Notes for week 9/28-10/2 2015
Notes for week 9/28-10/2 2015 PSY 1010
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Black on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Paul J Watson (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Almost no time left on the clock and my grade on the line. Where else would I go? Alyssa has the best notes period!
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Date Created: 10/25/15
92815 Operant Conditioning How does radical behaviorism understand the person 0 How specifically is a person to be described in terms of SR relationships 0 S A behavior is just a product of the environment 0 R A person is just a collection of behaviors What does the radical behaviorist assume about your socalled voluntary behaviors Does the radical behaviorist believe in free will 0 That voluntary aren t really voluntary at all What three terms refer to the conditioning of your socalled voluntary behavior 0 Operant conditioning 0 Instrumental conditioning use your behavior as a tool on the environment 0 Skinnerian conditioning What is the Law of Effect and who first stated it in formal terms 0 E L Thondike 0 Behavior is controlled by its consequences or effects What is reinforcement 0 A response strengthening process 0 Occurs when a behavior is strengthened by the stimulus that follows it What American psychologist was probably most famous for systematically studying the reinforcement process 0 B F Skinner Describe the apparatus used by this psychologist to study reinforcement in studies using for example rats 0 Operant Chamber or skinner box 0 A lever and hole in the wall with a cup to dispense food How was conditioned behavior established in this apparatus In this process what do the terms shaping and successive approximations refer to 0 Shaping gradual conditioning of behavior towards a target response 0 Successive approximations a behavior that is closer and closer to the target response 0 Shape behavior by reinforcing successive approximations In the conditioning of your socalled voluntary behaviors what four basic relationships can occur between stimuli and responses 0 In other words what are positive reinforcement positive punishment negative reinforcement and negative punishment Give an example of each by trying to think up examples from your own life 0 Do extinction generalization and discrimination apply to this type of conditioning 0 Extinction yes not giving food from lever 0 Generalization yes spread of response learned from one environment to other similar environments 0 Discrimination learn to apply different behaviors to different simuli 93 0 1 5 Schedules of Reinforcement What is a schedule of reinforcement 0 Rules that specify the relationship between responding and reinforcement What are the two basic types of reinforcement schedules Which type is probably more common in the social life of persons 0 Continuous reinforcement schedule rare in social life Relationship with machines more common 0 Partial reinforcement schedules more common in social life What are probably the four most common partial reinforcement schedules 0 Fixed ratio schedule reinforcement follows a set or fixed number of responses FRlO O produce high rates of responding 0 post reinforcement pause 0 variable ratio schedule VRlO available after an average varying of responses 0 steady responding O difficult to distinguish 0 ex Gambling behavior 0 fixed interval schedule FI30sec reinforcement is made available after a fixed time 0 scalloping graph pattern 0 Differential reinforcement of high rates of responding DRH 0 Variable internal after an average varying period of time VI30sec O Steady responding 0 How would each of these four partial reinforcement schedules operate in an operant chamber 0 What would be the characteristics of behavior associated with each of these four partial reinforcement schedules 0 Indicate how each of these partial reinforcement schedules might operate in the life of persons by trying to think of examples from your own personal experience Stimuli Presented Removed stronger Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Responses weaker Positive punishment Negative punishment 10215 C02nitive Psvch0102v How would Skinner react to any attempt to define learning in terms of processes that occur within the mind 0 What two main arguments might he present in order to defend his reaction 0 Skinner complaints 0 Too subjective O Unnecessary 0 How do we know anyone has ever learned anything It is always obvious in their behavior What would Skinner mean if he were to suggest that the mind should be hidden inside a black box 0 That the mind is an unnecessary component Where does the analogy of a black box come from 0 How might Skinner choose to define learning 0 Learning is a more or less permanent change in behavior as a result of stimulus experience How would this definition be compatible with his SR psychology 0 S information I mind I R How did a British philosopher describe the early 20th Century emphasis of American psychology on an SR approach to learning What did he mean by this 0 American psychology has lost its mind Explain how the research of E C Tolman suggests that explanations of learning in terms of mental processes make sense 0 Complex maze What is latent learning According to Tolman how are cognitive maps relevant to an understanding of latent learning 0 Latent hidden learning 0 1St group rats 11 tries 2rld group rats 2 tries Explain how the research of Wolfgang Kohler suggests that explanations of learning in terms of mental processes make sense 0 Used chimpanzees Name is Sultan What is insight learning and how is it related to the possible role of mental processes in learning How might an informal definition of the concept insight suggest the importance of mental events in psychological functioning 0 Insight learning a sudden understanding of how to solve a problem What approach to psychology emerged in response to the work of people like Tolman and Kohler 0 Cognitive psychology 0 Learning is the gaining of information
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