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World Regional Geography

by: Giuseppe Berge

World Regional Geography GEOG 120

Giuseppe Berge
GPA 3.81

Stephen Birdsall

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Stephen Birdsall
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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Giuseppe Berge on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 120 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Stephen Birdsall in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/228655/geog-120-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in Geography at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 I Geography Approaches 57 53 5 lPlacebased 2HumanEnvironmental Interactions 3 Location of Things 4Scale Differences Geographic Scales Particular Places Realms amp Regions yield 3 Lessons 1Each Place Its characters and problems 2Many Places 3 Places 12 Ma tand the World n v w 3 Nearby arem I Ii Mi 39 ml patterns of change Broad Themes 1RuralUrban Differences o Migration urban growth global interdependence 2Population growth 0 Environmental impacts economic pressures9 dealing with time 3 Beliefs traditions and identities o Interactions of politics and ethnicity nations religion introduced Geographic Framework PlaceSpecific 1Regional Framework 0 A region is a reasonably large territory where places are more similar than outside the region 0 Regional Characteristics large territory more alike than different 0 3 types formal contain places that look alike because ofa mix of characteristics politically cultural economic environmental I Functional contain places grouped because there is functional connection among them manufacturing core empires settlements 0 Spatial Interaction o Transferability o Intervening Opportunity 0 Spatial Complementarity 0 Functional Specialization I Fiat Territories defined for administrative purposes Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 2 Useful ways to define regions 0 Singlefactor defined by a single feature ex Annual precipitation o Multifactor defined by a mix of features ex Climate andor culture 3 Important distinctions between the 3 regions 0 Deduction modelgeneration9specific info 0 Induction specific info9 modelgeneration II Europe As An Example a 57 Squot 53 5 r In Europe s culture 1Urbanized 34 live in urban areas 2 Industrialized most economics depend on industrial production direct or indirect 3Commercialized Economics are marketbased 4 High mobility dependent transportation networks are intensively developed Urban Patterns 1The idea of primate cities more than twice the size of the second largest city depends on hinterland rank size iconography 2Examples Paris London Rome Political Patterns 1The Organic Theory of State Evolution 0 States are like organisms I Success depends on resources I Consequences Territorial expansion At the expense of others Agricultural Patterns 1Van Thunen s quotIsolated State Model 0 Pattern of Land Use I Intensive close to market center I Extensive farther from market center Regional Patterns Core and Periphery Deductive Approach 1Core intense concentration and focus of regional character 2Periphery Scattered activity lowered intensity localized importance 3The CorePeriphery disparity operates at many scales Language Patterns 1Europe s core region developed around the contact line between the Romance Language speakers and the Germanic Language speakers 0 Long contact between people of both language enhanced their abilities to solve problems European Core 1Germany 0 Initial industrial growth based on coal resources I In the Ruhr Saxony and Silesia 0 Population is almost entirely urban 0 Political existence began only in 1871 o 4 large rivers all navigable and have port cities at their ends 2 France 0 Does not have great agricultural resources 0 It does have agriculture though Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 o No navigable rivers 0 Sea access in N and S 0 Continuity I Strong self identity I Strong geo focus I Long engagement in leading European development 3Germany and France in their own complementary way show similar European core characteristics 4Similarities of Belgium and Netherlands 0 Location Access to ocean 0 Landscape Physical and cultural 0 Size Both countries combined are less than half the size of NC 0 Population density 5How do Belgium and Netherlands differ 0 Ned Controls access to Rhine river Belgium has weaker access 0 Benelux sits astride the cultural divide I Belgium s cultural diversity is linguistic Dutch 60 French 40 0 Economic success of Benelux I Is economic success a function of population and resources 9 If so Economic Quality of Life resources technologypop Size 0 What has the Netherlands done I Make more land for resources draining ocean shores o Reclamation polders o Concentrationgt vertical development Intensify activities 0 Urbancommercial o Specialized agriculture 39239 The Netherlands produces cheese and tulips they can make more money producing a square yard of tulips than they could producing a square yard of wheat They have found their niche Use location as a resource 0 Rhine River accessibility o Rotterdam entrepot function 39239 A place that functions more or less as a warehouse collects resources from a variety of places and reorganizes them to be shipped out to a variety of other destinations I There are two missing elements in the quality of life equation 0 Human Creativity 0 Location h Moving to Europe s Periphery 1Great Britain 0 Concept of location I Refers to the main island the UK refers to the political unit England is not a correct term to refer to the country the British Isles refers to the collective group of countries 0 The British Isles I Part in the core and part outside suggest 0 Character of visible landscape Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 0 Resource possibilities 0 Variations from location to location 0 What to expect at different scales Why did a worldclass city develop where London is located Consider two concepts when considering questions of location 0 Site attributes of the place s absolute location 0 Is the place on a river 0 39239 Is the site swampy or dry 239 Is it in the mountains or on the plains 39239 Maxim 1 o Situation attributes of the place s relative location quot39 Is it on a trade route 0 o N Is it near industrial raw materials 0 o o 39 Are other market areas accessible 0 N Maxim 2 Site and Situation tells us that London s site factors include location on a river location on flat land 0 and swampy and location at the head of navigation was also the lowest crossing point from one side of the river to the other In addition its situation factors include accessibility to the sea but not on the coast oriented toward mainland Europe and close to Britain s best farmland Its site and situation ensured London s growth as a political financial commercial center even when coalbased industry and empire pulled the economy elsewhere Highland Britain A more rugged environment more localized loyalties a less concentrated resource base Ireland A special case politically I England occupied parts of the island by the 13quoth c extensive control after the 17quoth c Protestant churches had begun to dominate England and Scotland I The English established large quotplantationsquot in Ireland nonIrish settlers were quotplantedquot o This was done mostly in the NE counties collectively called quotUlsterquot 0 Many settlers quotplantedquot in Ulster