Bio 106 October 19,21,23
Bio 106 October 19,21,23 Biology 106- Organismal Biology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by JustAnotherStudent on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 106- Organismal Biology at Washington State University taught by Dr. Cousins & Dr. Carloye in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Biology 106 in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
chober 192015 Bio 106 Circulatory Sysfems o In mosf animals cell exchange maferials wifh fhe environmenf via a fluid filled circulafory sysfem 0 Two fypes of circulafory sysfems 0 Open n arfhropods and mosf mollusks o Circulafion fluid hemolymph o Acfs as bofh blood and infersfifial fluid Dorsal hearl describes locafion buf if fubular in shape body movemenf circulafe hemolymph around 0 Squeeze and relax pumps hemolymph around Trachea 0 Gas exchange nof fied fo hemolymph or blood 0 Sfrucfures o Spiracles lef air info fube sysfem opening fo fhe oufside o Trachea fubes leading from fhe spiracle fo fissue Branching from fhe frachea leads fo single cell lracheoles Direcf delivery sysfem Blood nof involved 0 Closed Infersfifial fluid is separafe bafhes fissues direcfly Blood confined fo vessels 0 Arteries lead away from fhe hearf foward capillaries o Capillaries branch info a nefworlt lhe capillary bed 0 Capillaries are fhin walled O2 and CO2 move info amp ouf of circulafory sysfem fhrough fhese walls 0 Capillary Beds converge info veins which refurn blood fo fhe hearf Sinale circulafion svsfem 0 Found in fish 0 Two chambered hearf o Afrium receiving parf of fhe hearf o Venfricle larger chamber of fhe hearf more muscular Gives fhe big push fo malte fhe blood leave fhe hearf and fhen come back VenTricle 9 main arTery 9 capillary beds locaTed in The gills 9 oxygenaTed and added To blood and CO2 released info The wafer 9 arTery 9 capillary beds in body Tissues delivers load of O2 9main vein back To The hearT wiTh deoxygenaTed blood 9 venTricle O 0 Remember ThaT The blood goes direchy To The Tissues before reTurning To hearT Double CirculaTion SvsTem Four chambered hearT o DefiniTe wall beTween The Two sides Receiving chamber is The lefT and righT aTrium LefT and righT venTricle ATrium 9 valve 9 righT venTricle 9arTery 9 firsT capillaries bed in The lungs9 pick up load of O2 releases load of CO2 wasTe 9 pulmonary vein back To hearT9 lefT aTrium 9 lefT venTricle 9 arTery To body Tissues9 delivers load of 02 picks up CO2 wasTe 9 vein back To The righT side of The hearT 9 aTrium 9 venTricle lnClass WorksheeT Anchor your learning apply whaT you are learning Today ExTend your learning whaT is TransposiTion of The greaT vessels OcTober 21 2015 AnnouncemenTs Animal Physiology Gas Exchange 0 Respirafion amp Circulafion Overview 0 00000 Need 02 To fuel cellular meTabolism MusT geT rid of CO2 wasTe producT of cellular meTabolism ConTinual need To geT O2 and geT rid of CO2 Exchange happens across moisT membrane Molecules dissolve in waTer And diffuse across The cell surface lnTo or ouT of The cell 0 Gas exchange via Diffusion only 0 Diffusion of gas Through Tissue is SLOW 0 Surface area musT be large enough To allow DZ 02 exchange for enTire body Worllts if surface area To volume raTio is large clicker 1 answer A 11 0 Flat shape adaptation to increases surface area relative to volume 0 Gas Exchange via Special Respiratory Surfaces o Gills Very feathery flat very high surface area 0 Fish Gills o Gills divided into flattened filaments fingers Increases SAVo ratio 0 Countercurrent flow between water and blood vessels in each filament 0 Delivery of O2 to the tissues more efficient clicker 2 answer C l l o Gases flow down concentration gradient From higher partial pressure to lower Water has higher Po2 than blood as it approaches gill 0 Will move until it achieves equilibrium 0 Countercurrent flow between water and blood vessels increases ability to extract maximum 02 from water into blood Important Sidebar Explanation Here s how countercurrent exchange worlts compared to co current exchange 0 IF flow is co current parallel water only loses 50 of 02 blood can only receive 50 of 02 0 Blood reaches equilibrium wwater o 50 is the best you can do IF flow is concurrent parallel Walter H I u I519 5E Z j l a 5 2E 35 SE 52539 5iquot 3 