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English Composition and Rhetoric

by: Mr. Brant Hoeger

English Composition and Rhetoric ENGL 102

Mr. Brant Hoeger
GPA 3.83

Henry Veggian

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Henry Veggian
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This 65 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Brant Hoeger on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 102 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Henry Veggian in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see /class/228663/engl-102-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in Foreign Language at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
The UNC Writing Center Handout on Thesis Statements offers the following advice A central argument tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion is a road map for the paper in other words it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper directly answers the question asked of you A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject not the subject itself The subject or topic of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel makes a claim that others might dispute is usually a single sentence somewhere in your first paragraph that presents your argument to the reader The rest of the paper the body of the essay gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation Testing an argument Do I answer the question Rereading the question prompt after constructing a working thesis can help you fix an argument that misses the focus of the question Have I taken a position that others might challenge or opposeIf your thesis simply states facts that no one would or even could disagree with it39s possible that you are simply providing a summary rather than making an argument Is my thesis statement specific enough Thesis statements that are too vague often do not have a strong argument If your thesis contains words like quotgoodquot or quotsuccessfulquot see if you could be more specific why is something quotgoodquot what specifically makes something quotsuccessfulquot Does my thesis pass the quotSo what quot test Ifa reader s first response is quotSo whatquot then you need to clarify to forge a relationship or to connect to a larger issue Does my essay support my thesis specifically and without wandering If your thesis and the body of your essay do not seem to go together one of them has to change It39s ok to change your working thesis to re ect things you have figured out in the course of writing your paper Remember always reassess and revise your writing as necessary Does my thesis pass the quothow and why quot test Ifa reader39s first response is quothowquot or quotwhyquot your thesis may be too openended and lack guidance for the reader See what you can add to give the reader a better take on your position right from the beginning quotThesis Statements The Writing Center home page University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 19 Jan 2009 lthttp Imr quot deptswcwebhandoutsrhp i hl39ml gt Writing Effective Paragraphs One frequent problem among beginning college writers is having enough to say to meet the length of a given assignment Since playing with the font spacing and margins is out of the question here are some ways to bulk up your paragraphs from Graff and Birkenstein s They Say I Say The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing 1 Plant a naysayer critic 0r skeptic in your text Then respond When you give voice to others opinions especially those contrary to yours you demonstrate the kind of critical thinking professors are looking for You prove you are aware of the multiple opinions about your issue By including and responding to skeptics or people who disagree with you you stand a better chance of convincing them of your own argument What s that look like when a writer does it Example One At this point I would like to raise certain objections raised by the skeptic in me She feels that I have been ignoring some of the most common assumptions we all make about our bodies and she wishes to see these addressed For example You know perfectly well she says to me that you feel better when you lose weight You buy new clothes You look at yourself more eagerly in the mirror You feel sexier Admit it You like yourself better Can I deny these things No woman who has managed to lose weight would wish to argue with this Most people feel better about themselves when they become slender And yet upon re ection it seems to me that there is something precarious about this wellbeing Kim Chernin The Obsession Re ections on the Tyranny of Slenderness Example Two I like a couple of cigarettes or a cigar with a drink and like many other people I only smoke in bars or nightclubs Now I can t go to any of my favorite haunts Bartenders who were friends have turned into cops forcing me outside to shiver in the cold and curse under my breath It s no fun Smokers are being demonized and victimized all out of proportion Get over it say the antismokers You re in the minority Ithought a great city was a place where all kinds of minorities could thrive Smoking kills they say As an occasional smoker with otherwise healthy habits I ll take my chances Health consciousness is important but so are pleasure and freedom of choice Joe Jackson Want to Smoke Go to Hamburg How do you see Chernin and Jackson making room for others opinions while still maintaining their ground Fine How do I do that Templates for Entertaining Critics in Your Writing DefendersProponents of will probably object that I have misrepresented X s work here and I concede that X never says in so many words Nevertheless Some readers may challenge my view that After all many believe that Indeed my own argument that seems to ignore and Of course many will probably disagree with this assertion that Such critics are likely to claim that But is my proposalargumentclaim idea realistic What are the chances of its actually being adopted Yet is it always true that Is it always the case as I have been suggesting that However does the evidence I have cited prove conclusively that If possible name your critics positions Here many feminists would probably object that But social Darwinists would certainly take issue with the argument that Biologists of course may want to dispute my claim that Nevertheless both followers and critics of M alcolm X will probably suggest otherwise and argue that Once you ve named your critics and stated their objections make a concession but stand your ground Although I grant that I still maintain Proponents of X are right to argue that But they exaggerate when they claim that While it is true that it does not necessarily follow that While I agree with X that I still insist that 2 Answer the questions So What and Who Cares Generally these questions need to be addressed brie y in your introduction and conclusion but returning to these questions throughout your text can help you amass evidence that supports the timeliness or validity of your argument Look at this selection from Denise Grady s New York Times article The Secrete Life of a Potent Cell What moves is she making to answer these questions Scientists used to think body fat and the cells it was made of were pretty much inert just an oily storage compartment But within the past decade research has shown that fat cells act like chemical factories and that body fat is potent stuff a highly active tissue that secretes hormones and other substances with profound and sometimes harmful effects In recent years biologists have begun calling fat an endocrine organ comparing it to glands like the thyroid and the pituitary which also release hormones straight into the bloodstream Researchers trying to decipher the biology of fat cells hope to nd new ways to help people get rid of excess fat or at least prevent obesity from destroying their health In an increasingly obese world their efforts have taken on an added importance Internationally more than a billion people are overweight Obesity and two illnesses linked to it heart disease and high blood pressure are on the World Health Organization s list of the top 10 global health risks In the United States 65 percent of adults weigh too much compared with about 56 percent a decade ago and government researchers blame obesity for at least 300000 deaths a year Fine How do I do that Templates for addressing Who Cares used to think but recently suggests that This interpretation challenges the work of those who have long assumed that These ndings challenge the work of earlier researchers who tended to assume Recent studies have shed light on which previous studies had not addressed At rst glance teenagersparentsteacherscoaches might say But on closer inspection These ndings challenge the common assumption that and So What X matters is important because Although X may seem trivial it is in fact crucial in terms of today s concern over Ultimately what is at stake here is These ndings may have important consequences for the broader domain of My discussion of X is in fact addressing the larger matter of Although X may seem like a concern to only a small group of specialists it should in fact concern anyone who is interested in who cares about Using Quotations Effectively With the members of your peer group read the following selection from a student s paper on dieting and female body image Based on our discussion of sources 1 identify the problems this student has and 2 suggest ways the student could clarify his or her writing Note The student s source is Susan Bordo s article The Empire of Images in Our World of Bodies Bordo is a feminist philosopher She is a professor of English and women s studies at the University of Kentucky The page numbers ofthis citation are pp 149150 Susan Bordo writes about women and dieting Fiji is just one example Until television was introduced in 1995 the islands had no reported cases of eating disorders In 1998 three years after programs from the United States and Britain began broadcasting there 62 percent of the girls surveyed reported dieting Ithink Bordo is right Another point she makes is that Templates for Introducing Quotations X states As the r 39 L 39 quot J 39 39 39 39 p fwa of X puts i According to X a researcherscholarprofessorat ABCD University X herself writes In her book Title here X maintains tha In his recent article in the journal Journal Title Here X complaints tha X agrees with Y when he writes X disagrees with Z when she notes that X complicates matters further when he writes Templates for Explaining Quotations in your own words I X is saying X is insisting that In other words X believes that X s point is that The essence ofX s argument is In making this comment X argues that Mr WNW am misan39wn w mar um N20315 wmmwm m maqu aw immmundm mm gwmsmq WM mung mm 3n mmmwmwmm mm msxamvmbvlmmp wmmu m m Warnway p mn39m nxvuzm 3n mmmmmmwamAWW WWWAmmwsmas sd lrmamsanjww xulsl mqu 5a m pmmuauus mm snadmxnpnwv u dm m mumum msmxuzs 5nde Nahum mm wasmemWWWv mmrmwW nqu iqirulmmnllnm mm www amxvmwiu Wumq 7H1ku ma Wynn m xmsndmmiwn mammals rmqu 3mm mw sqmwsxdm mame m mmp39mwmm msmdmp ma mm ssvpmlnrl udu smnxd 5 F W w mm mm Wsnmawwaw id mmfmmlm 1 WW 5 F W um ma mum mum msn m Hummus mm mm m n luvIrv mm gumw iw vmwm m mm mm momma Aq Manama mm dd um um a N m W5 paauwm 5 WW mm mm WWW WNW mm 1541 m w WWW asvs Eberhard Demm Propaganda and Caricature in the First World War The rst world war was the rst total war in modern history It was waged not only against the enemy s armies but also against the civilian population and on all fronts military economic and propagandistic How could this happen The road to total war began with the French Revolution Whereas the rulers of the eighteenth century employed mercenaries and the normal civilian was only aware of the war if ghting took place near his home in revolutionary France the whole nation was called to arms Allons enfants de la patrie From then on wars could not be waged without the consent and the readiness of the people who had to enlist and to produce the arms Thus it was necessary to beat not only the enemy on the military front but also to demoralize his population by means of propaganda bombs and economic sanctions Once the technical means were available and this was already largely the case in the rst world war unlimited warfare was possible Total war involves another aspect as explained in 1937 by the anti democratic German jurist Carl Schmitt War can be total in the sense of the utmost effort and the utmost employment of all available means 2 General Erich LudendorlT and the nationalist writer Erich J nger expressed similar views3 Such a war led to total politics Ludendor which completely supervised the population through control of the press and the economy The prerequisite of such a policy is the total state which intervenes in all areas all spheres of human existence which no longer acknowledges any private sphere 4 Such a state organized society and the economy and directed them toward one single end the complete mobilization of all forces for war It was a preliminary version of the totalitarian state as was established in Germany from 1933 and it is interesting to note that Journal of Contemporary History SAGE London Newbury Park and New Delhi Vol 28 1993 163 192 164 Journal of Contemporary History Carl Schmitt staunch supporter of the national socialists and Erich Ludendor rst world war general and onetime political ally of Adolf Hitler made an intensive study of the problems of total war and the total state Nearly all the features of totalitarianism already existed in embryo in the German state of the rst world war monopoly of the press and the arms industry a statecontrolled economy the allpervasive police and military the abrogation of certain rights of man state ideology Ideas of 1914 and incessant indoctrination of the population Control of news was not total because newspapers from neutral countries were allowed in and the modern totalitarian party did not yet exist although the German Fatherland Party founded in 1917 can be considered as a precursor of the NSDAP It was thus natural that the totalitarian state of the Third Reich was organized by the generation which had fought at the front in the rst world war5 Total war and the total state did not exist in 1914 but developed gradually during the war There was however in Germany an organism which practised a total policy the army Military service in the Prussian army not only provided military instruction but had another important aim to annihilate the personality of the recruit to reduce his human dignity to a minimum and to transform him into a small cog in the huge military machine As Heinrich Mann wrote in his novel Der Untertan a brilliant analysis of Wilhelminian society The recruit was rapidly and irrevocably reduced to a louse to a component a piece of raw material which was moulded by an enormous will The army was the school of the nation the citizen a total object according to the military in the German Empire It followed therefore that such an education of society was carried out not by civilians but by the military whose most effective instrument was no longer military service but an allembracing propaganda with which it aimed to brainwash the whole nation The legal basis for this procedure was the state of war declared by Kaiser Wilhelm on 31 July 1914 after which the Stellvertretende Generalkommandos commanders of the army corps assumed the functions of the civilian administration One of their main tasks was the control of public life As freedom of opinion was limited by the state