came from lowland Scotland and were Protestant 0 Thus a substantial Protestant population in the NE corner of Ireland 0 Centuries later in 1922 Ireland became independent of GB but Northern Ireland remained part of the UK 0 Hostility between individual Protestant Irish and Catholic Irish affected thousands for generations the hostility shows itselfon Northern Ireland s landscape 0 Maxims 4 7 and 10 Ireland a special case environmentally I Most of Ireland averages 38quot45quot of precipitation per year 0 But evaporation rates are not very high in Ireland perfect environment for grass The Emerald Isle o Economically therefore Ireland depended for centuries on agriculture some crops but mostly pastured animals I Times are changing though with the introduction of the EU in Ireland 0 Providing investment capital 0 Using trained but underemployed labor 0 Stimulating light industry electronics Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 0 Creating trade opportunities better incomes and more investment I So in many places old and new are located side by side in today s Ireland I Straddling the transition zone 2Northern Europe 0 Location North of mainland Western Europe 0 Scandinavia Norden Northern Europe Norway Sweden Denmark 0 Northernmost group of nations in the world 0 Not on the Great Circle Route from core Europe to o Poorly connected to the core peninsulas and islands on the margin Less vulnerable to outside control more opportunity for intraregional mixing Linguistic compatibility 0 Danish Swedish Norwegian are very alike 0 Finnish and Estonia are in the same language family 0 Finnish officially bilingual I Many countries but one regional focus 0 Copenhagen is the focus of trade for all Norden countries 0 The Environment I Larger than Core Europe but population smaller than Benelux alone I The regions environmental resources do not support very much for the survival of people I Most of the region s lands are accessible to the sea 0 This yields a fish fleet merchant marine offshore oil and natural gas Regional response 0 Specialize o Emphasize education and creativity in face of environment 0 Why the character 0 What successes and problems 3Europe s Mediterranean Periphery o Fragmented I In a region this scattered diverse and extended what do the states have in common 0 Commonalities I The region is separated from most of the core Europe by mountains Pyrenees Alps Balkans Exception Even though separated by the huge Alps Northern Italy is still included in the Core of Europe 0 How can Northern Italy be apart of Europe s core 39239 Passes through the Alps spatial interaction possible 39239 The Po river valley Lombardy is rich agriculturally 39239 A source of innovation and creativity for centuries A shared cultural heritage an accumulation of linguistics religion and Climate and topography o This suggests shared agricultural possibilities olives citrus grapes wheat Limited mineral resources 0 Few energy resources and metallic ore deposits So the economies depend on location location location and commerce Also human resources and specialization Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 0 Differences I As a result there are clear cultural and economic differences between the North and the South 4Eastern Europe 0 A complex everchanging mosaic of states9 continuing to shift and fragment I Will the European Union Change This 0 o How can we make sense of the region as a whole Two different models 0 Shatter Belt An old concept that is still applicable but perhaps not forever A shatter belt is a zone of transition and fragmentation in other words it is a zone shattered by larger forces The larger adjacent forces that shattered Easter Europe Germanic Eastern Slav Russian Middle Eastern and Romance 0 During different periods outside forces would dominate or short term unity would be forms from within 0 But after a few decades the map would shatter again I Characteristics of a Shatter Belt9 Dynamic and Unruly o Disruption of political units continuing political instability due to outside pressures 0 Maintenance of sharp cultural contrast 39239 Why not blending of cultures 39239 Why the resistance to merge o ntraregional quarreling o Slowed economic growth 39239 Economic investment required at least the presumption of continuity 0 Little contiguity between political cultural and economic patterns in Eastern Europe So will the shatter belt continue in E Europe 0 rredentism 0 Changes in the shape of loyalty I Historic context 0 Europe in 1740 Gradual rise of the idea ofa nationquot9 idea began in the West and eventually spread to the East 0 After Napoleon Europe39s map changed because the Structure of Loyalty Changed o In Western Europe nations replaced o In Southeastern Europe nations overthrew monarchies then tried to control each other 0 1910 AustroHungarian Empire Ethnic Diversity 0 Two contrasting processes defining loyalty underway since WW 39239 SupraNationalism Holds a state together and enhances emotional commitment centripetal forces WW and WW were wars of competition and supremacy 9 emotional bonds hold each nation together were used to deny the humanity of other nations After WW nationstates began to surrender bits of political sovereignty This led to the EU European Union and the European Monetary Union From original 6 countries the EU now has 28 member states and counting 9 over 450 million people that make up many different ethnicities Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 39239 Political Devolution What divides a state into smaller parts and diminishes a person s emotional commitment to a state centrifugal force 0 When one s primary loyalty is to a group other than one s nationstate 0 After WWII perhaps one s nation or ethnic group race or clan was no longer the best place for ultimate loyalty Europe began to consider alternative centripetal forces Because the EU is made up of many different ethnicities members do not always agree and it is hard to get legislation to pass because each nation has different political agendas motives and ideals 4 Which is stronger the unifyingjusti cations of supranationalism or the fragmenting justifications of devolution 4 What will the map of Europe and the world look like in 25 years I Russian Realm a Location 1Size space and place 0 Russia extends 160170 degrees longitude 0 Almost twice the size of the US 0 An immense area with great diversity What else beyond size gives Russia it geographic character Russia s location also underlies much of it distinctiveness 2 Population 0 Population is dense in only a select few areas 3Environmental limits 0 Most of Russia has a humid cold climate that is hard for humans to live in the second largest climate sector is a dry climate in southern parts of the nation 0 Russia has a continental climate in contrast with a maritime climate which means that Russia s climate is influenced very little by the effects of the ocean because most of the countries territory is too far inland for the ocean to make a significant impact 0 Continental climate is a wide seasonal range of temperatures 0 Russia has the World s greatest range of summer to winter temperatures b Dealing with Environmental Limits 1Russia s agricultural and natural resource possibilities 0 Consider the pattern of natural vegetation o Reflects patterns of soil quality 0 Mineral resource pattern I One advantage of a country s large size is its greater possibility it will contain useful resources I Mineral patterns are associated