Principles of Advertising and Public Relations
Principles of Advertising and Public Relations JOMC 137
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasper Auer on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JOMC 137 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Napoleon Byars in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/228652/jomc-137-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Community relationsThe branch of PR concerned with helping companies establish and maintain mutually beneficial relationships with the communities in which they operate NB ROI Return on Investment 0 llGood community relations like employee satisfaction is also a means to higher productivity and profitsquot NB Theories of Relationships 0 Systems Theory 0 PR is a boundary spanner monitoring relationships 0 Situational Theory 0 Helps explain why some stakeholder groups are active or not Put down in Writing 0 Have a written strategic plan for community relations that define management s view of its obligation to the community so efforts can be coordinated and concentrated Guidelines for effective Community Relations Programs Establish objectives mgn Wishes to achieve 0 Explore alternative strategies 0 Anticipate impact on organization and community 0 Pay attention to total cost and resources required 0 Be mindful special expertise may be needed Criteria Community relations Activities Create something that didn t exist before Eliminate a community problem Developing a means for selfdetermination Broadening use of something that exists to include quothavenotsquot Sharing equipment facilities expertise Reconstituting repairing and dressing up Tutoring counseling and training mvmwewwe Activating others Ex Of community relations Forever Young Project NBA Cares Advertising make Ford Fiesta look good PR establish relationship between Ford and public Gives a broader picture Corporate Social Responsibility CSR Challenges 0 Issues are not static o Priorities vary among publics 0 Problems are very complex 0 Difficult to satisfy public s expectation US Corporate Philanthropy 0 75 of all donations to charitable organizations come from small stockholders and individuals 0 Only about 1 percent of corporate profits are actually given away CSR requires top mgn support ex Former intel chairman Craig Barrett Lockheed Community relationsimpacting communities Consumer relations 0 Consumer relations differs from marketing in that the goals of the program are to develop positive relationships with consumers rather than to sell a certain number of a product 0 Ex Toyota recall safety promise When activists attack 0 Predictable patterns Polarize the issue Build a base on the web Turivialize quot insult etc mm Violate trademarks Use ultimatums Register their site on search engines Use electronic bulletin boards find disgruntled employees etc WNP P PP Equot Work the news media Ex Debtors revolt Ann Minch vs BOA KFC double down Teaming PR with Marketing 0 Reinvigorating an older brand 0 Exporting an established brand to new markets 0 Reinforce a brand positioning 0 Getting an image makeover o Anticipation what s next Establishing your company as a good corporate citizen Ex Target s Bullseye gives Reinvigorating Brands o The new Ford appeals to younger market 0 Competitive pricing 0 Fuel efficient o Smaller footprint 0 Attractive style Causerelated marketing ties a company and product to a cause ex Avon and breast cancer Integrated marketingdoing a lot of things at one time to reach consumers in several places Have to control the message in a lot of mediums Investor Relations Wall Street Earnings Season the period of time during which a large number of publicly traded companies release their guarterly earning reports PR news releases media advisory conference call Interplay between info investors and market If transaction is not smooth company can lose a lot of money High stakes moment This is a very active time in the market as participants analysts traders and investors review the earnings reports which may affect their positions on or in a company You can often see a lot of movement in the shares of companies releasing reports as the market reacts to the new data It is not unheard of to see shares jump 20 or more or to see them fall by this same amount It is also a highly active time for the financial news media such as CNBC and The Wall StreetJournal There is extensive media coverage of the major earnings releases from a general recap of the earnings to reporting on whether the companies missed met or beat analyst expectations Investor Relations Integrates finance communication marketing and securities law compliance to enable a company to communicate with its shareholders large and small institutional investors analysts government regulators and news media Fellow shareholders real people numbers currency Three characteristics Corporate Comm Strategy Consistency forecast and performance Credibility Straightforward and candid in describing ops Clarity focus of communication Capital formation Allows investors to evaluate and invest Get people to buy stocks so the bUJNl i company has money to grow Securities and Exchange Commission SEC The mission of the US Securities and Exchange Commission is to protect investors maintain fair orderly and efficient markets and facilitate capital formation SEC Formed in 1934 to regulate 0 Key cases and actions 0 Texas Gulf Sulphur Case insider trading 0 Enron scandal and bankruptcy inaccurate financial accounting 0 WorldCom scandal and bankruptcy accounting 0 AOL Time Warner merger 0 And on and on Full and Fair Disclosure requirement 0 Form 10K annual reports 0 Form 10 Q quarterly reports 0 Form 8K current reports 0 Even if stakeholder owns just one share the company has to send lO K to them Financial PR is necessary to develop and maintain investor confidence 1 Forms 10 K Form 10Q Form 8K Form lOk asks for descriptions of a corporation s principal products and services assessment