of war the military had the right to censor the press6 The co ordination of press policy was carried out by Section III B of the General Staff under Major later Colonel Walter Nicolai the press of ce was directed by Major Erhard Deutelmoser This department organized daily press conferences and also the censorship of ce The Demm Propaganda ana Caricature in the First World War 165 nal decision on censorship however was taken by the local military commanders7 What was suppressed by the censors Any information which could be useful to the enemy and all news which could distress the people for instance discussion of the war and its consequences its cost and so on Unfavourable news about the situation at the front was passed over in silence delayed or toned down All this was relatively tame A really aggressive propaganda campaign in the sense of a systematic brainwashing of public opinion started in summer 1917 under the 3rd High Command when General Ludendorff under the formal direction of Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg assumed control In a letter of 31 July Ludendorff said that the population had become pessimistic and desperate and that only an effective propaganda campaign could reestablish con dence8 The press office was enlarged to a huge propaganda machine which employed hundreds of officers and countless writers painters caricaturists photographers and technicians Numerous propaganda events were organized under the name of Vaterlandischer Unterricht patriotic instruction with the help of specialized news officers and the intellectual leaders of the people priests professors teachers etc9 While the military controlled propaganda in Germany the Zentralstelle fin Auslandsa39ienst Central Of ce for Propaganda Abroad of the Of ce of Foreign Affairs directed German propaganda abroad In 1916 another propaganda of ce was established under LieutenantColonel Hans von Haeften which was formally part of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs but came under the command of Bureau 111 B of the General Staff From 1917 they were answerable only to the Supreme Command10 The Allies also had propaganda departments In France censor ship was organized by the Ministry of War which gave detailed instructions in its circular letters of 6 February and 15 March11 The British press of ce was famous for its effectiveness In the beginning it was a relatively small organization which concentrated on the London press Its guidelines were developed in informal talks between government officials and editors12 Under the Defence of the Realm Act no information could be published which might be useful to the enemy In Britain too unfavourable news was passed over in silence or delayed British propaganda succeeded better than its German counterpart to win neutrals over to its cause it also aimed its appeal at German soldiers With the nomination of the English press magnate Lord Alfred Northcliffe as Director of Propaganda in 166 Journal of Contemporary History Enemy Countries in February 1918 Allied propaganda activities against Germany were stepped up considerably it has been claimed that during summer and autumn 1918 more than 100000 lea ets per day were dropped over German lines 3 This propaganda campaign is believed to have played a part in hastening the collapse of the Austrian front in Italy as well as in the German retreat of summer 1918 but its signi cance has probably been exaggerated14 What was the role of cartoonists in German and Allied propaganda Like all other media workers they were of course bound by the restrictions of military censorship and obliged to observe the propaganda guidelines laid down by the press bureaus Every edition had to be submitted to the censor before publication and if the censor objected the cartoon had to be modi ed Thus when on the occasion of the papal peace offer a caricature of the Pope was not accepted the cartoonists presented the cartoon again but this time without the Pope in order to obtain approval15 In some cases there was systematic cooperation between a cartoon magazine and an of cial press of ce For instance in summer 1917 the Zentralstellefiir Auslandsdienst of the German Of ce of Foreign Affairs discussed with Heine and Gulbransson the compilation of special cartoon albums to be used as propaganda in neutral countries In these albums the cartoonists closely followed the suggestions of the Of ce of Foreign Affairs 6 This arrangement led to complete harmony between censors and cartoonists in Germany whereas in France caricatures were sometimes banned by the censor and in neutral countries cartoonists were occasionally put on trial17 When cartoonists became propaganda agents their traditional role radically changed Before the war they were social critics who sharply attacked the authoritarian structures in the government the army the church and in society as a whole18 Of course not all cartoon magazines were as aggressive as Simplicissimus which was especially hated by the Junker the Catholic Church and the military It was denounced by deputies of the Catholic Centre Party as a nuisance to the state and society to morality morals and good taste which on every issue totally shatters authority and abases the monarchy and the government 19 Between 1903 and 1907 alone the paper was con scated twentyseven times The cartoonists frequently had to appear in court and at least one of them Ludwig Thoma had to spend six weeks in the Stadelheim prison on a charge of Ze se majest 20 Demm Propaganda ana Caricature in the First World War 167 When war broke out the cartoonists faced a dilemma Should they continue to antagonize society and criticize the government at a time when Germany was ghting for her existence At a meeting with his colleagues the editorinchief of Simplicissimus Ludwig Thoma proposed that the paper cease publication because during the war all satirical opposition to the government had to stop But Thomas Theodor Heine refused and said that satirists now had a new task to behave as good patriots and to support Germany s war policy Thus the cartoonists joined the propaganda war and enlisted in a Gea ankena ienst mit der Wa e as Thomas Mann put it22 They all united behind the government in the spirit of the famous words of Kaiser Wilhelm II Ich kenne keine Parteien mehr ich kenne nur Deutsche Similar developments took place in other countries In Germany a Burgfriea en was declared in France the Union sacr e was proclaimed Class struggle and internal strife were now supposed to cease and every citizen was called upon to do his or her bit to protect the fatherland in its hour of danger and need Political caricature now took on a new function its task was to mobilize the population both morally and intellectually for the war explain setbacks con rm belief in the superiority of the fatherland and proclaim the hope of nal victory23 This abrupt change surprised quite a few people and the military especially too often mercilessly ridiculed remained sceptical in the beginning the commander of the rst army corps in Bavaria asked the medical authorities to prohibit the reading of Simplicissimus in milityary hospitals arguing that this paper well known for its mockery of the army and now posing in national colours was unsuitable for soldiers24 Ludwig Thoma protested vigorously and Fritz Blaich one of the paper s cartoonists who had voluntarily enlisted as an army doctor resigned from the service25 But nally the postive in uence of Simplicissimus was appreciated and the authori ties showed their goodwill the Bavarian Ministry of Transport cancelled its ban on the sale of Simplicissimus at railway stations 26 and criminal proceedings on the grounds of le semajest against the caricaturist Olaf Gulbransson were suspended because the weekly magazine Simplicissimus had adopted a patriotic attitude since the outbreak of the war27 Only the Catholic clergy did not understand that times had changed and as late as 18 August 1925 a certain Dr Winter complained in the name of the clergy of the deanery of Bonn to the commander in Bavaria about the cartoon magazines 168 Journal of Contemporary History Simplicz39ssz mus and Jugend The Pope the Kaiser and army o icers are made into caricatures poisoning the minds of young people who desire freedom and asked that they be prohibited In reply the of cers explained that the cartoonists were controlled by cen sorship and that their published cartoons were thus o icially approved28 This change of attitude on the part of the cartoonists is interesting from their biographical point of view How can we explain the change in someone like Ludwig Thoma who a few months before the war had fulminated against the country s armament programme and against the myth of popular wars and who now enlisted as a medical o icer and asked his friend Theodor Heuss to introduce a patriotic note into his leftwing cosmpolitan periodical Maerz29 A close examination of their social background shows that despite their often radical cartoons Thoma and his colleagues Heine and Gulbransson were no fanatic revolutionaries but bourgeois liberals who wanted to reform the Empire though not to turn it upside down or destroy it They were popularizers of liberal ideas but accepted the social and political system of the Empire as such Many years after the war Thoma wrote in his memoirs I believe today what I have always believed that one could have reformed the old society in such a way as to ensure the happiness and the great ness of Germany The ght for them the reforms did not have to be given up on 1 August 1914 but it had to be interrupted and it was our duty to be silent30 Thoma and his friends belonged to the liberal tradition but they were also German nationalists Some of Heine s early cartoons for instance Kolonialmachte of 1904 or Ein Tag aus der Kindheit des serbischen Kronprinzen of 1909 attested these national istic tendencies and the often parochial nation of Thoma was well known31 Thoma wrote in his memoirs ir was never in my nature to feel international or to do justice to our most pernicious enemies 32 Censorship and propaganda o ices did not need to impose their views on the cartoonists they shared them and decided to put their pens and brushes at the service of their country and to ght against the enemy in their own way The following examples were chosen neither for their artistic quality nor for the fame of the cartoonists but as representative examples of the most important propaganda targets33 Demm Propaganda and Caricature in the First World War 169 v vwsgj39lye gem zmoyfen lea I 170 Journal of Contemporary History RM c f iau Momgmaaweam Demm Propaganda and Caricature in the First World War 171 n tieg if gig sei g iff mfg 172 Journal of Contemporary History 9 21 v mr im Mn Ema mm LXVIIIan b Nng I abbetabatid Demm Propaganda and Caricature in the First World War 173 u w A a f 0 quot Tom LET o I w 174 Journal of Contemporary History Demm Propaganda ana Caricature in the First World War 175 One of the most important aims was to prove the superiority of one s own nation in a war which was conceived not only as a battle of arms but also as a war of ideologies The German economist Werner Sombart termed it a Glaubenskrieg 3quot Indeed like the wars of the Reformation or the Christian Crusades the rst world war was viewed as a con ict between two different cultures35 According to this view military successes would also decide the quality of the respective social and political organization of the belligerent nations Thus the German historian Hermann Oncken in 1915 summarized the military successes achieved by the Central Powers While the institutions and supra individual forces of Germany hold good the entire complex of political ideas of the English has beeen shattered 36 This war of cultures was fought out in particular between Germany and the Western powers The French British and Italians considered Germany a veritable bulwark of militarism slavery and Kaiserism and went on a crusade in the name of civilization and democracy37 According to the French philosopher Emile Boutroux the French concept of freedom had come down from the Greeks whereas the Germans allied with Turkey had inherited the Oriental form of despotism38 The Germans for their part could not really condemn liberty and democracy and embarked upon a strategy which Thomas Mann employed in characteristic fashion in his Betrachtungen eines Unpolitischen they heaped calumny on Western democracy as the outdated parliamentarism of the lawyers and as a plutocracy which only led to useless quarrels and which falsi ed the genuine will of the peoplequot9 Yet what political ideas could Germany offer The French were ghting for the principles of 1789 liberty equality brotherhood The Russians wished to unite all Slavic peoples under the banner of Panslavism and would soon proclaim the communist mission of the liberation of the proletariat The English fought on behalf of the freedom of the small nations and had of cially entered the war in order to defend Belgium unjustly attacked by Germany Germany did not have any such mission a signi cant short coming in such an ideological war40 Thus German intellectuals and academics helped by sympathetic neutrals like the Swedes Rudolf Kjell n and Gustav Steffen and the English ideologue of race Houston Stewart Chamberlain who had moved to Germany many years before endeavoured to forge a speci cally German ideology which they could then juxtapose to Western principles These were the ideas of 1914 the new ideas of a young German people which 176 Journal of Contemporary History would replace the timeworn notions of the French Revolution Liberty became socalled German freedom devotion to the community other salient values in this code were order per formance of duty and discipline The German cartoons of the time often depict England and sometimes France as well as old and sick doomed according to this organicist theory the future was to belong to the young and vigorous German people to its new principles of 191442 In this war of propaganda it was a de nite advantage for Germany that the Western crusaders for democracy were allied with the most reactionary power on the continent tsarist Russia a country which beat her peasants with cudgels to force them to ght for civil ization 43 In the German parlance of that day Zivilisation had a decidedly negative connotation The old German dichotomy between Kultur and Z ivilz39sation had taken on a new critical meaning at the end of the nineteenth century The cultural pessimists contrasted Zivilisation as a negative expression of mechanical industrial ization urbanization and capitalism with Kultur bound up in particular with aesthetic values They argued that German Kultur had a special mission in Europe In this war Kultur became a propaganda weapon in the hands of the cartoonists German Kultur was presented as a superior value In German cartoons the Allies perpetrate their war crimes in the name of civilization 44 Western cartoonists meanwhile took extreme pleasure in comparing German pretensions regarding Kultur with the real or invented war crimes committed by German soldiers in the occupied territories45 The Germans were marching all over Europe with the battle cry Kultur or deathl telling people If we shoot you it is only for your own good 46 The German cartoonists defended themselves in a very simple and convincing manner they countered the reproaches against the German barbarians with positive images in which German soldiers are depicted giving food to the elderly or playing with children47 When the French and British used black troops from their colonies on