with a region s geologic history three types of rock 0 Sedimentary 39239 Found in the plains and basins or within folded mountain areas 39239 Sediments of certain geologic age may contain coal or petroleum and natural gas deposits and in Russia many do 0 genous o Metamorphic Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 39239 Found in old mountainous areas and perhaps some plateaus In Russia this would be the Ural Mountains and some southern and eastern peripheral the Caucasus and Siberian uplands and the Central Asian Ranges I The relationship between mineral resources and rock type is far from simple 0 Metallic Minerals often found in zones of metamorphic rock 0 Nonmetallic energy resources often found in zones of sedimentary rock of the right age What is the geographic point of all this 9 If we know where the metamorphic and sedimentary zones are we know where to start looking for mineral resources or energy resources in Russia I Immense deposits ofoil and natural gas in and around Russia 0 Important deposits of coal were developed at Donestk Basin located in eastern Ukraine and Kuznetsk Basin near Novosibersk o What are the implications of this distribution 39239 For Soviet Union s Development 39239 For Russia s current economy 0 The pattern of manufacturing is partly determined by the pattern of resources 0 Distances are great interaction costs are high 0 Some of the integrated resource network no longer under Russian control 0 Aging population Predictions from 1996 to 2020 show that their population is aging and shrinking and has potential labor problems due to problems of war and conflict 0 Urbanindustrial power base c Defining Russia 1 Partially defined because it is very large it is northern it is thinly 2Russia s urbanindustrial power base 3 Russia s colonialimperial past 4Russia s inherited culturalpolitical geography S3 Colonial imperial past 1The Russian Empire expanded by vast territorial acquisition 2Russia was a late participant in core Europe s industrial revolution 3After the 1917 revolution consolidation of political gains and protection of existing territory became top priorities 4The Soviet Union turned inward The Iron Curtain o Went from an expansive Westenvying empire to a closed defensive society 0 This defined the character of the Soviet Union and the initial Russian Realm that followed 5The Soviet Union contained many nonRussian peoples conquered as the Russian Empire grew 0 How did the Soviet government address this centrifugal force The people were very resistant to Soviet rule Some forced relocation or elimination of unwanted minorities about 20 million died but primarily a policy of quotRussificationquot settlement of Russians n nonRussian territories I Local regional identities remained strong I The use of force resented and resisted I Large minority Russian populations permanent residents in many nonRussian regions 6Soviet Union s colonial empire collapsed some states separated and others remained part of the Russian federation o The states that separated from Russia were the ones more recently conquered peripheral to primary Russian holding and connected by affinity or history to outside cultures Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 o Remaining with Russia are smaller weaker locationally more important territories e Cultural political consequences 1Chechnya f Devolution around the periphery 1Given distance from Russia39s Core why is the Transcaucasus region critical 0 Symbolic the region represents centrifugal forces on the periphery o Geopolitical the region is bordered by two major outside powers Turkey and Iran I Russia s longterm fear of enclosure 0 Economic Caspian Sea and North Caucasus are rich in energy resources I Provide resources for Russia to use and sell 2 Russia is not monolithic either culturally or politically Things Look Different Close Up 3 Russia s conquered peoples have independent identities and aspirations Different Things Change At Different Rates 4 Distance in Russia are huge and integration of its many parts is very difficult Nearby Things Are More Alike Than Far Away Things 5Settlements by Russians outside Russia during Soviet period has continuing repercussions 9Exclave 0 These Russians feel disconnected from mainland country 0 Russia is so adamant about keeping this small territory because it holds a valuable port in the Baltic Sea g Future directions 1Arctic ice is melting 2Petroleum deposits near Japan in the Pacific Ocean IV The North American Realm a Basic Size Shape Location 1Could make a case that North America is Canada the US Greenland Mexico and Central America 0 For us North America is Canada and the US only 2Size Two of the world s four largest countries outside of Russia 3Shape Both countries are compact in shape and fragmented 4 Location The realm extends from the Arctic to the near tropics b Dynamics of Settlement 0 Early European settlers viewed North America from two distinctive perceptual frames 0 Image of an quotemptyquot land I Forbidding challenging and opportunity I Of course the land was not empty 0 Image of a quotsacred trust I New Eden pristine The land was not pristine I Space for religious independence I Eventually quotmanifest destinyquot9territorial expansion 0 North America settled by Europeans from the East I What kind of land did the settlers have to work with 2 Environmental Conditions 0 Landforms I 34 Mountain ranges that flow from North to South Apps Rockies Sierras Cascades o ClimateAnnual Precipitation NORTH AMERICA Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 Familiar climates in NA for Europeans but the realm s patterns were very different than in Europe Because NA is open in the far N and S and safeguarded by mountain ranges on either side of the land mass air pockets stay confined in the area Air masses trying to enter NA are caught by the mountains keeping storm cells confined to the coasts and the area where the Apps stop short in the South Only one reason precipitation occurs But there are three major ways the water vapor is condensed o Convectional precipitation Heat causes air to rise in to cooler air and condense until it releases moisture o Orographic Precipitation as air gets pushed up over the mountains it rises into cooler air which causes it to condense and release moisture o Frontal precipitation Cool air slides under warm air which is rising anyways and when the two meet it causes the hot air to cool and condense which causes precipitation along with the cool and hot air mixing causing tornadoes Talking about the precipitation tells what the people in that area or are coming to that area will or have to deal with CANADA I Canadian Shield heavily scoured by glaciations I Helps explain early European settlement expansion 3Agricultural Consequences NORTH AMERICA 0 Agricultural potential European settlers found after 1850 o The Eastern 60 of the US is supportive for agriculture because of their rich land I Few parts of the world are as large and as good for agriculture I The Midwest is good for corn growing I West of the humid east there is usually enough precipitation for growing wheat I Some arid and semiarid western lands now farmed using centerpivot irrigation CANADA 4Urbanlndustrial Patterns 0 Resource Patterns and Consequences I Metallic mineral deposits in North America are located in 3 broad zones I Coal oil or natural gas deposits underlie much of NA s interior Oil and gas in Western Canada 0 This mineral rich interior is also excellent