Capillary 39 ll innWilli Cme mrmf O 0 But IF the flow is counter current 0 Transfer more 02 into blood 0 That s why it is more efficient U39ll39 IF l lew is eeuntereurrent Walcer i iee es as er en es Her sei ssgs a fquot I x in gill U mm mm Emilia Animals use CUUNTIEH EUHHENT ew net ee eurrent 0 Gas Exchange video clicker 3 onswer c 11 0 Lungs Respird rory Pigmenl Hemoglobin o Solubilily of O2 in woler is low 0 Hemoglobin helps lrdnsporl il 0 Hemoglobin pockdged inlo red blood cells 0 Red blood cell no nucleus formed from slem cells 0 Hemoglobin hos high offinily for 02 of high 02 concenhd on Affinily lhinllt mdgnel o Reledses O2 dl lower 02 concenlrdlions The lower The surrounding 02 The more 02 is reledsed o Hemoglobin Solurdlion Curve 0 1m 7 T Bleed fully saturated Wm H E ulnleadee 39 39 T E V t tissues 39 E 3 quot at rest gr E v 4 Us unleaded E 539 tetissues E I urng exercise an E j A g 2 e s I 2 4E Eli Hill 1 II T 1 Tissues ellurirlg Tissues Lu rungs exercise at rest F eimm o How hemoglobin responds sove 02 To help supply dire siluolions o Bohr Shifl 0 Cell STrucTure O o How Nerves Work El saturation hemoglobin Tia i i I E I I I I PH 7quot4 r 139 34139 quot pH 12 I L A H l libin 1 J I E f retalne less 03 ET I39mair pH 44 1quot A hilher CG 4 concentration I ET I l39 9 j I I I I 2 an an 3 m F jmm Hg 0 CO2 dffecTs dissocidTion from 02 from hemoglobin 0 CO2 converTed To corbonic acids in oner of blood OcTober 23 2015 Cell body nucleus dnd orgdnelles DendriTes cyTopldsmic exTension for inpuT Receives info from The cell Axon long cyTopldsmic exTension for oquuT Pdsses dlong signdl To receiving cell or Tissue Axon Hillock cone shdped bdse inTegrdTion inpuT nTegrdTe oil of The incoming info 0 2 Types of signdls ElecTricol dnd Chemicol O ElecTricgl AcTion poTenTidls ResTing poTenTidl inside of cell more neddTive Thdn The ouTside Volege differences credTed by m dToms w chdrge o Unequol disTribuTion of ions wiTh differenT chdrges ChemiCdl neuroTrdnsmiTTers we will Tdlt dbouT These on Monddy Chems used To corry messoge from one cell To dnoTher Ions dre noT disTribuTed evenly inside vs ouTside of The cell More negaTive on The inside Na Sodium ConcenTraTed on The ouTside of The cell STill on inside buT in smaller amounTs Cl Chloride Higher concenTraTion ouTside lower concenTraTion on The inside K PoTassium Higher concenTraTion inside lower concenTraTion on The ouTside Each ion has iTs own concenTraTion gradienT o MovemenTs across membranes are conTrolled by aned channels 0 A change in volTage across The cell membrane will open The gaTe 0 ions will passively move down The concenTraTion gradienT o Anions sTucllt on The inside of The cell and cannoT geT OUT 0 Large negaTively charged molecules ResTing PoTenTial of an Ion 0 Measure volTage change on inside of cell relaTive To The ouTside cell membrane 0 Inside 70mv resTing poTenTial o VolTage sensiTive gaTed channels are Mosle closed aT resTing poTenTial Open in response To elecTrical signal Na channels are double gaTed o acTivaTion gaTe Typically closed 0 inacTivaTion gaTe Typically open 0 Sodium Nadouble gaTed Incoming Signal Arrives l ResTing sTaTe o ElecTrical sTimulus Triggers Na channels To open acTivaTion gaTe o K channels are slower To respond and do noT open yeT 2 Positive feed bacllt Triggers action potential 0 When Nd channels open activation gate 0 Nd ions flow IN 0 Inside becomes less negative 0 Positive Feed back 0 Initial depolarization causes more gates to open 0 Must be strong enough to reach threshold 0 Once the threshold is hit the incoming Nd enough to sustain positive feedback 3 Repolarization begins 0 Nd channels stay open for l millisecond o Closes very quickly 0 At pealt inactive gates close 0 Stops influx of positive charge 0 Halfway through Kll gates spontaneously open charges moving out of the inside of the cell 0 Repolarization begins gt Inside becomes more positively charged 4 Repolarization 0 Passive flow of ions restores charge difference 0 NalK pump restores ion gradient active flow 0 Pumps ions against concentration gradient 0 Resets concentration gradient 0 Overshoot membrane potential 0 Creates refractory period gt Extra negative hyperpolarization 0 Must depolarize further to generate new action potential
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