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Week 4 Classics 20 Notes

by: Jenna Kovsky

Week 4 Classics 20 Notes Classics 20

Jenna Kovsky
GPA 3.68
Discovering Romans
Dr. Gurval

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10/19, 10,21, 10/23
Discovering Romans
Dr. Gurval
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Kovsky on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Classics 20 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Gurval in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Discovering Romans in Classical Studies at University of California - Los Angeles.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
10l19l15 Lecture 10 Catullus The New Poem c Poems of Catullus short lyrical poems passionate comic and obscene at times 0 Gaius Valerius Catullus o born in Verona in Northern Italy 0 Series of lakes not far awaygtremains of Roman Villa at Lago di Garda legendary home of Catullus Le Grotte di Catullo dates are uncertain but near 8454 BCE died young about 30 yo from a wealthy family 0 New Poets Neoteric Poets literary movement of 1st century BCE rebelled against older Roman tradition heavysounding serious and ponderous opposed to aesthetics of Ennius Annaes poetry should be erudite playful and sensual found inspiration in Greek poets who wrote in ALEXANDRIA Egypt which rivalled Athens in sophistication and culture 0 Features I concern for form short poems consciousness of composition in collection of books and writing poetry in terms of a collection I careful composition choose the right words speed is not a virtue in composing poetry I refinement in verses urbane witty sophisticated vocab that is colloquial and slang but still learned and erudite explore different sources 0 Lovecentral theme changing attitudes towards love became an experience to be embraced and enjoyed I wrote openly of love affairs pain happiness physical acts of lovemaking o Liber book 0 have one of Catullus but not much poetry from his fellow Neoteric poets o disappeared during Dark Ages rediscovered at end of 13th century 0 disappeared again but not before it had been copied down twice 0 Poem 1 dedication o Emphasis on physical condition of the book clean and also sophisticated o pumice stone used to clean the scroll o Cornelius Nepos friend and neighbor of Catullus author of the first universal history in Latin also wrote biographies most Romans only talked about Romans but Cornelius said that they were now a part of the greater history of the world I earliest collection of biographies wrote about Romans as well as foreigners very short with chronological errors wrote about historians poets philosophers etc big in scope not in length history of the world in 3 books an emergence of respect for cultural differences I Differences between Greeks and Romans 0 marriage of halfsiblings considered incest in Rome 0 honor for young men to have older male lovers ok in Greece but considered bad in Rome 0 wives not allowed at banquets bad in Greece to have woman next to you in public events female quarters o Romans would consider it effeminate for a man to dance and sing etc but Greeks didn t have a problem with it o Lesbia one of the most important figures in Catullan poems 0 name he gives to his girlfriend in his poetry pseudonym 0 name inspired by most famous Greek poet Sappho a woman born on island of Lesbos Lesbianwomen of Lesbos city of Eresos or Mytilene once 9 books of poetry now only fragments addressed to young girls themes love wedding songs and laments I Lesbiano connotations of sexuality 0 Clodia woman associated with Lesbia I from patrician family of Appius Claudius Decemvir guy who tried to rape Verginia Clodia Pulchra Tertia three Clodias daughter of a consul and married to a consul during love affair with Catullus sister of Clodius Pulcher older than Catullus at least 10 years not a typical relationship in Rome after her husband died became independent woman who chose her own lovers 0 Poem 51 o ode to Sappho o jealousy of his lover s admirer 0 describes physically what it is to be in love 0 Poem 2 o passer sparrow special bird favorite to goddess of love Venus I often kept as pets by woman 0 begins with address to the sparrow of Lesbia o sexualsensual associations 0 Poem 3 o funeral dirgelament for the sparrow o ironic imitation of hymn heavysounding solemn 0 Poem 16 0 other poems less delicate and polite O 0 any guy he sees as a rival such as Aurelius and Furius will get it in his poetry