agricultural land I Bring everything together with accessibility resources to create transferability which foster movement of people 0 What portion of North America39s coastline was most important to European settlement External Access I The Northeastern zone of the US is the best port areas I NA s east coastline north of North Carolina is deeply indented Many Deep Harbors I Each harbor supported a settlement many grew into large metropolitan areas 0 But large cities do not grow only because of the quality of the site What was this coastline s situation 0 What features of NA s interior were most important to settlement and development Internal Access C Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 The Great Lakes iron ore shipped from the Canadian shield to Appalachian coal I The industrial base that grew along the southern Great Lakes came to be called NA s manufacturing core New York benefited from both site and situation Chicago connecting the rich farm interior and the Great Lakes grew almost entirely because of its situation Swampy lots of insects burned down 0 Chicago s situation includes access to North America s second unusual accessibility resource I The Mississippi River 0 A large navigable river Population Distribution and redistribution 1Many fewer people live in Canada than in the US o Canada s population is approximately 11 of the US 2 Most Canadians live close to the US boarder 0 About 90 of all Canadians live within 100 miles of the US Boarder o Ecumene the lived in area of a country Canada is only about 10 h the size of what its land area represents because of population density 3 Most people in both countries live in the east because of immigration due to accessibility and more fertile land but now population clusters along the west coast too 4 Large metropolitan clusters exist across both countries Both more than 75 percent urban 53 major redistributions made this pattern 0 First and continuing population redistribution was East to West 0 The movement of people from rural areas to urban areas farming became more efficient and manufacturing became more important starting in the 1880s I Average farm size has gone up and the number of farms has gone down 0 The movement of people from urban to urban centers I Migration is now almost entirely urban to urban this is because I Mediumsized cities grew while most larger cities slowed or stopped 0 Today these three migration patterns operate simultaneously 0 Why do people move from one palace to another I Most migration within NA is due to regional differences in economic opportunity I Generally people move when 0 Where they live is not satisfactory they are pushed out 0 Where they go appears more satisfactory they are pulled by the destination 0 How has economic opportunity changed Issues Ahead Sectoral Change dealing with success 1 Economic activities grouped into sectors of the economy 0 Begin with three basic sectors I Primary activities Extractive mining forestry agricultural 0 Work is done where resources are located I Secondary activities Processing manufacturing industries 0 Work is done where markets materials and labor are accessible I Tertiary Activities Service retail insurance banking 0 Work is done where people are located 0 The number of jobs in each sector has changed over time Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 2Another distinctive characteristic NA s are diverse culturally and the cultural diversity is not regional e Geographic Issues in the Realm s Near Future 1 Many related to challenges accompanying economic success V The Middle American Realm a Important Cultural Foundations 1Cultural contact between near equals 0 Two major culture hearths in the Western Hemisphere A cultural hearth is a source area from which a culture radiates MesoAmerica9 name given to Middle America 0 Ongoing debate about which group was more quotdevelopedquot in 1491 Europeans or Native Americans 0 Mayans9 highly organized society lasted centuries occupied most of the Yucatan o Aztecs predominant in the Valley of Mexico when the first Spaniards arrived The European Spanish imprint is more obviously mixed with the indigenous cultures Transculturation Some Middle American cultures are distinct from Spanish culture while having 0 2A first look at the tropics o What does it mean to live in the tropics Tropical climates the earth s rotational axis is tilted relative to the plane of the earth s orbit around the sun During the Summer in the north solar energy is more concentrated during the Winter the sun s radiation is more dispersed o What are the geographic implications I 235 degrees N Latitude Tropic of Cancer 235 degrees S Latitude Implications of the tropics lack of a cold season 0 Seasons occur by precipitation change rather than temperature change 0 Differences in temperature are a function of altitude not latitude o What difference does it make that a place s temperature is a function of altitude not latitude I Different crops will grow in these two different environments9 altitudinal zonation 3The Physiography of Mexico Narrow coastal lowland except for the Yucatan Upland interior plateau between higher mountain ranges O O 4Balance and imbalance between three regions within the realm The Caribbean Islands are mostly Tierra Caliente The Caribbean attracted other European powers competing with Spain 0 Caribbean are is different from the rest of Middle America in terms of climate agricultural activities 0 O b Mainlandrimland implications 1The rimland is o Fragmented physically o Culturally diverse through its colonial past 2The mainland is Contiguous land along the isthmus Culturally dominated by a SpanishArerindian mix 0 Generally temperate and highland Tierra Templada and Fria C Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 3 Important Economic Contrasts Rimland Plantation Agriculture Characteristics of Plantation Agriculture 0 Productionfor export specialization often one crop 0 Foreign ownership of production investment in profit out 0 Labor is seasonal periods each year with no work 0 Location is humid tropical most complementary to Europe s markets 0 With profit as the goal the operation strives for efficiency 0 19h century cactus plantation for harvesting cochineal 39239 Red dye Mainland Hacienda and ranchero agriculture Characteristics of Hacienda Agriculture 0 Production for selfsufficiency not specialized numerous crops 0 Resident ownership minimal investment 0 Resident labor yearround dependency tenancy o Inland temperate location similar to Spain s plateau estates 0 Comfort and security are the goals efficiency is low priority The realm s broad patterns Concentrations of historic cultures Climate and physiography Agricultural possibilities and European colonial competition d Regional balances and imbalances 1Mexico Economic imbalances led to change Hacienda system major inequalities Revolution 1917 and land reform ejidos Limits on productivity Privatization beginning 1991 0 Economic imbalances led to land use changes NAFTA competition 0 US subsidized agriculture Rural Dispossession o Ruralurban migration 0 Migration to US for work 0 Maquiladora labor 39239 A work space near the border which engages workers in secondary assembly of products for sale in US markets 39239 A solution to crossborder migration 39239 A landscape impact of maquiladoras visible along the border Mex industry is met by US Agriculture 39239 BUT relatively low labor costs do not keep manufacturing jobs in Mexico 0 Opportunity for