely that all Will be specific for particular epitopes activated lymphocytes amplified by clonal selection Activated B or T cells divide many times Primary immune response first response production of effectors plasma cells peaks 1017 days production of memory cells lead to immunological memory Secondary immune response second exposure peaks faster 27 days and higher two kinds of cells cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells Helper T cell initiate that humoral and cell mediated immune response 2 kinds of T cells enhance humoral and cell mediated responses binds to antigen presenting macrophage dendritic cell or B cell class II MHC TCR and accessory proteins cells exchange signaling molecules cytokines stimulates B cells humoral response 1 and to cytotoxic and cells cellmediated response humoral immune response activation and clonal selection of effector B cells antibody medicated response secrete antibodies that circulate in blood and lymph cellmediated effecter T cells activated by binding class I MHC TCR and accessory proteins secrete proteins MHC proteins on surface of cells present antigens to T cells genes of major histocompatibility complex make proteins that present Humoral Response helper T cells 1 mediator T cells activated by antigen piece present activation of B cells requires interaction will antigens presenting cells activated helper T cells activates B cell presenting matching antigen antibodies interfere with pathogen function Neutralization bind to virus bacterium or toxin Oposonization binding sites for macrophages Other ways to get antibodies besides active immunity from infections Vaccinations immunization introduction of antigens to immunity passive immunization antibodies from mother to fetus through milk lasts only for a few weeks or a month artificial passive immunization inject antibodies directly eg Snake antivenom 1021 Osmoregulation excretion and endocrine systems are linked life arose in marine environment many taxa still strictly marine concentration of boy uids similar to surrounding environment no specializations for osmoregulation toxic waste products of metabolism terrestrial environment complicates issue further must retain water in a dry environment Osmoregulation maintaining concentration of solutes in body uids move solutes and water will follow water uptake is not equal to water loss Burstdry up Osmosis water moves from low solute high solute across a permeable membrane osmolarity measure of osmic pressure mOs ML eg Blood 300mOs ML sea water is 1000 mOs ML sea water is hyperosmotic to blood hypoosmotic osmoregulator body uid regulated many marine invertebrates osmoconformers freshwater terrestrial and some marine species most organisms tolerate a wide range euryhaline Vertebrates tend to be osmoregulators marine cod osmolarity of body uids lower than sea water hypo osmotic water loss to environment osmosis drink lots of sea water Cl ions actively excreted from gills and kidneys eg fresh water perch osmolarity of body uids gt than fresh water hyper osmotic water gained by osmosis from environment excretion of water from gills lose salts by diffusion active ions take up from food and kidneys eg terrestrial human dehydration is a problem adaptations to retain water mostly watertight lose water thru urine feces sweating replaced by drinking water Habitat and phylogeny in uence nitrogenous waste proteinnucleic acid metabolism results in ammonia NH3 highly toxic but highly soluble terrestrial organisms must retain water Many vertebrates convert ammonia urea by adding C02 lower toxicity can be concentrated to conserve water Reptiles and birds produce uric acid less toxic nonsoluble precipitates as a solid but uric acid is costly to produce ATP Trade off terrestrial turtles uric acid vs aquatic ureaammonia Most excretory systems tubular theme control osmolarity of hemolymph blood to control osmolarity of body uid generally a transport epithelium some surface specialized to more soluteswater intoout of in general urine produced through a 4 step process 1 filtration body uid forced thru semipermeable membrane 2 reabsorption water and ions taken back in 3 secretion wastes actively added to filtrate 4 excretion remaining filtrate urine leaves body Excretory System among invertebrates Protonephridia of atworms beating cilia inside ame bulb draw body uid into tubules filtrates excreted metanephridia beating cilia draw body uid in the tubes reabsorption in with capillaries in both osmoregulation re excretion malpighian tubules of insects immersed with hemolymph solutes secreted by transport epithelium from hemplymph Mammalian kidney Solutes from blood outside each kidney served by renal artery and renal vein lots of blood 25 of what leaves the heart goes here uid leaves each kidney via ureter each ureter drains to common urinary bladder drains to outside via urethra controlled by sphincter muscles renal cortex and inner renal medulla lots of blood vessels and excretory tubules nephron functional kidney long tubule beings with Bowman s capsule cluster of capillaries Path of filtration with in nephron Bowman s capsule proximal tubule loop of Henle mammals extends into renal medulla distal tubule then to common collecting duct collecting ducts join to form renal pelvis drains to ureter 1026 Kidney function depends upon an osmolarity gradient and selective reabsoption filtration begins as blood pressure forces uid into Bowman s capsule from glomerulus proximal tubule first stage of concentration active reabsorption of Na Cl39 follows in interstitial uid by osmosis also K nutrients etc movement of ions draws out water as well wastes retained in filtration some drugs toxins actively secreted Descending loop of Henle reabsorbtion of water permeable to water but not salts osmolarity gradient from cortex to inner medulla draws water across transport equilibrium further concentration of filtrate ascending loop of Henle reabsorption of NaCl ATP IS NECESSARY FOR ALL OF THESE PROCESSES Volume amp Osmolarity highlow water intake make concentrated urine low salt high water intake make dilute urine high as 1200 mOs ML 4X that of body uids as low as 70 mOs ML Antidiurectic hormone released in response to high blood osmolarity made in hypothalamus stored in pituitary targets distal tissue and collecting ducts increases water permeability concentrates urine hormone RAAS renninangiotensinaldosteronesystem maintains blood pressure When BP low it initiates enzyme cascade resulting in arterial construction nephron highly regulates constantly changing in order to maintain osmoregularity Hormones control more than osmoregularity involved in growth development involved in 1 of 4 basic systems for regulation endocrine signaling hormones circulate in bloodhemolymph ampactivate target cells paracrine autocrine signaling secrete molecules local regulators that act over short distances reach target cells by diffusion synaptic and neuroendocrine network of neurons transmit chemical signals neurotransmitters to other cells across synaptic neurohormones diffuse from nerve cell endings into bloodstream pheromones chemicals released outside body to affect another organism for warning or to attract a mate Three types of hormones 1 polypeptides proteins water soluble 2 steroid lipids and cholesterol lipid soluble 3 amines from tyrosine Water soluble cell membrane receptors initiate signal transduction and response binds to receptor initiate signal transduction Lipid soluble move across cell membrane receptors Within cell nucleus receptor hormone complex Receptor locality and response pathways Water soluble membrane receptors initiate cell hormones circulate Widely but only affect target cells With receptors epinephrine in liver and blood vessels skeletalintestinal Various stimuli lead to secretions from endocrine cells act on various target cells With specific receptors response leads to reduction in stimulus thus negative feedback occurs Glucose level insulin and glucagon maintain blood glucose at 90 mg 100 mL both hormones produced in pancreas increased blood glucose leads to release of insulintarget almost all cells not brain to take up glucose liver converts blood glucose Diabetes Type 1 autoimmune disorder that kills cells that make insulin Type 2 occurs over time
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