of competitive conditions in its industry the dollar amount of order backlog source and availability of raw materials all material patents licenses franchises and concessions and the estimated dollar amount spent on research Form lOQ much less detailed asks primarily for the corporation s summarized profit and loss statement capitalization stockholders equity at the end of the quarter and the sale of any unregistered securities Form 8k filing this document is required when an unusual event or sale of significant assets or changes in the amount of securities outstanding 2 Proxy fight two or more contestants striving for control of management or an issue seek to get the shareholders to let them cast their vote for them 3 Tender offerone that is enough above the market price of the stock to entice the shareholder to sell despite his or her loyalty to the company or desire to keep the stock 4 Financial public relations 5 Conference call 6 Annual reportare prepared not only to publish the required SEC information but also to perform a public relations and marketing function Allen Mask of Goldman Sachs 0 Communication innovationquotthinka pationquot PR in Government Public affairs Is the PR practice that addresses public policy and the publics who influence such policy Public affairs develops and maintains relationships with various publics who can influence the future Key Tasks Public Affairs Functions 1 Fact findinglistening most important to government relations 2 Weigh and evaluate info how will it impact organization 3 Disseminating info decision makers employees stockholders 4 Sometimes fight fire with fire use focused publicity to influence decisions Understanding the Political system 1 Electoral process influencing elections 2 Legislative process role of lobbyists to inform and influence 3 Judicial process court of final opinion 4 Regulatory power federal state and local govts Have a say Political action Committee Wars Labor Policy center opinion advertising criticizes NEA spending Lobbyists so misunderstood What do lobbyists do Lobbyists do the following 0 Find facts and research issues 0 Interpret government actions 0 Interpret company actions 0 Advocate positions 0 Serve as publicity springboard 0 Support company sales PACs Tilting the political process What are PACs Groups that represent business interests labor unions corporations nonprofit organizations or other interest groups Big tobacco s Propaganda East Java Indonesia fights back Defining Propaganda Propaganda the spreading of ideas information or rumor for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution a cause or a person Propaganda Plain and Simple Propaganda involves putting out the party line which may include disseminating facts half truths misinformation or rumor Sources of Gov Propaganda Official Spokespersons 0 Print and electronic news releases 0 Video News Releases VNRs o Staged events such as presidential town hall meetings 0 Official web sites 0 Government TV Types of propaganda o White issued from an acknowledged source 0 Gray does not clearly identify the source 0 Black emanates from a source other than the stated one Propaganda Techniques 0 Glittering generalities ex Obama s change we can believe in Transfer John McCain in front of US flag patriotmilitary service Name Calling Ex Sarah Palin with meat and gun Card stacking Elderly with young for Burr Testimonials Plain folks John Edwards helping Band Wagon Issues and Challenges Mission and legitimacy questioned more extensively Taxpayers are forced to provide financial support Bureaucracy often hinders PR efforts Career developments 1913 Gillette Amendment appropriated funds may not be used to pay a publicity expert unless specifically appropriated for the purposequot Government PA expertsnumber more than 40000 altogether Government Web Sites Objectives Communicating with the public Communicating with researchers activists specialists and journalists Distributing large volumes of information Publicizing policies programs and events Soliciting public commentfeedback Non profit PR External Relations Scope All interactions between salaried employees of a nonprofit agency and its board members with any other individuals or organizations Media relations Community relations Lobbying Citizen relations etc Crisis management Nonprofit Public relations Nonprofit PR requires sound external relations External relations means understanding that an agency consists of more than its employees finances and real property PR practitioners help nonprofits identify and hone their message and stay focused on the mission Keys to Success Nonprofit PR 1 Focus on mission Is it current in keeping with organization purpose 2 Strong internal and external relations Are employees viewed as force multipliers is there public support 3 Active board participation Extending reach and ensuring governance 4 Simple messages Focus on one idea use clear and compelling communication Ex Values organizations MADD ACLU Susan G Komen race for a cure DAR pro life PETA NRA By Revenues Top 10 Nonprofits 1 YMCA5 billion 2 Salvation Army45 billion 3 American Red Cross35 billion 4 Catholic Charities3 billion 5 Goodwill Industries nternational3 billion 6 United Jewish Communities 25 billion 7 Memorial SloanKettering Cancer Foundationl5 billion 8 Boys ampGirls Clubs ofAmerica1 billion 9 AmeriCares Foundationl billion 10 Habitat for Humanity nternationall billion What nonprofits want from you web skills and social media Religion and Public relations 0 Media relations 0 Eventplanning 0 Promotion 0 Member relations 0 Employee relations 0 Government relation ex Joel Osteen largest church 30000 member 7 million viewers Fallen Leaders not bad PR The skill set of nonprofit executives extends beyond managing inhouse resources budgeting and asset management Nonprofit executives must have an ER perspective and stay true to their mission This is true with both secular and religious nonprofits Ex Children s Defense Fund