shadow economy 39239 The drug war in Mexico s north 39239 Mexico also has many mineral resources 9 5 Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 0 Silver and gold attracted the Spaniards in the 16 h c o The Gulf Coastal region has proven to be richer 39239 Oil and gas have also been a tremendous resource for Mexico 0 Second largest producer of Oil for US consumption 0 Mexico dominates the entire realm Only portion of realm sharing land border with the US Spanish speaking America s largest population 110 million Isthmus to the south is both bridge and divider Just as Mexico dominates Middle America Mexico city dominates Mexico 0 Greater Mexico City has about 19 million people 0 Mexico City lies in the Tierra Templada region in the valley of Mexico 0 Located near the site 1520 miles away where the Aztec center of Tenochtitlan existed when the Spaniard first arrived 0 Mex City is built on a lake bed 39239 Modern buildings on lakebed sediments 39239 The sediments compress leading to gradual subsidence 39239 The site is also subject to periodic earthquakes and volcanoes are located nearby o Surrounded by a mountain range 39239 Airpollution is confined to the city 39239 Economic development is encouraged elsewhere away from Mexico City 39239 Greatest success in the North and along the Gulf Coast 0 But Mexico s North is generally dry which means that rural opportunities are very limited 0 Also the US is adjacent on the north many Mexicans find employment across the border many are legal but some are not 2Central American challenges 0 Some large templada landholdings have been broke up and distributed to small farmers 0 Central American countries in general are small countries with few mineral resources and subject to external pressures 0 Central America is not exclusively plantation workers and poor subsistence farmers 0 One of the most distinctive features of the Isthmus is the Panama Canal I Carved across the narrowest section of the isthmus so the US transports could avoid the long trip around South America 0 3Caribbean Adaptations 0 leland remainders 0 Each Greater Antilles island is different I The Lesser Antilles are more uniform archipelago islands are the tops of a volcanic chain 0 Without mineral resources the islands tierra caliente environment has been exploited for centuries 0 Location brings advantages to the Caribbean islands efforts to attract tourists I Warm climate and o OffShore banking South American Realm Landscape and General Geography 1Smaller than NA 57 Squot 53 Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 o 68 million sq mi vs 75 million sq mi 2All except the southern quotconequot of Sa lies within the tropics 3 Physiographically SA is dominated by two or three massive areas 0 The Andes Mtns o The Amazon Basin 0 The Brazilian Highlands Somewhat like the Canadian Shield 4 Population distribution suggests interaction of physical features and culturalpolitical patterns Population 1Culturally and politically grouped into two or four massive regions 0 Worldclass cultural hearth in Andean South America I Cultural hearth are the transfer of ideas that come about from conflict and transfer of information History 1Early on European sea exploration was basically a Portuguese and a Spanish enterprise 0 The Portuguese looked east and the Spaniards looked west 2To keep these countries from fighting with one another the Treaty of Tordesillas 3Portugal had a piece of eastern South America and eventually expanded to presentday Brazil the Spanish got the rest 4 Lands near the treaty line were slower to be claimed by either power o In the north this led to small colonies by three nonIberian colonial powers British French Dutch Brazil 0 Almost as large as the United States but a population of quotonlyquot about 194 million 0 Distinctive because I Large area with indigenous peoples I Significant Africancultures heritage I Two of S America s three physiographic regions 2 Initial settlement 0 The Portuguese first penetrated Brazil s Northeast I The coast is tierra caliente but inland I Surprisingly dry climate either a dry season or all year around I Coastal cities were seaoriented for slavery whaling and export I The Northeast s interior dry and now overpopulated land heald in large estates or ranches with tenant labor 0 Ordinarily settlement moved inland via river penetration I Brazil has extensive rainforest in the Amazon Basin I The Amazon Basin contains the world s largest contiguous area of tropical rainforest I Aside from a few large cities nonindigenous settlements set up along the river to take advantage of it s resources 0 What drew people away from the poor Northeast A Migration Puquot I The urbancommercial centers of Brazil s southeast were the main destination for many years I Rio de Janeiro 0 A magnificent harbor 0 Rio grew as the national capital as a cultural center and tourist destination 0 Above Rio s prosperous and beautiful center lie the makeshift homes of the city s poor favelasslums Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 Sao Paulo 0 First big agricultural product expanded across the subtropical plateau of southeastern Brazil 0 Sao Paulo grew during the 19 h c with agricultural processing manufacturing and financial services 0 The agricultural product is coffee How to shift development away from the SE coast 0 Build a new capital city 600 miles inland A Forward Capital 0 Decided in the 1950s to create Brasilia o The capital officially moved from Rio in 1960 0 With government support settlement rapidly changed the face of the rainforest 0 Consequences landless rural poor indigenous people living in the Amazon Basin 3 Development problemspatterns 4Creating solutions Brazil s geography mirrors the US of perhaps 75 years ago e Migration out from poor rural areas toward industrialcommercial core Rich agricultural and mineral hinterland Migration toward and quotemptyquot frontier Three Regions 1 North similar but different Venezuela Andes Mtn Range spreads its fingers across Colombia and Venezuela Caracas Venezuela s capital is a city quotwhere it is always spring 0 Located in a high mountain valley Oil discovered and exploited early the region of Lake has supplied more than 90 of the countries oil production 0 More oil to the interior supporting venezuela s modernization efforts is g39 g inland The interior is still relatively quotemptyquot the 0 Colombia Human geography is affected by the country s northsouth mountain ranges As the population moved inland and upland the physiography divided the people Population is most dense in the valleys of the mtn ranges Bogota Cali and Medellin Major cities in the valleys o Bogota is a political cultural and transportation center 0 Cali is o Medellin is Each city is a distinct regional quotcapitalquot somewhat cutoff from the others 0 As a result regional loyalties are much stronger than national loyalties 0 Oil and gas development helped balance Colombia s legitimate economy but centrifugal effect of regionalism remains strong 0 Drug Trade relatively new and less regional it does amplify instability 0 To consider Colombia s illegitimate economic condition one needs to understand West region Guyana The population is about half of African descent and half of South Asian descent Surinam Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 0 French Guiana 0 Like Middle America s Rimland northern S America shares I The European scramble for colonies I Early plantation development I Early introduction of African