the Western Front the German cartoonists were swift to react they depicted the blacks as cannibals or even monkeys ghting for Western civilization and showed French women pregnant with bastard Negro children48 This attack was skilfully countered by French cartoonists in one cartoon when a Negro soldier takes out his knife he says to a trembling German prisoner Don t worry Mohammed never eats pigs a play upon words because in French cochon means both pig and lthy wretch 49 Demm Propaganda and Caricature in the First World War 177 The polarization between Germany and the Western powers occasionally took on ridiculous dimensions There was a move to stamp out foreign in uence in the German language and German fashion and the response of the English cartoonists to this was especially humorous50 Curious analogous aberrations appeared in England and France as well A serious proposal was made to the Academie francaise to eliminate the German letter K from the French alphabet cubism was denounced as German decadence and the cubist collections con scated as enemy goods and the English Royal Family tried to obliterate its German origins changing its name from SachsenCoburg and Gotha to Windsor 5 The Allies adopted a new slogan during the war the right of self determination No people should any longer live under foreign domination The realization of this principle would spell the disintegration of Germany s most important ally the multinational state of AustriaHungary On the other hand Germany promised the alien peoples of Russia the Poles Ukrainians the people of the Baltic nations Georgians etc a new freedom but one that was German in its ultimate form they would enjoy political autonomy in domestic affairs yet would remain bound to the German superpower in military political and economic matters In the polemical discussion about who could best protect the freedom of the small peoples the German liberal imperialists liberal politicians rightwing social democrats industrialists banking and government circles tried to nd an ethical basis for German imperialism England due to her alliance with tsarist Russia had lost all credibility and could no longer claim to protect the rights of small nations Thus Germany could now according to this view assume the role of political liberator of the small nations of Europe These would enjoy freedom and political in uence as members of a supranational body under German domination Mitteleuropa 52 This project was jus ti ed by quoting slogans culled from the writings of the German philosopher Fichte such as the world mission of German freedom and Germany s emancipatory task 53 In the battle of the cartoonists which developed in 1917 over this question the Germans attempted to show how England as a colonial power in Asia and Africa as well as in Ireland had violated the right to selfdetermination of smaller nations and how she continued to oppress them by her blockade of and intervention in Greece54 A great advantage for Germany was the decision by the Bolsheviks as early as December 1917 to make public the secret treaties which the tsarist 178 Journal of Contemporary History regime had concluded with the Western powers and which blatantly violated the right of selfdetermination Italy was supposed to be given German and Slavic territories from Austria and England and France would divide up among themselves the Arab territories of the Ottoman Empire55 The Allied cartoonists responded by prophesying that the German liberation of the alien peoples of Russia would only lead them into a new slavery56 The proclamation of the independent Polish kingdom in Nov ember 1916 by the Central Powers had a special importance in this context The German cartoonists cited this as an example of the liberation of a country from the Russian yoke for the Allied cartoonists Poland was once again in chains57 According to them the whole enterprise had only one purpose to use the Poles as cannon fodder for the German armies as a cartoon in the magazine Punch put it58 This was what the German High Commmand really had in mind but their objective was not realized because of the awkward way they dealt with the Poles59 The war of the cartoonists was not limited to the discussion of ideological principles Very important was their use of personalities kings politicians generals who represented the destiny or the politics of the enemy countries Through this personi cation hatred could be directed against a concrete person depicted as ridiculous or horrid and then by transfer of emotion against the country as such60 The cartoons of the enemy coalition always differentiated between the principal enemy England or Germany and their respective allies who appear as totally oppressed For example the French Prime Minister Clemenceau is depicted as a jumping jack chained to England while Austria s Emperor Francis Joseph must listen like an obedient hound to his German master s voice61 Sometimes even the themes are similar England or Germany are portrayed sitting in a cart being pulled by their respective allies62 Thus the hope is alluded to that some day those who are now allies will understand their fate and leave their master in the lurch Rarely do the German cartoons polemicize against France This corresponds to the general line of German war propaganda which considered France as a valorous enemy and did not even rule out an accord with this country63 In a caricature titled Secret Love Germany woos the French Marianne to the fury of England and Russiaquotquot4 One example of very subtle manipulation is the German cartoon Vierbund Vierverband 65 the Central Powers Germany Austria Demm Propaganda and Caricature in the First World War 179 Turkey and Bulgaria are contrasted with the most important Allies England France Russia and Italy The Central Powers of course are depicted much more positively calmly and con dently they sit around a table obviously in complete harmony whereas the Allies are quarrelling violently The Russians and French reproach the English Foreign Minister Sir Edward Grey while the Italian King Vittorio Emmanuele III sits to one side aloof A critical reader will probably regard this comparision as very biased but he still runs the risk of being massively manipulated since this caricature can be viewed from another angle By using the number four four Allies four Central Powers the cartoonist is attempting to convince the reader that both coalitions are of equal value Yet this was obviously not the case the Allies were by far the superior numerically nancially and economically In the French cartoon which appeared in Le Rire the coalition of the Central Powers is depicted in a more realistic way Austria as an old sick man Turkey as an invalid66 The principal symbol of Germany in the Allied cartoons is not the traditional German Michel who is far too peaceful but rather Kaiser Wilhelm II a gure popular with cartoonists even before the war The caricatures associate the Kaiser with impressive negative symbols which demonstrate the Manichean tone of the propaganda in apocalyptic visions he is surrounded by death and the devil exile in St Helena or the gallows await him or he is shown as a butcher or a beggar after the war67 The German cartoonists responded in similar fashion Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolajevitch the Supreme Commander of the Russian Armies wades in blood like Macbeth the guillotine awaits the French President Poincar and the revolutionaries are already preparing the bullets for the Russian Tsar Nicolas II68 It is interesting how early such visions appear in the press on 30 August 1914 General Hunger joins the Allied Council of War in October 1914 Germany is threatened by famine and revolution69 Such prophecies could easily impress people and suggest that the enemy would soon be defeated70 Another important symbol is Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg the famous victor of the battle of Tannenberg over the Russians in autumn 1914 and CommanderinChief of the German armies from 1916 He was very popular with the German cartoonists who thought of him as a kind of father gure guaranteeing nal German victory The cartoonists on the Allied side of course tried to destroy 180 Journal of Contemporary History his charisma depicting him with scars on his head and as a monster71 England was regarded as the main enemy of the Central Powers Even before the war antiBritish sentiments had been widespread in Germany72 and Britain s unexpected entry into the war coupled with the English blockade which led to supply problems in Germany heightened the hatred of per dious Albion Some Germans replaced the greeting Guten Tag by Gott strafe England God punish England and the now forgotten writer Ernst Lissauer penned a popular song of hate against England The typical representation of the British in German caricatures is the gure of the shopkeeper War is a business like any other says the English Foreign Minister Sir Edward Grey coldly with two piles of skulls lying in front of him on the counter73 According to Alfred Weber the English had initiated and fought the entire war in order to destroy German trade and the caricatures re ected this view74 The economist Werner Sombart in a propaganda pamphlet contrasted Englishmen and Germans as merchants vs heroes attributing to the British all the negative qualities His arguments derived from the anti capitalist arsenal of the socialists as well as from critiques by German cultural pessimists in whose eyes capitalism and industry were negative75 Even before their entry into the con ict the English and Americans had been depicted as unscrupulous plutocrats ready to sacri ce everything for money The Statue of Liberty is choked by American high nance and Woodrow Wilson wants to make a pro t on the war despite all his talk of peace76 This attack against hypocrisy was signi cant since Wilson was a highly skilled master of propaganda and there was a danger that the German people might be taken in by his appeals for peace77 On the other hand the Allied cartoonists reproached Wilson with being ready to put up with anything and to accept with enormous patience all violations of American interests at the hands of German submarine warfare78 Another charge levelled against the AngloSaxons by the Germans was that of cant which the German philosopher Max Scheler de ned as the equivalent of a lie with good conscience 79 This implied that the English had a tendency to smooth over their imperialistic interests with fancysounding words and moralistic pronouncements In one caricature they are depicted laying mines in order to destroy German ships not forgetting to decorate them with Christmas trees80 A literary symbol of this cant was the gure of Dorian Grey in the famous novel by Oscar Wilde Grey s immoral Demm Propaganda ana Caricature in the First World War 181 way of life does not leave any visible marks on his beautiful face and deforms only the features on his hidden portrait The common surname shared by Dorian Grey and English Foreign Minister Sir Edward Grey was soon exploited by cartoonists to their advantage82 In Allied caricatures the German soldier is portrayed as an incendiary and murderer who commits all sorts of atrocities Appalling drawings of burning houses raped women and mutilated children are very typical83 The underlying reason behind this was that throughout the war German troops had occupied large areas of France Belgium and Russia Belgium and Lithuania especially were very badly treated heavy requisitions and contributions were exacted and deportations were frequent On the other hand Allied commissions proved alleged German atrocities with the aid of scienti clooking documents which were of course far from objec tive84 In contrast there were no foreign soldiers on German soil apart from a small area in Alsace and so it was dif cult for German cartoonists to retaliate in the same way85 They could only point to the presence of Cossacks in Galicia and Eastern Prussia at the start of the war and were obliged to limit their polemic to a purely defensive strategy by presenting the positive actions of German soldiers Such caricatures appeared particularly in those papers destined for the occupied areas such as the Gazette des Ardennes86 Thus the Germans reacted in a purely defensive manner and Allied propaganda proved much more successful Not only did it inspire hatred of the enemy in their own ghting men it also succeeded in en aming public opinion against Germany in the neutral countries Here the Allies could also rely on a number of journalists and cartoonists such as the Dutch cartoonist Louis Raemakers whose caricatures were considered to be one of the most dangerous weapons against Germany In 1935 a German author wrote The cartoons of Raemakers had more propaganda value than several volumes of English propaganda pamphlets put together 87 The English distributed millions of copies of Raemakers s cartoons all over the world and the cartoonist was not only well paid but awarded prestigious English and French medals for his efforts88 The Allied soldiers in German cartoons are often depicted as being incompetent or ridiculous That was relatively easy when it came to cartoons featuring the Italians who were indeed often something less than heroes Russians were portrayed as illiterate drunkards89 This method of denigration in German cartoons was not as ineffective as 182 Journal of Contemporary History was later claimed Sigmund Freud had written in his Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewussten By showing the enemy as small low despicable comic ridiculous we give ourselves the enjoyment of a victory 90 Another source of fun for German cartoons was the use by the English and Russians of female volunteers91 In reality only the Russians had such troops for instance the famous battalion of death under Major Botchkareva which during the October Revolution defended the Winter Palace against the Bolsheviks In the British forces the Women s Army Auxiliary Corps employed approximately 40000 women but only as workers in communica tions such as telephone operators typists and orderlies The losses in the war were enormous ten million killed in action two million of them German There were not enough young men to replace them and cartoons show the desperate measures taken to cope with this problem though on the side of the enemy of course prisoners babies old men and invalids are sent to the front as a last resort92 Submarine warfare posed a special problem At the beginning of the war the English with their superior eet had set up a blockade against the Central Powers and the Germans had retaliated with submarine warfare But there was a serious problem a submarine could not surface and identify a ship because it would run the risk of being sunk itself Yet if it torpedoed a ship without positive identi cation American passengers might be killed as had occurred in the sinking of the Lusitania and the Sussex The American government had protested angrily over these incidents The Germans changed their tactics several times but decided due to the severe food shortage caused by the English blockade to reintroduce unlimited submarine warfare in January 191793 Three months later Washington declared war on Germany The comparison of a German and a French cartoon of submarine warfare clearly shows the dilemma posed by such warfare in the German cartoon a heavily armed ship cannot be torpedoed because American passengers are on board these passengers are being used as protection against a possible torpedo attack In the French cartoon a harmless passenger ship can be sunk because