sexual aggressive moves against rivals Sexual Roles in Rome O 0000 0 adult male citizenalways dominantactive I what they did was not as important as whom they did it to women foreigners slaves young peoplealways submissivepassive sex not conceived as a union of equals at least not before Catullus a man could do what he wants to his inferiors reversal in Catullus girlfriend has asserted dominance over the passive poetry in Catullus s time poets claimed to be submissive to their girlfriends gender dissonance male poet takes the female and passive role in the narrative of the action and love affair friendship as a theme sincere friendship with another guy a poet as well 0 O Gaius Licinius Macer CALVUS I distinguished Roman family I friend of Catullus I successful lawyer I died young Poem 50 I composing poetry expressed as making love I play has sexual overtones Poem 101 O O addressed to his brother who died young as well AVE ATQVE VALE Hail and Farewell Catullus and Politicians O O O O poem 49 calls Cicero greatest of all lawyers flattery or insincerity poem 93 harsh things against Julius Caesar Marcus Caelius Rufus lover of Clodia after breaking off with Catullus I Caelius dumps Clodia I lawsuit against Caelius Clodia behind it I 5 formal charges 2 real gold and poison 2 Impersonations in Speech by Cicero I Appius Claudius Caecus the Blind 0 uses wit sarcasm irony to get client off 0 attacks Clodia by impersonating ghost of Caecus o famous for piety and austerity 0 Fame 0 refused to make peace with pyrrhus 0 built Rome s first aqueduct Aqua Appia 0 built Rome s most famous road Via Appia I Publius Clodius Pulcher o younger brother of Clodia o rumors about intimacy of brother and sister o Cicero had reasons to hate Clodius o Cicero imitates speech and 0 makes slip in speech calls him her husband not brother 0 vir not frater 102115 Lecture 11 Cicero The New Man 0 Marcus Tullius CICERO 0 starts tradition of rhetoric o Cicero s life 0 we know more about him than about anyone else in antiquity born in Arpinum small city outside of Rome reaches high office based on skills not of patrician or wealthy class originally little brother named Quintus becomes an adult puts on the toga virilis toga of manhood went to Rome for his studies Early years I 9189 Social War war against ltalian allies o socii allies o outcome was extension of citizenship throughout the peninsula o emergence to an Italian identity I 81 Clcero delivers his first speech age 25 during political troubles in Rome I 8279 Civil War between Marius and Sulla o Gaius Marius born near Arpinum not nobility but wealthy equestrian family 0 7 consulships total novus homo I there had been a tradition against successful consulships I used Rome s bad time to have 6 consecutive successful military general originally a soldier victories North Africa over Germanic tribes who invaded north Italy 0 Army Reforms organization equipment and training as well as recruitment of lowerclass plebeians especially those outside of the city without patrons I more efficient effective and larger army I increased power for commanders 0 could serve longer 0 could use soldiers for political purposes as well 0 Publius Cornelius Sulla Felix old patrician family served with Marius as quaestor in N Africa 0 seizes power from Marius OOOOOO demanded to lead expedition in East when Senate waivers seizes command for himself victory over Mlthridates VI of Pontus Marius dies after Sulla returns but Marius supporters still oppose him 0 Dictator 82080 BCE I restored authority to and enlarged Senate curbed power of tribunes established stricter age limits increased number of praetor and quaestors Proscription list of names of citizens to be killed and property seized o wanted dead or alive posters 0 led to a bloodbath I stepped down as dictator and died soon after 0000 0 First Major speech of Clcero in defense of Sextus Roscius of AMeria father of Sextus killed in 81 BCE freedman of SUlla schemes for Sextus s property adds name to proscriptions accuses Sextus Roscius of his own father s murder Cicero wins the case while flattering Sulla while putting him on the defensive gave Cicero his reputation as an orator political consequences for challenging Sulla Sulla dies soon 0 Family of Cicero 0 ca 70 Married Terentia younger wife in her teens noble and wealthy family halfsister Fabia is a Vestal Virgin bold energetic by nature and ambitious Cicero divorced her and married an 18yearold lived to be 100 2 kids daughter and son 