labor 0 Northern South America is also an area with several territorial disputes O 2West deep roots a slow and difficult climb 0 Bolivia Paraguay 0 Western South American states have I Less productive economics I lower per capita incomes I Low urbanization I At last half of the population is of indigenous origins I The continent s only landlocked states Physiography is significant I The Andes Linear form there is Distinction between I Coastal o The coastal plains west of the Andes Mountains are wet in the north drier and drier to the south 0 Most people live in the north because of the rains ability to sustain life Mountain 0 Most people live in the high mountain plateau o The plateaus become very wide as the Andes mountains pass through Peru and Bolivia 0 The Andes quotelbowquot o The high flat plateau lying at 12000 130000 feet above sea level the altiplano 0 Home to much of the largely indigenous population 39239 The altiplano is windswept and cool used for 39239 Cusco echoes preColombian times I Interior 0 Pressures o Linkages to the north 3South Europe in the South 0 Patterns and Potentials V Africa South of the Sahara a Theme one physical environment GET NOTES FOR AFRICA AND COLOMBIA b Theme two colonial impacts 1Geographic consequences c Theme three postcolonial challenges 1 Economic development 0 Metallic minerals I The ridge zones between the sedimentary basins great resource wealth but uneven I The ridges are composed of metamorphic rocks 0 Oil and Gas Deposits Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 I Only recently discovered and future deposits are highly speculative Located along the west coast between Nigeria and Angola I Potential sites in Chad 0 Economic contrasts across the realm are considerable 2 Populationhealth o Realm contains 20 to 23 of the lowest income countries in the world And perhaps 70 percent of the quotbottom billion Low average income9seek opportunity elsewhere I Heavy rural to urban migration Heavy urban services pressure Lagos Nigeria Implications for health and nutrition The middle of Africa between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn contains the lowest life expectancies in the whole world along with Haiti and Afghanistan Almost all of Africa lies between the tropics There is no cold season in the tropics so they are never in a period of dormancy for disease microbes and insects that carry disease Sleeping sickness carried by the Tsetse fly just one of many bacterial and parasite borne diseases found in Africa 0 Schistosomiasis sicklecell malaria AIDS 3Political issues 0 Exacerbate the realm s economic and health challenges Intergroup disputes for example can take several forms I Cross boundary issues Rwanda and The Congo I Withinstate dominance SudanDarfur Irredentism Somalia and EthiopiaEritrea and Djibouti Refugees cause these intergroup disputes Most of the world s refugees are located in Africa Additional complication is found in Africa s Transition Zone The zone where people with significant contrast in world views interact and mix Northern Sudan is Muslim Southern Sudan is not Muslim Southern Sudan has attempted to separate from the North 0 Local agitation for benefits perhaps even autonomy o Suppression killed as many as 250000 and uprooted more than 25 million in Darfur alone Challenges of forming state identity continue 0 Accommodation for diversity form new administrative units Nigeria 0 Relocation of federal capital city 39239 Lagos Abuja 0 So what does it mean to be Nigerian VIII North AfricaSouthwest Asia a Definitions 1The Middle East term is very Eurocentric It all depends on where you are standing 2The Arab World is not accurate because not everyone the area are Arab Ethnicity is complex in SW Asia 3The Islamic World is not accurate either because islam extends far beyond the realm and also because the area contains important nonIslamic populations Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 4The Arid World is wrong because even though much of the area is very dry whether in the Sahara Desert of a small oasis in Lybia or in Syria But there is much beyond the realm that is dry as well So Arid is not very realmspecific or significant only to this part of the world 5This leaves only the continentalcardinal direction definition to define the realm which makes it place specific 0 The real is so complex and multilayered it is helpful to relate ists characteristics and its character to two broad and unifying themese b Two broad themes 1 Resource absolutes the absolute importance of resources in the realm 0 One of contrasts9 nearabsolute deficiency and great abundance The most important deficiencies are water wood and Petroleum and Natural Gas Water and wood are linked Agricultural quality is defined by access to water Compare climate patterns with population density In all of the realm there are only three major rivers Nile Tigris and Euphrates o The Tigris and Euphrates are very close to one another in Iraq and Turkey 0 The Nile is an agriculture mecca in Egypt 0 The transportation area for the real is very narrow o The location of most large cities have grown out of the plentiful water resources among the rivers 0 Because they don t quotbelongquot in the areas through which they flow these 3 rivers are called exotic rivers 0 Almost all of the region does or will soon experience major llwater stressquot9the minimum water per capita needed to support public health and development 0 Some water like petroleum and natural gas lies below the surface but there are problems related to this water 39239 Iraq has lots of water from its aquifers that are very functional Iran is the same way 39239 This water comes at a great cost the water is located very deep and it is also being used rapidly and will not last for very much longer Oil and natural gas are found in abundance across the realm but not everywhere 2Crossroads function9 and the consequences of that function 0 Complexity of the function 0 Three facets Confusion of cultures 0 Spatial patterns temporal patterns intracategory patterns 0 Transitions between the Russian and the South Asian realms is complex spatially 0 Temporal patterns are used to identify the temporal aspects of the llconfusion of cultures consider process 39239 More specifically the process by which culture moves from place to place Diffusion o The process by which ideas innovations and technologies spread outward from their source 0 Two Types 39239 Expansion o Contagious Language and religion is a culture s manner of expressing a set of ideas about human purpose and life s meaning and choices Longlasting religions usually diffuse from one of the world s major culture hearths N Africa and SW Asia have two culture hearths b C Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 Nile Valley and Mesopotamia Islam was the latest of the three major religions that diffused from the realm 0 When considering past and present geography of the Islamic World it is crucial to distinguish between religion language and ethnicity politics and history 0 o Hierarchal 39239 Relocation9 I Global pivot I n39v Introduction and two themes 1Population and Cultural Diversity 2The Interior A massive mountainplateau region 3The lower periphery collectively called Monsoon Asia Monsoon Asia 1 Monsoon Concept 0 Popular Definition A lot of rain 0 Technical Definition A seasonal reversal of wind and moisture flows I Typical of certain subtropical and lower midlatitudes o Monsoon mechanism in this part of Asia