Americans are not on board In reality of course a submarine commander could not know for sure who was indeed on board94 In one of the most famous French cartoons designed by Forain one soldier says to another Let us hope they will hold out Who The civilians of course 95 The home front was indeed one of the Demm Propaganda and Caricature in the First World War 183 major problems especially the question of food supply The priorities of war production the bureaucratic control of the economy the blockade and submarine warfare had led to food shortages in all the belligerent countries War had led to pro teering and speculation aggravated these problems Here the cartoonists had an important function It was their job to shift the responsibility for these problems from the real culprits government and bureaucracy to various scapegoats such as war pro teers or the enemy the people could then direct their hatred against these scapegoats without calling into question the entire political system On occasion the hunger suffered by the civilian population is depicted but in the enemy s country in order to make starvation on the home front seem more bearable When the number of dishes allowed in France in a restaurant was limited to two per person a day the cartoonists show a situation in Germany where people do not even get that much to eat and are living on herrings and water While Germans starve the cartoonist depicts the culprit John Bull who is now starving as well because of the effect of German submarine warfare96 In his memoirs the German ambassador to the US Johann Heinrich Count Bernstorff expressed regret that German propaganda had not suf ciently exploited the theme of the suffering endured by women and children as a result of the English hunger blockade97 The cartoonists not only fought the enemy abroad they also fought the enemy at home paci sts socialists spies pessimists and the like In all the warring countries cartoonists worked for the continuation of the war until the nal knockout of the enemy jusqu au bout bis zum bitteren Ende Paci sts and socialists therefore had to be subjected to ridicule In the US and Italy paci sts were naturally very active before these countries joined the war and thus formed a special target for the cartoonists barbs One of the greatest obstacles on the way to peace is depicted in a small cartoon in the French paper La Baionnette a paci st states that he wants peace on the basis of the status quo before the war but the war invalid says OK then give me back my lost leg 98 As compensation for all their losses the people wished something in return it was difficult to grasp that they had suffered all those years for nothing The Independent Social Democrats in Germany USDP the Italian Socialists and the British UDC Union of Democratic Control were seen as paci stic and were therefore accused of high treason and collaboration with the enemy99 The German socialist Karl Liebknecht an uncompromising enemy of the war and the only deputy in the Reichstag in September 184 Journal of Contemporary History 1914 to vote against the war budget is seen in a Simplicissz39mus cartoon comforting the beaten Russian supreme commander Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolajevitch Don t despair Nikolai you can still count on me a masterpiece of brainwashing the revolutionary Liebknecht portrayed as an ally of the hated tsarism100 The strikers were also singled out as a target by the cartoonists In all warring countries they were condemned and accused of aiding and abetting the enemy101 There were those in England who tried to shirk military service before it was made compulsory in January 1916 and they were derided by both English and German cartoonists There is a magni cent German cartoon in which a recruit in an English recruiting of ce is promised a wonderful life as a soldier in six months he will be a general earn a lot of money and eat very well moreover Gretchen is waiting for him in Cologne Despite all these promises however the only person who comes to the recruitment of ce the whole week is the cleaning woman102 When conscription was introduced in England quite a few men still feigned illness in order to avoid being enlisted Other countries encountered similar prob lems103 Another element was the struggle against spies and foreign minorities especially German minorities In Russia and England genuine pogroms were organized against the German minority which even before the war had been regarded as a potential fth column104 French cartoonists approved of this treatment though their German counterparts of course condemned it Only the GermanAmericans were truly active in this respect with the help of their many newspapers and societies they tried to prevent Washing ton from declaring war against Germany The German spy network was not as well organized as was believed For instance the German government was not informed about the mutinies on the French front in 1917 a complete failure of the intelligence system105 There were even some French cartoonists who derided the exaggerated fear of German spies in France In one marvellous cartoon a wife says to her husband Can you imagine our German nanny that was General von Kluck And her husband responds Shocking Imagine that I deceived you with her quot06 German propaganda in the rst world war was severely criticized after the end of the war The former soldier Adolf Hitler regarded it as insuf cient and psychologically erroneous and in Mein Kampf he wrote that its success had been nil107 Hitler criticized the principle of Demm Propaganda and Caricature in the First World War 185 making the enemy look ridiculous and considered Allied propa ganda which tried to provoke hatred against the enemy by horror stories and drawings as superior General Ludendorff even consid ered Allied propaganda to have been partially responsible for the German defeat in the war possibly to excuse his own military failures108 Many agreed with Hitler and Ludendorff109 Today numerous scholars take a different view108 Certainly German cartoonists were less effective abroad than their Allied counterparts but their ght against the enemy within proved highly successful After all the German people had held out for four long years despite great suffering and deprivation this was due at least in part to the effect of propaganda and cartoons 11 Simplicissimus in particular developed a very subtle method of indoctrination aimed at in uen cing the subconscious 1 2 Hitler himself is a good example of the profound impact of German propaganda in the rst world war Throughout his life he held the Americans in very low esteem Albert Speer his architect and during the war Minister of Armaments recalls Hitler making the following remarks in the 1930s The Americans had not played a very prominent part in the war of 191418 he thought and moreover had not made any great sacri ces of blood They would certainly not withstand a great trial by re for their ghting qualities were low113 Even in 1942 after the Americans had launched their successful landing in North Africa Hitler described the United States as a country which did not have the necessary morale in order to win the ght for the new world order 114 One can venture the hypothesis that his negative opinion of the Americans derived in part from his rst world war impressions based on German propaganda and cartoon caricatures Hitler s ridiculing of Wilson as an apostle of peace 115 and his scof ng at American military abilities as late as 1942 when they had effected their brilliant landing in North Africa corresponds precisely to the line taken by German propaganda in the rst world war As British propaganda s main aim at that time was to elicit American reinforcements German cartoonists did their utmost to minimize and ridicule the American soldier In their cartoons Americans send tin soldiers an incompetent regiment of billionaires and cowboys riding on sea horses116 Again and again German propaganda attempted to inculcate in the German soldier the notion 186 Journal of Contemporary History that Americans were incapable of intervening in any decisive way in the con ict A propaganda war waged also in the arena of political carica ture can only be won if its message penetrates the unconscious In this regard German cartoonists were certainly as successful as their Allied counterparts at least as far as the home front was concerned Notes 1 Carl Schmitt Totaler Feind totaler Krieg totaler Staat 1937 in idem Positionen und Begri e im Kampfmit Weimar Genf Versailles 1923 1939 Hamburg 1940 235 9 cf Gary L Ulmen Return of the Foe in Telos 72 1987 Special Issue Carl Schmitt Enemy or Foe 187 93 2 Schmitt op cit 233 3 Erich Ludendorlf Der totale Krieg Munich 1935 Ernst Jiinger Die totale M obilmachung Berlin 1931 4 Carl Schmitt Weiterentwicklung des totalen Staates in Deutschland Munich 1933 187 5 See on the concept of totalitarianism Karl Loewenstein Verfassungslehre Tiibingen 1959 and the articles in Totalitarismus Darmstadt 1988 The relation betweeen the development of the total state in the rst world war and totalitarianism would merit further investigation 6 Wilhelm Deist ed JMilitdr und Innenpolitik im Weltkrieg 1914 1918 Dusseldorf 1970 introduction XXXIlf Kurt Koszyk Deutsche Pressepolitik im Ersten Weltkrieg Dusseldorf 1968 75 7 Deist op cit ILlf 8 Ibid vol II no 332 846f 9 Ibid VIIIff no 347 913 10 Koszyk op cit 28 11 Laurent Gervereau La Propagande par l image en France 1914 1918 Themes et modes de repr sentation in Images de 1917 Paris 1987 98 12 Alice G Marquis Words as Weapons Propaganda in Britain and Germany during the First World War in Journal of Contemporary History 13 July 1978 476 13 Harold D Lasswell Propaganda Technique in the First World War New York 1927 reprint 1938 184 14 G G Bruntz Allied Propaganda and the Collapse of the German Empire Stanford 1938 M L Sanders and Philipp M Taylor British Propaganda during the First World War 1914 1918 London 1982 IX 22791 15 Bayerisches Hauptstaatsarchiv Munich BHST Konigliches Kriegsminis terium no 13970 JugendVerlag contains numerous letters belonging to Jugend s editor s of ce 29 August 1917 cartoon of the Pope letter of 29 August 1917 note of Ministry of War cf Jugend no 35 1917 Demm Propaganda and Caricature in the First World War 187 16 The documents are to be found in the Zentrale Staatsarchiv Potsdam Zentralstelle fiir Auslandsdienst no 103 cf Hellmuth Weber Die politische Karikatur im Dienst der imperialistischen Kriegsfiihrung 19141918 in Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Universitat Halle 30 1981 79f 17 In Switzerland Pierre Chatillon was condemned by a military tribunal for his cartoon portraying Kaiser Wilhelm II as a butcher cf John GrandCarteret Caricatures et Images de Guerre Kaiser Kronprinz et Cie vol 1 Paris 1916 64 18 Ann Taylor Allen Satire and Society in Wilhelmine Germany Kladderadatsch and Simplicissimus 1890 1914 Lexington 1984 911 19 Speech of the deputy of the Centre Party Lerno 14 January 1904 Stenograph Bericht ber die Verh der bayer Kammer der Abgeordneten 84th session no 428 20 Taylor Allen op cit 41 21 Eugen Roth Simplicissimus Ein Riickblick auf die satirische Zeitschrift Hannover 1955 42f 22 Thomas Mann Autobiographisches ed by Hans Biirgin FrankfutMain 1968 242 23 Koszyk op cit 75 24 BHST Kriegsarchiv Stellvertr Generalkommando 1 Armeekorps no 1706 131 11914 Es bedarf wohl keines besonderen Hinweises dass dieses Blatt das sich an Verhohnung und Verspottung der Armee vor Kriegsausbruch nicht genug tun konnte und erst jetzt sich ein nationales Mantelchen umgehangt hat die denkbar ungeeignetste Lektiire fiir unsere Soldaten ist 25 BHST Kriegsarchiv Stellvertr Generalkommando 1 Armeekorps letter of Ludwig Thoma of 18 December 1914 and letter of Blaich of 18 December 1914 ibid no 1711 26 BHST Kriegsarchiv letter of 19 September 1914 Staatsministerium der J ustiz Uberwachung der Presse no 17354 Mit Riicksicht auf die seit Ausbruch des Kriegs geanderte Haltung der Wochenschrift Simplicissimus wird einem Gesuche des Verlags entsprechend das mit Entschliessung vom 29 September 1909 ausgesprochene Verbot des Verkaufs der genannten Wochenschrift in den Bahnhofen aufgehoben Weber op cit 75 cites a similar letter of the Bavarian Ministry of the Interior 27 BHST Staatsministerium der Justiz Uberwachung der Presse letter of the Ministry of Justice to the King of Bavaria letter of the public prosecutor of the royal county court to Olaf Gulbransson 25 February 1915 no 17354 This procedure had been started on 23 June 1914 because of a cartoon where the King of Bavaria tells a deputation of school teachers Ja meine Herren wenns Ihnen schlecht geht warum betteln S denn net Die Hochwiirdigen Herren Kapuziner betteln ja aa 28 BHST Kriegsarchiv Stellv Generalkommando 1 Armeekorps no 1747 Papst Kaiser und Oi ziere werden zu Karikaturen gemacht ein wahres Gift fiir die freiheitsdiirstende Jugend And when a Baron von Reinacker asked the commander in Bavaria to ban advertisements in the cartoon magazines for pornographic books like Apulejus s The Golden Donkey 1 or The Kamasutra the Bavarian Ministry of War instructed the commander not to waste time with advertisements Reinacker persisted supported by the president of police in Berlin but the advertisements were not banned Cf letter of von Reinacker 12 December 1916 letter of War Ministry 23 December 1915 letter of president of police in Berlin 12 January 1917 contained in le no 1760 188 Journal of Contemporary History 29 Letter from Ludwig Thoma to Theodor Heuss 29 November 1914 in Ludwig Thoma Ein Leben in Briefen Muenchen 1963 275 286 Helmut Ahrens Ludwig Thomas sein Leben sein Werk seine Zeit Pfa enhofen 1983 455ff Peter Haage Ludwig Thoma Mit Nagelstiefeln durchs Kaiserreich Muenchen 1975 179 30 Ludwig Thoma Erinnerungen Muenchen and Zurich 1980 3rd edition 212 31 Lothar Lang ed Thomas Theodor Heine Muenchen 1970 126 32 Thoma op cit 212 33 For a more detailed analysis of the war cartoons cf Eberhard Demm Der Erste Weltkrieg in der internationalen Karikatur Hannover 1988 Eberhard Demm and Tilman Koops Karikaturen aus dem Ersten Weltkrieg Eine Ausstellung des Bundesarchivs Koblenz 1990 34 Werner Sombart Haendler und Helden Berlin 1915 3 Klaus Schwabe Wissenschaft und Kriegsmoral Goettingen 1969 3411quot 35 Ernst Troeltsch Der Kulturkrieg in Deutsche Reden in schewerer Zeit vol 3 Berlin 1915 209 49 Herman Luebbe Politische Philosophie in Deutschland Basel 1969 229 36 Herman Oncken Das Ergebnis des ersten Kriegsjahres in Frankfurter Zeitung 1 August 1915 morning edition Cf also Alfred Weber Das Selbstbestimmungsrecht der Voelker und der Friede in Preussische Jahrbuecher 171 1918 60 Eberhard Demm Ein Liberaler in Kaiserreich und Republik Der politische Weg Alfed Webers bis 1920 Boppard 1990 157 37 See several French appeals in Hermann Kellermann Krieg der Geister Weimar 1915 and Hans Thimme Weltkrieg ohne Wa en Berlin 1932 Ernst Lavisse Kultur et Civilisation Paris 1915 anon La civilisation latine contre la barbarie allemande Paris 1915 38 Kenneth E Silver Espirit de Corps The Art of the Parisian AvantGarde and the First World War I914 1925 Princeton 1982 180 39 Thomas Mann Betrachtungen eines Unpolitischen 1918 in Hans Buergin ed Politische Schriften und Reden Frankfurt 1968 cf Eberhard Demm Thomas und Alfred Weber im Ersten Weltkreig in Etudes Germaniques 37 1982 40 40 Ludwig Dehio Gedanken ueber die deutsche Sendung 1900 1918 in idem Deutschland und die Weltpolitik im 20 Jahrhundert Munich 1955 71H 41 Eberhard Demm Les themes de la propagande allemande en 1914 in Guerres mondiales et con its contemporains 150 1988 3 17 idem Les id es de 