0 Daughter Tullia 0 Political Career 0 76 Quaestor age 30 o 70 Aedile age 36 corruption in provinces prosecutes governor of Sicily Gaius Verres no speech only testimony and documents governor goes into exile and flees doesn t give Cicero chance to give his speech o 67 Praetor age 39 o 64 Consul age 42 I begins January 63 I in 63 BCE COnspiracy of Catiline 0 First Triumvirate angry that he kept running for office and losing conspiracy cancellation of debts land redistribution for veterans of Sulla planned to murder Cicero and others a prostitute spilled the beans Cicero didn t leave his house on the planned day thwarted conspiracy Cicero accuses Catiline who flees and Cicero executes some of Catiline s fellow conspirators Cicero proclaimed father of his country 0 formed 60 BCE OOOO nothing official or legal a political alliance of rivals and enemies shortly after Cicero s consulship ended three members decided to share powers and pass all the laws etc I Pompey the Great Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus most famous military man of his day 3 triumphs Africa Spain and Asia cognomen MAGNUS imitated Alexander the Great an old man at this time I Crassus Marcus Licinius Crassus richest man of his day good general second to Caesar and Pompey good orator second to Cicero made fortune in Sulla s proscription real estate slum landlord Fire Brigade put out fires and in doing so bought property owners forced to pay high prices or sell consul with Pompey 7O BCE contribution money I Julius Caesar youngest member noble patrician family not wealthy or prominent in recent generation young popular rising star his aunt married Marius o elected Pontifex Maximus in 63 bribed his way in 0 Assembly of Tribes 0 Cicero and Clodius I Publius Clodius Pulcher brother of clodia I political enemy of Cicero I Scandal of Bona Dea Roman Good Goddess Greek goddess Hygeia o Clodius dressed as a woman to attend religious ceremony at home of Caesar got caught Cicero spoke against him in trial for this sacrilege Clodius pleaded to Cicero for an alibi but Cicero refuses Clodius bribes his way from being convicted hates Cicero Caesar s wife was kinda blamed he divorced her but didn t punish her I Clodius Pulcher becomes plebeian so he can be elected tribune o ClodiusgtClaudius o proposes bill before Assembly of Tribes 0 any man who put a Roman citizen to death without a jury trial is condemned 0 law retroactive would apply to when Cicero put Catilinarian conspirators to death 0 Cicero flees to Greece 0 Cato the Younger I fierce opponent of Julius Caesar I greatgrandson of the elder I opposes triumvirate gotten rid of I to remove him they offer him a governorship of Cyprus he accepted 102315 Lecture 12 Julius Caesar 0 Family of the Julii 0 old patrician family 0 father Gaius Caesar I praetor 0 mother Aurelia Cotta I person of strict morals o Aunt Julia I married Gaius Marius I father s sister I used the occasion of her death to talk about his uncle s achievements o Wives and lovers for people at his rank wives were often a statement of allegiance and association 0 Cornelia I first wife I daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna marries her at very young age political ally of Gaius Marius and rival of SUlla refused to divorce her despite threats of Sulla mother of Julia his only legitimate child who married Pompey the Great Cornelia died in childbirth o Pompeia second wife not a relative of Pompey the Great daughter of Sulla s daughter Cornelia scandal of Bona Dea Festival leads to divorce but not her punishment 0 Calpurnia I third wife I probably married for connection to aristocratic family I daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus o consul and later neutral in the civil war 0 patron of Epicurean philosopher Philodemus 0 Villa of the Papyri Herculaneum found 18k carbonized papyri scrolls mostly from Philodemus believed to be his library 0 in large homes one library would be devoted to Latin and one devoted to Greek I political alliance but no children I marriage lasted until deathr o Servilia I his bestknown lover I halfsister of Cato the younger I family of C Servilius Ahala I said to have received a pearl I remained friends after the end of their love affair I wife of Marchus lunius Brutus 1 son who became one of Caesar s assassins I wife of Decimus lunius Silanus 3 daughters 0 Caesar and the civic crown o civic crown corona civica o crown of oak leaves woven into wreath o honor when a Roman saves another