Continentnality I Location Marginality Seasonality I Rare failures 0 This generic name Monsoon Asia 2Pattern Implications o Climatic effects of South Asia s o The beginning and ending of the monsoon move acoress the realm aplificd by local quot 39 o Mumbai can get on average 70 inches of rain in three months 0 Both rural and urban areas are affected by the large amounts of rain 3Human Impacts shared throughout Monsoon Asia 0 Togography 0 Much More First Theme Population 1 Population Sizes 0 India 123 Billion 0 Pakistan 175 million 0 Bangladesh 160 Million 2 Demographic transition 0 The Demographic Transition Model Height of graph talks about the change in the rate of the number of people not the amount of people Low Growth Rate Increasing Growth Rate High Growth Rate Decreasing Growth Rate Low G rowth Ra te Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 3 Economic response Interpretation of wellbeing I China has below average fertility rates but average wealth per captia I India is opposite I US Has average fertility and high wealth per capita 4 Patterns of possibility India s Agriculture I Note the pattern of crops especially rice wheat and cotton I Implications of the monsoon season fluctuating moisture levels I Paddy rice planting without machinery is labor intensive 5Change in the patterns But how agriculture resources are used is also part of this old relationship Economic quality of life resources technology population I Plus human creativity and location Note applying technology machinery creates problems in the long run The per person productivity of agriculture is often very low and reflects both a shortage of machinery and an abundance of labor The Green Revolution applying technology to agricultural resources I What the Green Revolution meant o Gains 0 Challenges water fodder fertilizer and socieconomic I Even so if agriculture is not sufficient by itself and has associated shortterm and mediumterm problems India s Heavy Industrial Resources I Iron and coal I Oil and gas I Labor I Accessibility Given rural poverty push factor urban manufacturing or service employment is an attraction for many pull factor I Consequence heavy rural to urban migration and heavy demands on urban infrastructure I One result extreme income contrasts between people living in the major cities Kolkota is a city of intense urban activity I Some is overcrowded I Kolkota always constrained by the Hooghly River 39 39 but 39 39 Thus if resources are and 39 39 U is applied where it can be but is constrained what s next I Perhaps labor and entrepreneurial initiative or labor and technology or human creativity 0 Building parts for American and European car manufactures 0 Building their own small cheap cars for their own rising middle class to buy 0 Internet call centers India s average per capita income has grown by 50 since 199394 Complicating India s economic change I Uneven distribution Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 Insurgency efforts Caste system 0 Absolute category of class that has opportunity range within the caste s classes 0 Effects on economic change 0 Dalit quotUntouchablesquot 39239 People without caste quotOutcastquot 39239 Are expected to do the most polluting work such as leather work handling carcasses etc 39239 The Indian government and constitution has outlawed caste discrimination but especially in rural areas it can remain very strong 6Summary Large and growing population will surpass China s pop within the next 15 years Heavily burdened resource base Significant income differences Challenges to economic growth and state stability But labor creativity technology and aggressive shift into a complex economy d Second Theme Cultural Diversity and its implications 1Cultural Hearths Remember world cultural hearth locations One in the Indus valley and Ganges delta As in SW Asia we can frame the issue here by using language and religion Why are language patterns useful in geography I They can tell us patterns of migration where the language goes and who got their first How are religious patterns signi cant politically I Some people associate religion with 2Languages I IndoEuropean o On the opposite end of the spectrum from Spanish and English 0 North India 0 Carried into SouthAsia part of the religious belief system carried with them lay the basis for Hinduism o The IndoEuropean peoples spread across South Asia perhaps 3500 years ago established Hinduism as the dominant religion but they were not the last to enter through the Khyber Pass I Dravidian 0 Language diffusion About 1000 years ago Turkie speaking peoples began to carry Islam into South Asia via Persia and Afghanistan 0 The last was the Mughal Empire about 500 years ago and which for 200 years spread across almost all of South Asia 0 Significant Points Location and past spread Large numbers in each 0 Consequence Hindi is spoken by many but there are 15 official languages 0 English is used widely as a lingua franca I Exceptions Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 3Religion Hinduism throughout India quotThe truth is one though sages call it by many names Vedas sacred text composed 1500BC0AD quotHinduism has one god and 33 million gods 0 BrahmanUniversal SoulFormless eternal supreme no image of Brahman can be imagined 0 Many other gods Terms 0 Reincarnation The soul is born many times on earth before finally being released from the endless cycle of rebirth and suffering Time is circular o Atman The sacred principle that animates all living things The basis of respect for all life 0 Dharma Duty or right conduct defined by gender stage of life caste Consider the numbers of people in each religionregion o The Ganges River Valley quotHindustanquot and the river itself sacred 0 Given the barriers and given that languages and religions diffuse by relocation or expansion 0 Khyber pass the main entry point for invasions of the Indus Valley for thousands of years 39239 The pass appears narrow and forbidding but is the main overland entry point into South Asia 39239 There are rugged passes elsewhere 0 A succession of diffusion waves entered South Asia from the Northwest 0 Islam in NW and NE present but in the minority elsewhere We can understand the majority Muslim population in the NX now Pakistan But why the majority Muslim population in the NE now Bangladesh 0 The answer surprisingly lies with Buddhism and timing 0 Buddhism N and NE margin and in Sri Lanka Sikhism On IndianPakistani Border 4Colonialism European colonial powers esp British arrived in 17quoth and 18quoth centuries quotsuspendingquot the centuries long process of Mughal control spreading slowly across South Asia Meanwhile Hindu numbers kept most of the continent majorityHindu The drive for political independence from colonial Britain gained momentum during the early 20quoth century and old centrifugal forces resurfaced As independence approached demands for separation along religious lines arose I This was partition massive migration unresolved disagreements and tensions Partition involved I Heavy crossborder migration both directions I Much personal hardship Disrupted quotnationalquot identities The new boundary between India and Pakistan passed through the Punjab occupied by the Sikhs An unresolved issue from Partition is Jammu and Kashmir 28384 I The 60year dispute over quotKashmirquot remains volatile and did not help recovery efforts from the 2005 earthquake of 76 magnitude e Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 In Kashmir and