1789 et les id es de 1914 La Revolution francaise dans la propagande allemande in La reception de la Revolution franeaise dans les pays de langue allemande Annales litt raires de l Universit de Besancon Paris 1987 152 61 42 PH Ein Wiedersehen in Ulk 40 1915 Th Th Heine Das greise England in Simplicissimus vol 19 no 41 12 January 1915 535 Malo Zittre Deutschland in Lustige Blaetter no 140 1917 4 43 Erler In Russland in Jugend no 46 1914 1288 44 Franz Wacik Au nom de la civilisation in Muskete 3 September 1914 Kraska Kunst als Deckung in Ulk no 40 1914 45 R Florie Herr Professor in Cri de Paris 25 October 1914 46 Nouvelle Arm e du Salut in Europe antiprussienne 20 February 1915 reprint of an American cartoon 47 Christoph Kultur und Barbarismus in Kladderadatsch no 41 1915 48 E0 Petersen Frankreichs Kulturpioniere in Simplicissimus vol 20 4 May 1915 53 E Thoeny Was Zivilisation ist habe ich euch erklaert ibid vol 21 Demm Propaganda and Caricature in the First World War 189 no 19 8 August 1916 235 K Arnold C est la Guerre ibid vol 19 no 27 5 October 1915 315 Hans Strohofer Ein Gutes hat der Krieg gehabt er hat die Grande Nation vor dem Aussterben bewahrt in Muskete 8 October 1914 14 49 Bouet Ti pas avior peur imb cile in La Baionnette 28 September 1916 186 Mariak C tendu m zami ibid 619 50 August Hajdak Berlin Willkommen deutsche Mode in Ulk vol 45 no 6 1 1 February 1916 F Reynolds Fashions in the new Germany in Punch s Almanack 1917 51 See the cartoon by L RavenHill A good riddance in Punch 27 June 1917 Silver Espirit de Corps op cit 9f 52 Fritz Fischer Gri nach der Weltmacht Die Kriegszielpolitik des Kaiserlichen Deutschlands I9I4 I9I8 Dusseldorf 1967 There were numerous publications on Mitteleuropa the most famous being M itteleuropa by the liberal politician Friedrich Naumann Berlin 1915 Especially interesting in its polemic against Great Britain is the memorandum of Kurt Hahn the specialist on British affairs in the Zentrale fuer Auslandsdienst edition under the title Die Denkschrift Kurt Hahns ueber den ethischen Imperialismus in Demm Ein Liberaler in Kaiserreich una39 Republik op cit 344 76 53 Ernest Troeltsch Der Ansturm der westlichen Demokratien in Die deutsche Freiheit Gotha 1917 108 idem Die deutsche Idee von der Freiheit in Die neue Rundschau 27 1916 72 Franz Oppenheimer Sozialismus oder Liberalismus ibid 291918 1131 54 A Johnson Das Elend der kleinen Volker in Kladderadatsch 7 1916 last page W Krain Humor in der Weltgeschichte ibid vol 69 7 May 1916 A Johnson ibid no 9 1918 55 See cartoon by A Wellner Das stolze Albion in Lustige Bla39tter no 176 1917 56 Eksergian The liberator in Cartoon s Magazine vol 14 August 1918 246 afterwards St Louis GlobeDemocrat Mergin Le droit des peuples in Ruy Blas 10 March 1918 57 HGJ Befreiung Polens in Der Wahre Jakob 17 September 1915 8777 idem ibid 24 November 1916 no 792 Wie die Entente und die Mittelmachte sich die Befreiung Polens vorstellen Edward A Varsovie in Cri de Paris 14 January 1917 58 B Partridge Independence of Poland in Punch 15 November 1916 349 59 Werner Conze Polnische Nation und deutsche Politik im Ersten Weltkrieg Cologne and Graz 1958 23311 Heinz Lemke Allianz und Rivalitaet Die M ittelmaechte und Polen im Ersten Weltkrieg bis zur Februarrevolution Berlin 1970 60 Terence H Qualter Propaganda and Psychological Warfare New York 1962 7211 Oliver Thomson Mass Persuasion in History Edinburgh 1977 19 61 Bahr Clemenceau l homme enchain in Kladderadatsch 6 January 1918 Merger La voix de son maitre in Ruy Blas 18 July 1915 62 L Ravenhill The God in the cart in Punch 6 January 1915 3 Der neue Geschaeftsfuehrer in Simplicissimus vol 22 1917 18 504 63 Siegfried Hartwagner Der Kampfder deutschen Karikatur gegen England im Weltkrieg 1914 1918 doctoral dissertation Berlin 1942 161 Schwabe Wissenschaft und Kriegsmoral op cit 31 64 Der Wahre Jakob 3 September 1915 8780 65 Blix in Simplicissimus vol 20 30 November 1915 420 66 Rodiguet Et moi aussi j ai des alli s in Le Rire 5 December 1914 190 Journal of Contemporary History 67 Edmund J Sullivan The Kaiser s Garland London 1915 27 43 85 A Roubille A la droite du diable in Le Rire 25 November 1916 no 106 B Partridge Wilful Murder in Punch 19 May 1915 391 Castro G ographie in Cri de Paris 29 July 1917 P Chatillon L envoy de Dieu in L Europe antiprussienne 22 December 1914 La ne dei tre re in Asino no 24 24 January 1915 8 68 Th Th Heine MacbethNikolajewitsch in Simplicissimus vol 20 no 4 27 April 1915 37 Spuk am hellen Mittag in Der Wahre Jakob 18 August 1916 785 R Hermann Bleigiessen in St Petersburg in Muskete 31 December 1914 107 69 Demain en Allemagne in Ruy Blas 30 August 1914 D Ostoya Les ch timents ibid 4 October 1914 70 Thomas Mass Persuasion in History op cit 21 71 Hindenburg in Meggendorfer Blaetter 11 March 1915 George Hecht War in Cartoons A History of the War in 100 Cartoons by 27 of the Most Prominent American Cartoonists New York 1919 131 Hindenburg Moloch allemand in Le Petit Journal 29 August 1915 72 Pauline Anderson The Background of AntiEnglish Feeling in Germany 1890 1902 2nd ed New York 1969 73 O Gulbransson Hueter des Voelkerrechts in Simplicissimus vol 19 no 20 18 August 1914 328 74 Alfred Weber Gedanken ueber die deutsche Sendung in Neue Rundschau 26 1915 1450 Sir Edward Grey die englische Harpye in Der Wahre Jakob November 1914 8509 Blix Das englische Gold in Simplicissimus vol 20 no 16 20 July 1915 181 75 Werner Sombart Haendler und Helden Muenchen and Leipzig 1915 76 Rosenburg In Great Danger in Cartoon s Magazine April 1917 vol 11 573 after Chicagoer Abendpost Blix Von Mammons Gnaden in Simplicissimus vol 22 27 March 1917 680 G Brandt Aus Wilsons Rede vom amerikanischen Danksa gungstage in Kladderadatsch no 51 19 December 1915 A Johnson Wilsons Friedenspfeife in Kladderadatsch 24 January 1917 77 Qualter Propaganda and Psychological Warfare op cit 58 78 B Thomas Freedom of the Seas in Cartoon s Magazine vol 8 December 1915 945 after London Opinion B Partridge Job s Discomforter in Punch 16 February 1916 121 79 Max Scheler Der Genius des Krieges und der Deutsche Krieg Leipzig 1915 385R 80 Blix Cant in Simplicissimus vol 19 no 38 22 December 1914 501 81 Scheler Der Genius des Krieges op cit 396 82 R Herrmann Dorian Grey s Bildnis in Muskete 4 February 1915 83 Gervereau La Propaganda par l image en France op cit 106f 84 Trevor Wilson Lord Bryce s Investigation into Alleged German Atrocities in Belgium 1914 15 in Journal of Contemporary History 14 3 July 1979 369 83 On Lithuania cf C Rivas Yvonne Pouvreau La Lituanie sous lejoug allemand 1915 1918 Lausanne 1918 Gerd Linde Deutsche Politik in Litauen im Ersten Weltkrieg Wiesbaden 1964 281T Eberhard Demm Friedrich von der Ropp und die litauische Frage 1916 1919 in Zeitschriftfuer Osforschung 33 1984 28f 85 Hermann Wanderscheck Weltkrieg und Propaganda Berlin 1935 17 86 Lasswell Propaganda Technique in the First World War op cit 162 87 Ibid 171 88 Hartwagner Der Kampf der deutschen Karikatur op cit 157 Demm Propaganda and Caricature in the First World War 191 89 EintrelTen der russischen Motorbatterien in Muskete 15 October 1914 23 E Thoeny Mithueter der Kultur in Simplicissimus vol 19 no 38 22 December 1914 509 E Wilke Kriegsrat in Jugend no 17 1917 340 90 Sigmund Freud Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewussten 1905 Gesammelte Werke vol 6 London 1940 112 Modern research has corroborated Freud s insights cf various articles in Jacob Levine ed Motivation in Humour New York 1969 especially John Doris and Ella Fierman Humor and Anxiety ibid 31 7 91 B Gestwicki Englische Weibertruppen in Lustige Blaetter no 33 1915 3 Das Weiberregiment ibid no 31 1915 4 92 PH Kitchener s schwere Jungen in Ulk no 4 1915 A Johnson Frankreichs letztes Aufgebot in Kladderadatsch no 2 1915 Englische Dienstp icht in Lustige Blaetter no 20 1918 8 9 WK Haselden Daily Mirror Re ections vol 8 London 1915 18 Willie s Reinforcements 93 See for a detailed discussion of this question from the German point of view Deutschland im Ersten Weltkrieg vol 2 edited by Willibald Gutsche Berlin 1970 5551i 94 Grandjouan in Le Rire 31 July 1915 A Johnson Englischer Handelsdreadnought in Kladderadatsch no 21 23 May 1915 95 Jean Louis Forain Pourvu qu ils tiennent in L Opinion 9 January 1915 96 Gus P Cri du Coeur in La Baionnette 15 March 1917 168f L Bahr John Bulls Hungerkrieg in Kladderadatsch vol 71 no 11 17 March 1918 97 Johann Heinrich Count Bernstor My Three Years in America New York 1920 53 98 La Baionnette 1916 487 99 Th Th Heine Friedensapostel in Simplicissimus vol 19 no 16 20 July 1915 182 FH Townsend Stage Manager in Punch 20 June 1917 399 Nirsol La nuova Triplice Italiana in Numero no 41 4 October 1914 O Avesi Voluntary Handicap in Passing Show 17 November 1917 275 Th Th Heine Haase und genossen in Simplicissimus vol 21 no 2 11 April 1916 19 100 W Schulz Der tapfere Liebknecht in Simplicissimus vol 20 no 15 172 cf Weber Die politische Karikatur op cit 76 101 For Services Rendered in Punch 23 May 1917 337 Th Th Heine Im Dienste Englands in Simplicissimus vol 22 1917 18 92 102 J Bahr Im englischen Werbebureau in Lustige Blaetter no 47 1915 10 103 A SaintOgan Ils ont tous la m me maladie in L AntiBoche 11 December 1915 Drueckeberger in Simplicissimus vol 19 no 42 19 January 1915 104 Jean P lissier L Europe sous la menace allemande en 1914 Une enqu te d avant guerre Paris 1916 IIIH 105 Guy Pedroncini Les mutineries de 1917 Paris 1967 reprint 1983 106 P Iribe Trahison in La Baionnette 6 July 1916 432 107 Adolf Hitler Mein Kampf 23rd ed vol 1 Muenchen 1933 204 108 Erich Ludendor My War Memories vol 1 349 360fT 109 Wanderscheck Weltkrieg und Propaganda op cit 15 Lasswell Propaganda Technique in the First World War op cit 32 19811 Hartwagner Der Kampf der deutschen Karikatur op cit 145 Marquis Words as Weapons op cit 478 1 10 See the critical discussion in Sanders and Taylor British Propaganda op cit ix 208E 192 Journal of Contemporary History 11 1 Roland N Stromberg Redemption by War The Intellectuals and 1914 Kansas University Press 1982 103 112 See above 113 Albert Speer Inside the Third Reich New York 1970 145 I was not able to consult Adolintler Schriften Reden Anordnungen vol I 1925 1926 vol II 1926 1928 edited by B irbel Dusik Munich 1992 114 Henry Picker Hitlers T ischgesprc iche im Fiihrerhauptquartier 1941 1942 edited by Andreas Hillgruber Munich 1968 1351942 137 1 15 Axel Kuhn Hitlers aussenpolitisches Programm Entstehung und Entwicklung 1919 1939 Stuttgart 1970 13111 Albert Speer Erinnerungen 1969 116 L Bahr Tin Soldiers in Kladderadatsch 14 July 1918 W Trier Das New Yorker MilliardaerRegiment in Lustige Blaetter 1918 vol 1 no 4 5 E Wilke Zittere Deutschland in Jugend no 9 1917 179 see also Truppen nach Europa in Kladderadatsch no 6 1918 The cartoon Tin Soldiers is of 14 July 1918 when already more than 500000 US soldiers were ghting on the Western Front Eberhard Demm is a Professor in the Department of German at the University of Lyon He is the author of Der Erste Weltkrieg in der internationalen Karikatur Hannover 1988 Ein Liberaler in Kaiserreich und Republik Der politische Weg Alfred Webers bis 1920 Boppard 1990 Spanische Kolonialpalc iste in Mexiko Cologne 1991 and with Tilman Koops of Karikaturen aus dem Ersten Weltkrieg Eine Ausstellung des Bundesarchivs Koblenz Koblenz 1990 How to use MLA Format for InteXt Citations Citations 1 3 Newspaper 01 Magazine Article The source is quotThe History of Ash Heapsquot an article by Kevin Baker on page 12 of section 4 of the New York Times January 5 2003 First Citation Writing in the New York Times columnist and historian Kevin Baker points out that quotby the 1800s the muck in lower Manhattan was reportedly as much as two to three feet deep in the wintertimequot 12 Second quotRight from the beginning the burghers of Old New Amsterdam were embroiled in battles to keep residents from simply throwing their garbage and the contents of their chamber pots into the streetsquot Baker 12 Third After New York City had cleaned the streets for the first time an old woman is supposed to have said quotI never knew that the streets were covered with stones beforequot qtd in Baker 12 Citation 4 Unsigned Editorial The source is the New York Times editorial quotBack to the United Nationsquot on page A40 on February 13 2003 There is no author listed According to an unsigned editorial in the New York Times the option given Saddam Hussein by the United Nations and the United States today quotleaves Iraq with little incentive to do anything but stallquot Back to the United Nations A40 Citation 5 Signed Editorial The source is Thomas Friedman s editorial quotPresent at Whatquot on page A20 of the New York Times from February 12 2003 This is the second Friedman source in this paper Friedman opines that for a successful rebuilding of Iraq military intervention must be quotthe product of an international decision not an American whimquot quotPresentquot A22 Citation 6 Online Article The source is the online article quotBuddhist Retreat Why I Gave Up on Finding My Religionquot by John Horgan from Slatecom paragraph 4 posted February 12 2003 Buddhists in America often distance themselves from de ning Buddhism as a religion and emphasize that it is more a way of finding spiritual balance Hogan par 4 Citation 7 An Essay in a Collection The source is Bell Hooks39s essay quotTalking Backquot on page 207 of Gloria Anzaldua s Making Face Making Soul For many women domination is exemplified in submission to silence or quotthe right speech of womanhoodquot Hooks 207 Citation 8 A text book for a class The source is the book The 20th Century A Brief Global History page 113 by Richard Goff Walter Moss Janice Terry and J iuHwa Upshun published by McGrawHill in 2003 Because of its late entry into World War II the United States military suffered signi cantly fewer combat deaths than the other Allied Powers Goff 113 Citation 9 From a preface to a book quoting someone the author also quotes The source is the book There Are No Children Here page x by Alex Kotlowitz published by Random House in 1992 In the preface to his novel There Are No Children Here author Alex Kotlowitz sums up the lives of children in a Chicago innercity housing project with one boy39s statement quotIf I grow up I39d like to be a bus driverquot x Citation 10 Alticle in a Scholarly Journal The source is the article quotWhat Global Languagequot by Barbara Wallraff in the November 2000 issue of Atlantic Monthly volume 286 number 5 pages 5266 According Barbara Wallraff s article What Global Language in the Atlantic Monthly the number of people in the United States who speak Chinese increased 98 percent from 1980 to 1990 53 Works Cited Baker Kevin The History of Ash Heaps New York Times 5 Jan 2003 412 Print Friedman Thomas Present at What New York Times 17 Nov 2002 A22 Print Goff Richard Walter Moss Janice Terry and JiuHwa Upshun The 20th Century A Brief Global History New York McGrawHill 2003 Hooks Belle Talking Back Making Faces Making Soul Ed Gloria Anzaldua New York Falrar Straus and Giroux 2004 206212 Print Horgan John Buddhist Retreat Why I Gave Up on Finding My Religionquot Slate com 12 Feb 2003 Web Kotlowitz Alex There Are No Children Here New York York Random House 1992 Print Wallraff Barbara What Global Language AtlanticMonthly 2865 2000 5266 Print EB vwvi gtvv a CALHQQ HA PRESS m um ivuvvmy Em m ivvm mm Mumiv al N uv lumumn mm W Hi mmth by Umvus yofczhhmupnss mmch mmism s m Armand HAMNH mu mm m vi MznlcyKubnck Txksan lenm vivv smmm mmusymlx mm afls39mk 1m ma aviviuviv vi us mlhbk u mlmwwmmmmgemahhm lpamusnm n1 mm In ivi aviviuviv vi us yrwdasvnPtuhnmss mm ammdwymsmemmWndmm W vivm vimmvv zvpxsvfmksvmdyml mm mm