Roman s life 0 Caesar and the pirates 0 while in East captured by Cicilian pirates 0 held for ransom 20 talents but Caesar protested that he was worth 50 o Caesar keeps his promise to kill every one of them 0 captures pirates held in prison at Pergamum then comes and crucifies them 0 First Triumvirate 0 Julius Caesar was the junior partner 0 not legal nor official political rivals put aside differences and alter the electoral in their favor Caesar got elected consul for this he really wanted a military command so he gave himself a military command for an eightyear campaign of conquest of the Gauls o Conquest of the Gauls o Vercingetorix leader of the Gauls brought back by Caesar and later killed o Preliminaries to Civil War 0 54 death of Julia Caesar s daughter Pompey s wife one of the few political marriages that worked I wanted just to give a son I lost her son and her life in childbirth I she was the link between the two men 0 53 Crassus Defeated I battle of Carrhae in Syria father and son brutally killed heads cutoff used as props loss of Roman standards eagles huge shame of Rome both Caesar and Pompey wanted to avenge him I he had kept the other two men together 0 52 Murder of Clodius Pulcher I gang fight of two rivals on the Via Appia I Cicero fails to defend murderer 0 Civil War 0 efforts to compromise on both sides didn t work 0 Caesar feels forced to take decisive action bc won t let him come back and be consul Crossed the Rubicon northern boundary of Italy Battle of Pharsalus in Greece where Pompey thinks he has a chance I Pompey had twice as many men as Caesar I but Caesar s men were extremely loyal to him and experienced fighters I Pompey had a lot of paid unorganized mercenaries I Pompey loses goes to Egypt to fight again another day and is murdered upon arrival o Cleopatra VII daughter of Ptolemy Xll Auletes 0 when Caesar comes in civil war with her brother 0 Egypt had been conquered by Alexander the Great Alexandria was built and named for him 0 Ptolemy l Soter I ruled Egypt seized it after Alexander died I stole Alexander s body and said he should be buried in the city named for him I founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty one of the most successful dynasties after Alexander O O O O O O O O O O a Greek but goes with rituals of ancient Egypt I his children take up practice of ancient Pharaohs and marry brother to sister I thrown out of Alexandria and his daughter was placed on throne philosopher Dio was going to Rome to speak on her behalf I Ptolemy reestablished himself on the throne and made his second daughter Cleopatra his successor Romans interested in Egypt because of grain would rather have Egyptians in charge of it than their enemy Cleopatra inherited throne and later thrown out of Egypt when her brother and his advisors seized power and threw her out young Ptolemy Xlll advised by tutor to kill Pompey to win allegiance of Caesar I didn t understand Romans nor Caesar I presented Pompey s head but Caesar was disgusted and outraged orders that the body be found cremated and placed in a tomb Caesar met Cleopatra and she wins him over to her side Death of Ptolemy Xlll Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIV ruled together Caesar took her younger sister back to Rome Gives birth to son I Caesarion I believed to be Caesar s son he is not in Egypt when she gives birth and never acknowledges the child Coin of Cleopatra I diademed head of Cleopatra as Aphrodite holding son Ptolemy XV Caesarion praised for her voice her intellect her ability to converse knew 8 languages but no her beauty descended from Macedonian Greeks her ethnicity is unknown 0 Caesar s triumphs O O O O O returns to Rome after love affair with Cleopatra became dictator brings Cleopatra to Rome she was there during the assassination Cicero disliked her called her the Queen and alludes that she was pregnant saw himself as Alexander the Great 0 Accomplishments of Caesar 0 00000 like Sulla the dictator attempted to set stat in order again policy of pardon no proscription for Pompey s supporters debt reform and distribution of free grain reform of calendar building projects in Rome new forum o foundation of Roman colonies rebuilding of Carthage 0 After dictator 0 doesn t want to give up the office claims himself dictator for life offered crown to be king at Lupercalia 6O senatorsconspirators assassinated at meeting fell next to statue of Pompey ironic much OOOO


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