Jammu Muslims and Hindus lived amongst each other and numerical majority did not guarantee political control At Independence several things happened 0 Right to rule Kashmir had been quotsoldquot by the British to a Hindu maharanjah 0 Formal ruler in 1947 was still a Hindu maharanjah o Majority of the population was Muslim though many Kashmiri were Hindu o Kashmiri Muslims o A group from Pakistan invaded Kashmir to ensure its transfer to the new state of Pakistan 39239 Maharajah appealed for Indian protection 39239 Territory was divided into zones of control 39239 Claims and efforts to control territory continue to engage both India and Pakistan In partial recognition of the fragile relations between India and Pakistan Pakistan relocated its capital city 39239 Karachi Lahore Islamabad 39239 Which makes Islamabad a forward capital 0 Pakistan s continuing centrifugal issues aside from Kashmir include o Spillover effects of instability in Afghanistan 0 Potential separtitist region 0 Tensions in the Sind between longterm residents and those who arrived after Partition 0 Variations within the country religion wealth and political philosophy Bangladesh issues here are more economic than cultural diversity but Bangladesh would not exist without South Asia s overlapping cultural patterns 29596 0 The flat delta lands are subject to severe flooding 0 Consider global climate change and relation between 39239 Land elevations 39239 Population densities 39239 Potential sea level rise 0 Most of the country is rural and the capital of Dhaka has infrastructure problems similar to those in the larger Indian cities 0 Issues of centrifugal forces widespread poverty East Asia Realm China 1Thinking and relative location The part of the world least affected by Europe Europeans came here very late they were never fully in control of the realm and powerful regional cultures remained strong throughout As a result the realm s cultures also remained most distinctively nonwestern less influenced by Western cultures For example in Chinese characters each symbol represents an idea or object what we Indo Europeans would describe as a word or set of words The kind of writing is called ideographic writing with each symbol or quotpicturequot representing a complete idea The name china gave itself quotThe Middle Kingdom reflects three things 0 Natural isolation 0 Long term relative stability Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 o A quotcenteringquot culture YinYang Symbol and Daoism Basic Belief Structure I Everything has its counterpart Polarization and union Either half if meaningless incomplete without the other Harmony balance and mutual dependence Existence is cyclical rather than linear China and the US are comparable in three ways Size Shape Location Of course they differ in many more ways than they are similar 0 More near tropical climate in china 2China s Physical basis ntro China s internal regional patterns are divisible in EW and NS quotquarters Relief topography o The east contains lowlands o The west contains huge basins and plateaus o A nit quotbrokenquot between the E and W o The NE is flatland o The SE is low lands 0 The NW is Basins o The SW is Plateaus Climate 0 East is wet 0 West is dry 0 NE is cool and wet 0 SE is warm and wet 0 NW is cool and dry 0 SW is unclassified as a quothighland climate Agriculture 0 China s agriculture reflects it pattern of regional climates 0 Rice dominates the SE 0 Wheat dominates the NE 0 West is used for 0 Rice paddies often terraced in the hilly land of South China 0 The incredible intensity of land use is obvious in this mosaic of South China rice paddies 0 Rice harvest after the crop is mature and the paddies drained remains a labor intensive activity 0 Agriculture land on the East China Plain north of the rice growing areas is also intensively cultivated Culture 0 China s 0 Like most longlived states China s territory has changed over time but over a very long period of time o The core area seems related to the East China Plain r 3 Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 0 Consider the course of the two rivers the source of the rivers and the topography through which the flow 0 Population density Almost all Chinese live in the eastern part of the country 0 Two River I Chang Jiang Yangtze River flows from Tibet through 0 A large river with fluctuation in flow volume and flooding during the monsoon season 0 Some villages along the Yangtze are accessible only via the river 0 Gorges are used to concentrate the river s flow before it reaches the flatter plains Huang He flows more north but starts at the Tibetan plateau as well 0 Fluctuations in flow volume are much greater and it flooded its lower course rather frequently 0 As it swings to the north is passes through an area where the soil is something called loess o Loess is an Aeolian soil a windborne winddeposited soil they have unusual characteristics 0 Two characteristics of China s loess agriculture landscape 39239 Intensive cultivation 39239 Potentialerosion o Passing through China s loess plateau region the Huang He picks up great amounts of sediment to deposit downstream across the North China Plain 0 Due to its seasonal fluctuations the river has three names 39239 Huang He 39239 Yellow River color of the loess soil 39239 The River of Sorrows related to the Northern China Plain when the soil leaves the area Maxim 4 4 Current Geographic Issues Historical context Territorial evolution Current problems and prospects Major changes underway 5Summary 4000 years of continuity centrality expansion A century of gradual disintegration 80 years of tumultuous recovery and reintegration Economic expansion similar to US after WWII but at much faster and larger scale Increasing integration in the world economy Jakota Triangle 10ff of China s eastern coast lies three small but economically powerful states 2Japan Economic Achievement Background context I Largest of the three countries in size population and economic power 4 Large island make up Japan along with many smaller islands Early Settlement I Origins I Cultural imprint from China I Ainu Matthew Dibble GEOG 120 I Settlement Sequence 0 N Kyushu S Honshu Shikoku and the Inland Sea Kyoto is the capital Gradual spread to the north Japanese hold on the archipelago consolidated as Europe s initial colonial impulses reach East Asia 0 The Japanese closed their country to European contact 0 Beginning three centuries of isolation Japan forcibly quotopenedquot by American warships in the 1850s the country s vulnerabilities was apparent o This led to the Meiji Restoration 1868 o Modernization central planningindustrialization o Growth9taxation for infrastructure 0 Empire territorial expansion Taiwan Korea and NE China 0 How did Japan achieve its economic position in the world today 0 Advantages and disadvantages 0 Current patternsfuture challenges 3 Korea Caught Between 0 Korea s character has been affected by its location between I Strongly influenced by China I Occupied by Japan I Divided after WWII between US and Soviet Union 0 Its 2 parts are more distinct than most remnants of the Cold War 0 4Taiwan Question of status XSoutheast Asian Realm a Southeast Asia is most similar to Middle America 1Both realms are 0 On a continental margin 0 Tropical location 0 Mainland affected by outsiders 2But in SE Asia 0 Eurasia is NOT North America 0 Monsoon Effect 0 Outside influence preceded Europe s colonial spread 3


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