smmm via vimvvvvivxm vmvmvv m mumht mmnm Vimhum vfdmwm k mm vimvivvmmmyv Wmmdu mlmymmummmmmwmmmmu Erhszvf winvi ISTDRMsmmmwmanth 5m Wvawvmv vnuv saunde m vi Whmsm IST kxsmfvtymfnsmeuulhlhs srhnhxsvnsamhasvmmmam mmvmavaWmwd xm vi wmmma donme w we mmmudmhqtmmabw mm mmmhdnaumwfm vi mva rvmvvv mm uhmus39mkvyhse vim mmammg gum gamma m v ammmmlsmkw maximum ivi amid mv v m JACKSON BURGESS The cc115intillilitarism of Stanley Kubrick Of Stanley Kubrick s seven featurelength lms three including two of the best have been explicitly concerned with militarism and war The most recent of these Dr Strangelooe has made Kubrick the darling of the Ban the Bomb movements being widely taken as a satirical demolition of those who have stopped worrying and learned to love the bomb Yet Dr Strangelooe is a curiously and disturbingly ambiguous lm Edward Teller and General Curt LesMay are not its only targets and if sa tire is aimed as Swift insisted at improvement then this picture seems to urge the improve ment of the earth by the extermination of man kind It suggests that we are indeed going to blow ourselves up but it isn t very sad or shame ful or even very important Furthermore Paths of Glory which seems to me Kubrick s best lm so far does not so much attack militarism as take war as a fair specimen of human behavior rather as The Killing calm ly views a band of holdup men as typical pro fessionals trying to do their work despite the little human failings that plague us all Kubrick lms are very bloody and cruel For savage assault upon the viewer s nerves and hopes there is little in modern lm to match the protracted death march in Paths of Glory and the Kubrick canon includes also Lolita with its murder shown lovingly and lengthily not once but twice the explosive massacre in The Killing the Spartacus blood bath and the unforgettable thump of the dying general s nose hitting the oor in Fear and Desire This virtually sadistic treatment of the audience must be accounted for along with the numer ous ambiguities of Strangelove if Kubrick s particular brand of antimilitarism and its ef fect on his work is to be understood One must account above all for the generally gloomy tone of his work Killer s Kiss which is alone among his pictures in having a conventionally cheerful ending was the one lm over which Kubrick s control was severely limited I Wish to examine the three antiwar pic tures closely with reference where it is helpful to the other lms Chronologically the three pictures are a skeleton of Kubrick s career Strangelove is the most recent Paths of Glory 1957 stands roughly in the middle and Fear and Desire 1953 was his rst full length ction lm Fear and Desire is a painfully amateurish pic ture The script by Howard 0 Sackler is em barrassingly banal a virtually incomprehensible story tricked out with vague adolescent pes simism masquerading as Deep Thought The post recorded sound is terrible the sound level doesn t vary throughout a character sounding exactly the same in an interior closeup as he does in an exterior medium long shot and all of them sounding muffled and at the same time elocutionary The actors are inexperienced al though the screenplay might have challenged the most seasoned players and production de tails have a painfully homemade quality not far above the mise en scene of a junior high school play The lm is about four soldiers behind enemy lines during an unidenti ed war two privates one a callow boy and one a middleaged fam ily man a tough sergeant and the pilot of the transport whose crash they survived The pilot is a college intellectual seeking Meaning KUBRICK Under his leadership they make their way warin through the woods and at nightfall they attack and slaughter a small detachment of enemy soldiers whom they surprise peaceftu eating supper in a shack The next day they en counter a group of women They hide but one of them sees the men and they take her prison er She is tied to a tree the youngest soldier is left to watch over her and the rest proceed to the river where they hope to construct a raft that will bear them downstream to their own lines In their absence the young soldier de moralized by the earlier massacre attempts to befriend the uncomprehending girl then to convince her of his innocence Frustrated b her terror and incomprehension he releases her then runs gibbering to the river completely de mented The others have discovered while building the raft an enemy command post in a farm house There is a general at the post and a light plane and after some confusing de bate about courses of safety duty or ambition they evolve a plan to kill the general and escape with the plane Their plan requires the ser geant to make a daring diversionary attack which he sees as his chance for glory The gen eral is killed by the lieutenant who then es capes in the plane with the second private In safety they await the sergeant who arrives by raft with the rst private whom he has found babbling in the shallows The lieutenant nds that it has all been meaningless the pri vate s madness the sergeant s heroism and his own murder of the general have left them just where they started Cinematically F ear and Desire shows some of the ragbag quality one expects from a novice director who has studied his art a couple of Rashomon shots a Renoir shot But on the whole it is surprisingly personal and original Despite its several particular badnesses and its general fuzziness the lm has a striking purity and honesty and is unmistakably the product of a single man s striving Its processes are gov erned by decisions of thought and feeling rather than by formulae or the counsels of caution Its distribution was limited as is inevitable for KILLEB S KISS a lm made outside the normal commercial structure but it attained a degree of fame as sisted by a respectful nOtice in the New York Times It augurs well for the comparative tyros who made it and a patronizing and im perceptive Time review Fear and Desire was an honorable failure in a realm where failures often are even more reekingly corrupt than successes Few directors who come up through the Hollywood mill or any other lm mill for that matter are ever allowed the chances to learn from honorable failure that are taken for granted in other arts simply because of the money involved A novel ist s two or three floundering rst efforts cost him four or ve years and twenty dollars worth of paper a novice painter spoils canvas after canvas with borrowed or stolen pigments but a lm director s baby steps cost a thousand dol lars a minute Which means in fact that he isn t permitted any baby steps Kubrick is unique among current American directors in having served a meaningful apprenticeship There is more to F ear and Desire however than mere rarity a powerful and complex emo tion is conveyed and a vision of the vexing con flicts of virtue and authority and the uncertainty which swathes every moral choice It is a vision of clarity despite the vapidity of the lines as signed the lieutenant and depth and dignity and it is conveyed by means of image This vision in fact is more effectively and simply 6 KUBRICK stated by one central shot from the lm than by any possible paraphrase or declaration and that is in the scene of the shooting of the gen eral who is the type of authority and age by the lieutenant the type of youth rebellion and moral yearning The wounded general drags himself on his belly to the door of the farm housee a slow painful suspenseful progress He crawls out onto the porch to the edge of the circle of light falling from within and raises his head to confront his attackers The lieuten ant standing in the darkness raises his pistol and the eyes of the two men meet There is an other agonizing hesitation then the lieutenant res and the general s head falls forward his face striking the boards with a sickening thud The confrontation of youth and age rebellion and authority moral striving and moral com placency is given its particular point however by Kubrick s double casting of the roles The same actor Kenneth Harp plays both the lieu tenant and the general This is a rather painful ly obvious way of suggesting the ambiguity of the types and the dif culty of decision but at least it doesn t sentimentalize the point and it does most importantly render it visually And this notion of a disturbing identity of the moral types or an even more disturbing instability of the types is the vision to be vividly realized three lms later in Paths of Glory and is the source of the despairing whoops of Dr Strange love It would be a mistake to derive a nal evalu ation of any director s career from considera tion of one lm especially a bad early lm which the director has all but disowned as Kubrick has disowned Fear and Desire men tion of which seems to depress him Nor do I wish to rest this discussion upon the fragile base of my reading of the single fact of Ku brick s doublecasting of the lieutenant and the general Nonetheless the very badness of the lm its baldness makes its basic images particularly accessible and when those same images are re created in later Kubrick lms the vision of moral dubiety as man s tragic burden becomes more and more central to the direc tor s work I would note that never from the beginning in Fear and Desire right through Strangelove is Kubrick himself a victim of the ambiguity he portrays nor does he practice that commonplace false irony which consists in giving a judgment with the right hand and taking it away with the left Fear and Desire was followed by Killer s Kiss Kubrick s least interesting and least per sonal lm least personal in that it seems to have little of the characteristic avor of his work even though he did write photograph and edit the picture himself It was his rst ef fort for a major studio United Artists and on the evidence of the lm itself Kubrick must have been under considerable constraint It was with his next The Killing that Ku brick achieved widespread attention and ap preciation Again the screenplay was Kubrick s own and this time with a much greater stamp of originality In form Kubrick experimented with narration by means of overlapping story segments the offscreen narrator keeps things straight while the picture backs up to view a piece of action for the second third or fourth time Each rerun brings the story up to the point of the beginning of the horserace during which a gang of holdup men intend to rob the cashroom of a racetrack and the track an nouncer s voice grating from the loudspeakers backgrounds various events to establish their simultaneity as Kubrick puts together his puzzle plot so that by the last time we view the ght at the bar we are reminded by the announcer of all the other things that are go ing on at this very moment The substance of the lm is a fairly conventional gangster story of the tradition emphasizing the profes sional details of burglary and the everyday hu manity of the crooks with no moralizing In keeping with the tradition the crooks are un done as required by the Production Code not because they are Wicked but because they are human in The Killing it is a uxorious husband who spoils things 7 KUBRICK 39 Paths of Glory 1957 opens as does The Killing with an oilscreen narrator s voice but the narrator does not reappear and the struc ture of Paths of Glory is a brilliant advance over that of the earlier picture achieving rhythm without repetition through recurrent images of men walking suggested perhaps by the paths of the title A company of soldiers marches past the camera at the opening of the lm their boots crunching in the gravel yard of the chateau with a sound which will come back before the lm ends Within the chateau the heels of the staff o icers and orderlies ring crisply and hollowly foreshadowing the paths of the doomed men at their trial In one of the most brilliant sequences of the lm Colonel Dax Kirk Douglas takes a long nightmarish walk down the trench where his men await the signal to attack while the smoke thickens and the roar of the barrage builds up The at tack itself is a grotesque shambling crouching stumbling walk to death The men march dis consolately into the chateau grounds The court martial is staged as a series of precise geo THE KILLING metrical drill eld maneuvers with the heels on the hollow tile again ringing loud and nally comes the interminable and nerveshattering march to the execution with the footsteps of the condemned men crunching away their last seconds of life None of these walks gets anybody anywhere all the paths end in death or frustration or simply getting back where you started from At the end of the lm Colonel Dax calls for a respite Give the men a few more minutes Sergeant when he is reminded that they must be marching back to the front but it is only a respite and soon they ll all set OE again on the treadmill walk to oblivion Against the futility of the paths of glory or ambition or justice or duty the lm offers faint hope After the execution Dax is dis gusted to nd his men in a tavern tormenting a captive German girl who is being forced to sing for them but their catcalls and whistles turn to tears as the weeping girl tremulously sings her song of a soldier s sweetheart They understand that the song is about them and KUBRICK brie y they feel at one with her her sweet heart and all doomed soldiers everywhere This vision of the possibility of compassion is con soling but scarcely redeeming particularly in View of the following assurance that they will go back into the trenches led by the good Colonel Dax One of the most powerful scenes in this pow erful lm the famous cockroach line casts a perplexineg ambiguous light upon the whole action In the stableprison the night before the execution Corporal Paris cries Tomorrow when I m dead that cockroach will be closer to my wife than I ll be and Private Ferolles smashes the cockroach with his st saying Now you re one up on the cockroach By a brutal act of destruction an illusion of power is achieved Later on the lives of the three sol diers are snuffed out as abruptly and brutally as was the cockroach s life for the sake of General Mireau s illusion of power Mireau PATHS OF GLORY The attack himself is professionally destroyed by General Broulard for the sake of his power which pre sumably is another illusion By extension the war itself is a similar act of destruction in sup port of a similar human illusion and perversely we begin to see war as springing from the love of life the love of one s own life The love of life cannot be condemned but here it is easily converted into envy or fear of the lives of others and expressed as brutality coldness or cowardice This is nothing as comfortable and obvious as antiwar Warfare may be the worst pos sible expression of the love of life and com passion the best but both spring puzzlingly from the same source and one is as likely as the other Neither signi es much for long Lear cried As ies to wanton boys are we to the gods while Kubrick seems to say As the cockroach to Ferolles as Ferolles to Mireau as Mireau to Broulard are we to the gods In such a context Colonel Dax s demands for jus tice become just another path to the grave He KUBRICK 9 rages at the cynical and corrupt General Brou lard who is untouched by his contempt and the monstrous Mireau is crushed but the three innocent men are already dead and the troops are going back to war The only feasible atti tude seems to be the stoicism of the sergeant in command of the ringsquad who counsels the condemned corporal to die like a man We ll all be joining you soon After Paths of Glory came Kubrick s wide screen castof thousands pseudohistori cal spectacle