WWF 5 Reasons for the Growing Importance of Nonprofit PR 0 Public advocacy is on the march 0 Instant communication technologies 0 Salaried employees doing more 0 Guidelines for professional education favor ER 0 Dealing with external issues requires PR skills Community relations and NIMBY Spreading the word via social media Shock PSAs organizations 39 use and 39 methods and media to promote messages Which gets your attention the most Citizen Relations 0 Enhancing the image of an agency by building goodwill with the public ie 0 Fire department open houses Neighborhood watch programs Military flyovers and demonstration teams NASA s Space Camp Petsmart s animal rescue program 000 Reframing a movement gun control in America How does the gun lobby win By invoking basic values 0 Freedom 0 Liberty 0 Independence o Patriotism o Selfreliance Ex Vote freedom first freedom s 2nd army love your country fear your government llBy exploiting its significant structural advantage What does the gun control movement stand for 0 Public safety 0 Compassionprolife o Researchcommon sense 0 Peacenonviolence 0 Consumer protection Bottom line Gun control organizations have not articulated a consistent message or vision Does gun control have a consistency NRAgun owners CSGVgun violence survivors Bottom line This natural consistency in and of itself is not broad enough to win need broader research Reframing the issue An effective frame evokes values Frame Message Invokes universal values words activate frame Long termconsistency short termcan vary over time Relevance of current events uses current events to capture voter s attention A successful test case the environment Went from negative frame of preventing pollution to positive frame of stewardship of the planet Responsibility conservation protection legacy Balance and respect The results Attracting New audiencesinvoked Christian valuesNoah s ark image Sierra club ex llfaith in action legacy frame The process 0 Meeting of the minds 0 Secure funding 0 Values mapping 0 Define constituencies 0 Focus group and survey testing 0 Implementation Overcoming a structural disadvantage NewSocial Media 0 Facebook 0 Twitter 0 Huffington Post 0 Youtube 0 Mobile Professional Writing News releases fact sheets speeches PSAs VNRs resumes etc Truth amp accuracy Language of the masses Always keep it simple KISS Write for target audience Keep audience interest in mind Concise expression Spelling grammar amp punctuation Conform to media standards Crisis Communication Basic Causes of Crisis 1 Acts of God 2 Mechanical problems 3 Human errors 4 Mgn Decisionsindecisions Acts of God Natural disasters Storms floods earthquakes volcanic activity meteorites etc Mechanical Problems Ruptured pipe falling skywalk faulty switch power surge or outage etc Human errors A doctor cuts off the wrong leg an employee opens the wrong valve a train is switched onto the wrong track etc Mgn Decision or Indecisions Leadership fails to take the problem seriously enough or attempts to cover it up Media reaction to crisis 0 Shaped by media values ie conflict impact etc o Varies with category of crisis 0 Often is unrelenting until another story appears o Is susceptible to effective crisis communication Eight news values 0 Conflict Attracts the most readers 0 Impact How the audience will be affected 0 Emotional impact The human interest angle 0 Magnitude The size of the event 0 Oddity Unusual twists to a story 0 Prominence When the main characters are well known 0 Proximity News that happens close to you 0 Timeliness How new is the news Uncertainty of Cause Railroad defends signal after mother son killed Tiger woods David Letterman Ch 17 issues to know ssues management the identification of key issues confronting organizations and the management of organizational responses to them Anticipate issues in the future Knowledge management computer based system a collection of practices for getting products out the door faster by better ensuring that all employees have the right information they need at the right time Can t tell people everything all the time Change management expert someone who assists an organization in adapting to various changes especially in relation to changes in culture relationship marketing related to integrated marketing it focuses on building relationships with consumers through marketing advertising and public relations Treat customers as humans you want them to come back Professional Writing Start with research ID messages and requirements ID stakeholders audiences Write in the vernacular of your speaker Write a strong lead Remember who you re trying to reach Brevity keep it simple short KISS Edit and polish Review frames vs messages Frames allow selective influence over an individual s perception of the meanings attributed to words phrases and images They are more powerful than messages and serve to encourage certain interpretations and to discourage others Make you see the world in a certain way they activate stakeholder groups Messages are more targeted and temporal and serve to address a specific stand on issues Still the media only deals with messages not frames Letterman s apology Used comedy and victimization strategies Strategies Crisis Victimization strategy say it s not your fault you re a victim Differentiation didn t happen to you competitor Denial say it didn t happen has to be true though Comedy usually NOT a strategy Diversity and Public relations Diversity represents categories of people based on differences that cannot be altered such as age race sexual orientation gender ethnicity and physical abilitiesqualities and differences that can be altered such as class language income marital status religion geography and military experience Googlebuzz could see everyone s email contacts who they were emailing Why diversity in PR Deliver more effective messages Big Picture Communicator 4 step process research planning execution evaluation
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