Spartacus Although not a war movie it came with the best liberal credentials screenplay by Dalton Trumbo from a Howard Fast novel Spartacus had its moments several thousand extras in Roman armor are exciting no matter what kind of blah is sloshing around them but was a rather ordinary specimen of its kind ie an or of mutilation and bru tality lashings gladiatorial combats bleeding stumps of limbs mounds of dead cruci xions followed by a churchof yourchoice inspira tional message Spartacus your son is free About all Kubrick added to the brew was homo sexuality powerful and touching in The Kill ing but just plain excruciating in Spartacus and a certain gritty believability of detail In one scene however he did touch again upon the ambiguity of love and aggression Sparta cus and his friend David are forced by their captors to ght the loser to die quickly by the sword the winner to be cruci ed each battles savagely to save the other from the cross Spar tacus nally disarms David pins him in a grip like a lover s looks into his face says I love you David and stabs him in the heart Here the moral and emotional ambiguity of the act is reinforced by a sexual ambiguity Lolita 1962 had a somewhat similar use of sexual irregularity at its very base Humbert Humbert is the lover whose embrace is un natural and destructive but whose love is none theless real nonetheless anguished Lolita too had its scene of slow deliberate ritualized vio lence by now becoming almost a Kubrick hall mark in the shooting of Quilty Lolita how ever concerns itself with the act of love rather than the act of violence or more strictly of au thority upon which I wish to focus Dr Strangelooe marked for readers of Play boy The Realist and the bestseller lists the arrival upon the silver screen of the newest wave of American literary rebellion a spate of satirical novels preaching sexual liberation and hatred of authority often very funny and telling but sometimes suffering from a juve nile identi cation of sexual liberation with hatred of authority Not epater but foutre la bourgeoisie The assignment of the lm to this school is based on the fact that one of its writers was Terry Southern whose novel The Magic Christian is along with Joseph Heller s Catch22 holy writ of the New Satire One re sult of this shaky attribution was a bland ten dency to see Dr Strangelove as making mince meat of the military mind the Birchers the antifluoridationists and all governments which it does and making the case for dis engagement sexual liberation and philosophi cal anarchism which it doesn t The gures of authority take it on the chin in Dr Strangelove all right But at whose hands The rebels who make fools of the top brass the President the Russian premier and all who pretend to power and wisdom are General Jack D Ripper and Colonel King Kong and the Hbomb holocaust with which the lm closes is their act of rebellion And the central authority gure of the story is President Merkin MufHey who despite the gratuitous ridicule of his ob scene name is portrayed as a decent sensible likable and humane man The curious thing about Dr Strangelove as a satire is that General Ripper Col Kong Bat Guano the ones who effectively blow up the world are shown not as incompetents or villains but as lovable lunatics and when the fireballs unfold in the nal frames and the girl begins to sing We ll Meet Again the picture has allied itself with their lunacy leaving the viewer all by himself with no place to stand If General Ripper s sexual anxiety he with holds his essence sets off the attack Gen eral Turgidso n s sexual easiness is certainly no help He was in bed with his secretary when the attack was launched which may be whole some and natural but isn t vigilance If Ripper s paranoia is the mainspring of the action King Kong s cheerful competent determination is the hairspring and the gallantry of his youth ful interracial crew is a parody not of false gallantry 39but of the real thing Conventional virtues are useless in the day of the B57 the Hbomb and fallout but what other virtues have you got And it isn t that ordinary vir tues are inadequate to ordinary human vices but rather that neither vices nor virtues being human and passio nal are much use in a world dominated by inhuman and passionless ma chines Dr Strangelove mocks not only mili tarism Edward Teller and the Pentagon but all pretensions to moral judgment on the part of men all of us who have delivered their en vironment into the hands of totally amoral tech nological Science and their decisions the very stuff of morality to gamesmen aspiring through amorality to Science The irrationality of Rip per is vastly to be preferred to the rationality of the Doomsday Machine Dr Strangelove himself to my mind the weakest conception in the lm has an arti cial arm that keeps giving in DOCTOR STRANGELOVE the Nazi salute American and Russian exploita tion of German scientists is the target but so too is The Machine Dr Strangelove isn t a Nazi or anything else human he s a man who has substituted a sliderule for his brain and his heart and a machine for his good right hand The salute and the cry of M em F iihrer39 aren t politics but habit mechanical habit The world of Dr Strangelove is peopled by men who have stopped worrying ie thinking and feeling and learned to love the bomb ie The Machine Terry Southern himself in a Realist inter view said that Strangelove was an attempt to blast smugness over a foolproof system which may not be Certainly the lm s le itmotz39v is man vs machine in scene after scene line after line the inconsistency between man and his machines puzzles the RAF of cer Peter Sellers when he says of the Japanese They tortured me the swinesl Funny They make marvelous cameras and this idea is played over and over And if the earlier Kubrick lms return again and again to the dubiety and ambiguity of human moral choices then Strangelove may be said to reject with a rage almost holy the most popular current evasion of moral choice that is the attempt to defend ourselves with machines statistics and social sciences The War Room KUBRICK 39I39I against the inevitable dubiety One removes the element of uncertainty for instance from national defense by building a Doomsday Ma chine The Doomsday Machine is never pic tured in the lm except in those reballs at the end but its representatives are omnipres ent the smoothly whirring computers in the room where Peter Sellers rst notices some thing amiss King Kong s bomber or should the possessive be the other way around Dr Strangelove s mechanical arm the coke ma chine that spits in Bat Cuano s face the Big Board in the War Room the telephones radios and radarscopes These are the villains but in the images of the lm there are the repeated juxtapositions of Man sloppy incompetent unreliable but full of hope and courage and Machine beautiful functional absolutely re liable but mindless and heartless Kubrick is unmistakably on the side of man silly and fallible as he is and if Dr Strangelove has a message I think it is that human fallibility is less likely to be fatal than pretensions to god like infallibility or abdication of moral respon sibilities to infallible passionless machines or machinelogic I think that what has drawn Kubrick to war as the subjectmatter for three lms is not anti militarism speci cally but a concern with pub lic morality The obsession with the disturbing imperfections of man with the harrowing doubts which shadow every act of the will is an obsession with the central question of politi cal theory Who should decide War whatever else it may be is still the area in which public morality is most terribly and most dramatically tested And this sense of the moral question as a public one accounts too for Kubrick s worst vice his curious affection for offscreen narra tion as in Killer s Kiss The Killing Paths of Glow Lolita and the beginning of Dr Strange love The offscreen voice distracting and an noying as it may sometimes be imparts a ritu alistic and documentary distance to the story and also is the device by which Kubrick sepa rates his own point of View from the blurred and uncertain ones he portrays Perhaps he will nd better ways to hold at arms length his own and the audiences the chaos he wants to depict The cruelty remains to be accounted for those slow and austere movements toward vio lence in which the feeling of tension created by a savage passion under stiff ritual restraints produces effects almost Japanese Commonly such a progress the walk to the execution the general dragging himself to the door Hum bert stalking Quilty is treated with absolute naturalism no score closein eyelevel cam era natural sound effects and full timelapse It takes us as long to get to those posts as it does Paris Ferolles and Renoir and all we hear is the mumbling the sobbing the rattle of the drum and the sound of the gravel un derfoot It is in these scenes that Kubrick leads his audiences as close as he can to that chaos of the emotions which he sees as the great terror the great confusion upon which are erected the perilous structures of the human will The tension of the approach is what man must endure it is the price of his humanity But it is not alone the size and seriousness and complexity of Kubrick s moral vision which makes him the nest of living American direc tors but his ability to express his vision in a coherent structure of images the paths of Paths of Glory the maddening machines of Strangelove belong to the poetry of the lm Adapted from They Say V I Say The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing by Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein 1st ed New York Norton 2006 Introductions Ways to enter an on going conversation Compare these 2 statements What is the difference between them The characters on The Sopranos are very complex Some critics charge that The Sopranos presents caricatures of ItalianAmericans In fact however the characters in the series are very complex Examples from Experts For decades we ve worked under the assumption that mass culture follows a path declining steadily toward lowestcommondenominator standards presumably because the masses want dumb simple pleasures and big media try to give the masses what they want But the exact opposite is happening the culture is getting cognitively more demanding not less Steve Johnson Watching TV Makes You Smarter You deplore the demonstrations taking place in Birmingham But your statement I am sorry to say fails to express a similar concern for the conditions that brought about the demonstrations I am sure that none of you would want to rest content with the super cial kind of social analysis that deals merely with effects and does not grapple with underlying causes It is unfortunate that demonstrations are taking place in Birmingham but it is even more unfortunate that the city s white power structure left the Negro community with no alternative Martin Luther King Jr Letter from Birmingham Jail Theories of how the mindbrain works have been dominated for centuries by two opposing views One rationalism sees the human mind as coming into this world more or less fully formedipreprogrammed in modern terms The other empiricism sees the mind of a newborn as a largely unstructured blank slate Mark Amoff Washington Sleeped Here That we are a nation divided is an almost universal lament of this bitter election year However the exact property that divides usielemental though it may beiremains a matter of some controversy Thomas Frank American Psyche In his article Don t Blame the Eater David Zinczenko argues that today s fastfood chain restaurants ll the nutritional void in children s lives left by their overtaxed working parents With many parents working long hours and unable to supervise what their children eat Zinczenko claims children today regularly turn to low cost calorieladen foods that fastfood chains are all too eager to supply Zinczenko s hope is that with the new spate of law suites against the food industry other children will have healthier choices available to them and that they will not like him become obese In my View however it is parents and not the food chains who are responsible for their children s obesity While it is true that many of today s parents work long hours there are still several things that parents can do to guarantee that their children eat healthy foods Gerald Graff and Cathy Bernstein They Say I Say The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing Templates you can use In recent discussions of a controversial issue has been whether On the one hand some argue that From this perspective On the other hand others charge that In the words of John Doe a major proponent of this view 23 According to this view In sum the issue is whether or My own view of is that Though I concede that I still maintain that For example Although some might object that Ireply that The real issue is and it is important because A number of sociologists have recently suggested X s work has several fundamental problems A amp B argues that X and In their recent work C and D have offered harsh critiques of Dr X for While I do not dispute A B C and D s general claims that I aver that we need to pay more attention to X s claim that because It has become common today to dismiss X s contribution to the field of as I argue however that X s idea that still holds importance for us as scholars and citizens because When it comes to the topic of most of us will readily agree that Where this argument usually ends however is on the question of Whereas some are convinced that still others maintain that Ithink English 102 Professor Henry Veggian TR Spring 2011 Department of English Class Dey 313 Of ce GL 422 Syllabus email torino3emailuncedu Course Description Different academic disciplines can be described as quotdiscourse communitiesquot groups of individuals who share certain goals beliefs forums for communication and rhetorical practices In this course you will eXplore how members of three broad discourse communities those being the Human Scoial and Life Sciences write and conduct scienti c research In each unit you will examine writing genera styles organization schemes formats and citation styles used by writers in those sciences By studying these you will have the opportunity to practice valuable writing techniques that include writing concise summaries supporting argumentative claims eXplaining the originality and importance of research appealing to the interest of different audiences and build credibility for your work Course Objectives Learning how to write more effectively requires you to write often and to gain feedback on your writing from your classmates and instructor This means that you will be eXpected to participate in every class whether through small group activities peer review exercises class discussions or inclass writing activities By the end of this course you should be able to 0 Identify and de ne discourse communities 0 Identify and use rhetorical moves or types of arguments speci c to the life sciences social sciences and humanities Identify and use organizational strategies appropriate for a variety of academic genres and disciplines Identify and use formats and citation styles used in the life sciences social sciences and humanities Write a journal article De ne key terms Write effective descriptions of processes phenomena objects and methods Analyze documents according to principles of rhetoric Present your research orally and visually to an audience in an effective professional manner Review your own work and the work of others with attention to its suitability relevance and appropriateness for speci c audiences and discourse communities Thus if you want to do well in this course you should 0 Come to class every day prepared to work on your writing 0 Come to class regularly and inform me beforehand if you know you will be absent Ask for good feedback on your writing assignments from your peers and provide good feedback in draft workshops Hand in all assignments on time Use only credible sources for your assignments That is do not resort to a Google search until you have thoroughly searched library databases for information unless otherwise instructed Edit and proofread each assignment on paperiit is harder to notice mistakes when you are reading on a computer Come to my office hours to discuss your writing assignments or your progress in the course If any of my comments or suggestions seem unclear to you please ask for explanation and assistance Use other campus resources like the Writing Center to help you develop your writing skills Never use your computer for nonacademic purposes in class IMing sur ng gaming or emailing during class time will result in a serious deduction from your participation grade You will also be asked to leave the classroom and you will receive an unexcused absence for the class Policies Attendance Policy You will be expected to submit a short assignment in nearly every class whether as an individual or as a group based on our day s activity This may be a draft workshop sheet a revision of a sentence or a summary of an article Attendance and participation are worth 10 of your grade for this course If you are not present you will not submit this assignment and will not receive credit Furthermore entering class after attendance has been taken will count as a tardy and three tardies will count as an absence Missing class for a veri able family 1 39 391 39 in an an r it 39 39 athletic event or observing religious holidays will not result in a deduction from your nal grade but it is your responsibility to inform me of your absence You are responsible for the work missed during your absence Participation in Draft Workshops I am not solely responsible for ensuring that you receive quality feedback on your writing I may supply checklists or criteria to aid in peer review activities but you must also take responsibility to ensure your peers provide you with valuable input As noted earlier this course will function primarily as a writing workshop That is you are expected to come to each class prepared to work on your own writing and to offer feedback to your peers Ifyou do not have writing to share with your peers when a draft is due then you cannot participate in class and will be marked absent Revision Policy Writing is a process and it does not end when the paper leaves the printer To reinforce the value of revision you may exercise the opportunity to rewrite and resubmit a paper after it has been graded Revised papers should be submitted at the beginning of the class meeting immediately after original papers have been returned Revised papers must be accompanied by a lengthy selfcritical analysis that explains how the paper has changed and makes a case for an improved grade In cases of revision the revised grade will be added to the original grade and averaged into the overall paper grade Oral assignments and the nal assignment of the semester are not eligible for revision Keep in mind that revising means more than simply correcting minor errors In fact a cursory revision could result in a lower grade Use the opportunity to revise as a time to learn from your strengths and weaknesses as a writer and to develop your ability Always keep a backup copy of your assignments both on disk and on paper Evaluation Assignments will be evaluated as follows Homework and inclass Guidelines for Assignments All assignments should be prepared according to the following speci cations 12 point font Doublespaced 1 margins MS Word Documents only emailed to me with your name and assignment number in the subject line and name of document ie HenryVeggianF eeder1doc Your name should also be typed in the top corner of the assignment s rst page I will deduct points for mislabeled assignments For every one of the 9 major assignments 3 per unit you will need to also hand in printed copies of 0 Outline and Revision plan due in advance 0 Copies of your drafts with peer continents Make sure your drafts are signed by your reviewers 0 You will be docked up to a full letter grade if you are missing either your revision plan or your drafts Proofreading and editing Mechanical errors errors in spelling grammar format etc count in both academic and professional writing contexts Your credibility as a scientist or as a science writer depends not only on the accuracy of information but also on its presentation For this reason I expect all of your assignments to be carefully proofread every time I reserve the right to lower your nal grade for a lack ofimprovement in these areas Grading Standards A 7 superior the work is of exceptional quality suitable for an advanced undergraduate course The document responds successfully to the needs of the audience and the rhetorical situation The document meets or exceeds all the objectives of the assignment The content is mature and wellsuited for the audience and purpose of the document the style is clear accurate and appropriate for the audience the information is wellorganized the format and layout are consistent and attractive the document is free from excessively informal diction mechanical and grammatical errors B 7 good the work is of satisfactory quality The document adequately addresses the needs of the audience and the rhetorical situation and the document meets the objectives of the assignment However the document needs improvement in style or it contains easily correctable errors in grammar format or content or its content is super cial or insuf ciently developed C 7 competent the work is of average quality The document addresses some of the needs of the audience or it meets some of the objectives of the assignment but ignores others The document needs signi cant improvement in concept details development organization grammar style or format D 7 marginally acceptable the work is of below average quality The document fails to consider the needs of the audience or it fails to adequately address the objectives of the assignment The content is inadequately developed or it contains numerous or major errors F 7 unacceptable the work is of inferior quality The document does not have enough information does something other than the assignment required or it contains major or excessive errors Resources Of ce Hours I have of ce hours mainly so that you can receive my feedback on assignments or on your progress in the course Please feel free to schedule a visit with me should you have a question about an assignment or the course in general You are required to visit my of ce at least once for a conference I will provide sign up sheets for scheduled conference sessions E mail policy You may also ask me questions over email I will attempt to answer your questions within 24 hours weekends are the exception Please do not send me drafts of assignments over email If you have involved questions or want me to look over a draft with you in detail you must meet with me during my of ce hours or schedule an appointment Plagiarism and the Honor Code Plagiarism consists in the unacknowledged use of another39s words or ideas and is a most serious breach of the Honor Code If I suspect you of a violation I will repott you to the Honor Court There will be no second chances We will discuss proper documentation quotation and paraphrasing of sources in class so this policy will be vigorously enforced There is no excuse for plagiarism See your Student Guide for more information on plagiarism and note that your guide contains a pledge p 23 and exercise p 20 that you must sign and return to me The Writing Center The UNC Writing Center httpwwwuncedudeptswcweb b offers free tutoring services for students You may visit the writing center to ask for help with a speci c paper whether you are concerned with developing ideas and content organizing your assignment or working on style issues The tutors in the writing center are graduate students who have experience teaching undergraduate courses To make an appointment browse the Writing Center s online resources To make best use of your time there please bring a copy of your assignment sheet and your draft with you The Writing Center will not proofread papers or talk with you about grades Reguired Texts Ruszkiewicz John J How to Write Anything A Guide andReferenee UNC Custom Edition New York BedfordSt Martin s 2010 University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Student Guide to English Course Schedule 39 to ExplanationDiscussion of Course Design Assignment Review Hwk Assignment 12 and Conclusions to Citation Style Hwkl 4 Read HTWA Argument 68101 Hwkl 3 Finalize report and Post Final Draft pages 431 Hwk 15 Article Write Thesis 336339 Essay 13 Due Long Essay 22 March 5 13 Spring Break Spring Break 15 17 Wisconsin Historical Society P R E S S t39 n 4a hcnpmkm39 n a iv Haw immu va mvmmvmu Arman Ham v v ivuvvmy beerch Vagt ivvm m wsmvsvagvvmvvr 1415qu Val m uv Hntcr Wm pp 11147 mmth by W cmm mdimmw mmch hwmj mn 3 9m Armand HAMNH n u lenm vivv smmm mmusymlx mm afls39mk 1m ma aviviuviv vi us mlhbk u mlmwwmmmmgemahhm lpamusnm n1 mm In ivi aviviuviv vi us yrwdasvnPtuhnmss mm ammd ymsmmyml mammde W ty m mm l Fh zvpxsvfmksvmdyml mm mm smmm vzayivimvvvvivxm vmvmvv m mumht mmnm Vimhum vfdmwm k mm vimvivvmmmyv Wmmdu mmmmwimmmmwmmvvm Erhszvf winvi ISTDRMsmmmwmanth 5m Wvawvmv vnuv saunde m vi Whmsm IST kxsmfvtymfnsmeuulhlhs srhnhxsvnsamhasvmmmam mmvmavaWmwd xm vi wmmma donme w we mmmudmhqtmmabw mm mmmhdnaumwfm vi mva rvmvvv mm uhmus39mkvyhse vim mmammg meum mm Mamambmmgwth 151mm mvvvm mnemuussw m Wynnme UHJW N For EVE RY FIGHTER WOMAN quot WORKER MN wore 1 s CARE A UNITED F or I E t39 worm CAMPAIGN V HE 112 rovym Y When Posters Went to War How Americas Best C ornmereial A rtists Helped IVin World War By George L Vogt N our current and self titled Age of Information with a global community instantaneously connected by satellite modem and cable it may seem quaint if not out and out antique to consider a series of posters a viable tool for informing millions of people during a time of war In 1917 however there was no CNN no World Wide Web not even direct international telephone service In that world a daily paper arrived in morning afternoon evening and late editions movies were the mov ing pictures local telephone service required assistance television was yet to be and the only satellite that circled the earth was the moon Mass communica tion still belonged to paper and the words and images that appeared there would shape the course of the war The government posters of the Great War the four Liberty Loan drives and the final Victory Loan drivewwere a critical primary tool in inspiring US citizens to support the war effort through rationing conservation of resources and volunteerism Quaint they may seem but their creation production and distribution played a distinct role in the war to end all wars Soon after the United States declared war on Germany in 1917 President Woodrow Wilson organized the Committee on Public Information charging it to manage all official prop aganda and advertising activities of the government It was known as the Creel Committee after its chairman George Creel Creel a Wilson campaign strategist and former liberal muckraking journalist understood and appreciated the abili Opposite Although the hest lenown female woreer Rosie the Rivet er would arrive a generation later women woreers were critical to the success of the First World War Adolph Treidler created this 24 12 x 40inch posterfor the United War Wore Campaign As the nation s preeminent popular artist from the Gilded Age through the Progressive Era Charles Dana Gihson helped shape the culture of a generation ties of the popular press Creel did not need to look far to find the perfect point man for tapping into the power of America s daily newspapers and weekly magazines Within days of the committee s creation in April 1917 Charles Dana Gibson 1867 4944 creator of the Gibson Girl and the nation s best known and best paid commercial illustrator volunteered his services to coordinate the work of numerous Ameri can artists in support of the war effort Gibson had been a growing critic of US isolation since the war broke out in 1914 and his work in the pages of Life magazine and Collier s Weekly clearly indicate his pro Allies stance The impact of his work in these publications is more significant when we recall that Gibson the artist was a celebrity in his own right making international news when he became the highest paid illustrator in his tory signing a 50000 contract with Collier s for fifty two pen andink sketches in 1904 As the nation s preeminent popular artist from the Gilded Age through the Progressive Era Charles Dana Gibson helped shape the culture of a gen eration Through his sketches and brief captions he con demned loveless society marriages honored the disappearing Civil War veterans and gently jabbed at the arrogance of youth Week after week the activities of the Gibson Girl and her earnest suitors captured and held the attention of the country As the world exploded into war Gibson s Girl began to chasten the US government for its lack of action and involvement Gibson a quiet balding man of fifty might not have seemed the obvious candidate to lead a national media cam paign but when the call came he was eager to serve George Creel asked Gibson to head the Division of Pictorial Publici ty DPP and act as liaison with New York based volunteer Copyright 2001 by the State Historical Society of Wisconsin All rights of reproduction in any form reserved WINTER 2000 2001 39 WISCONSIN MAGAZINE 0F HISTORY 1 1 I i g a r 44 w I A I Want You for US Army undoubtedly the most famous image of all the World War I posters Commercial artist james Montgomery Flagg tooe the ngerpointing concept directly from British artist Alfred Leete s poster of Lord Kitchener and used his own face as a model for Uncle Sam The poster measures 20 x 3014 inches rarely did the reality of war intrude Unlike many European posters of the period American posters almost never mentioned the word war War bonds were always Liberty Bonds and combat and the impact of war on civilian populations was rarely pictured except in silhouette on American posters Humor unless inadvertent was seldom apparent Except to portray a rapacious Hun with bloody ngers or boots and a wild look to the eye few American World War I posters descended to the extreme level of racist caricature of many American World War II posters a quartercentury later World War I poster art was a carefully calculated means to an end FOR U SARMY N EAREST RECRUITING STATION usually the purchase of bonds or the rationing of food or other resources Realism or hardedged caricature would distract from the poster s mes sage and from the designer s goals ful lling the needs of the domestic agenda and motivating those on the homefront to give money time and effort In addition to commercial artists a number of serious artists also volunteered for the DPP such as Joseph Pennell who had published beautiful books of engravings and drawings of the Panama Canal under construction and other architectural subjects Besides Reuterdahl the naval artist the artistic armada also included a number of talented European and Latin Ameri can immigrants among them Wladyslaw Theodore Benda Polish F Luis Mora Uruguayan Paul Verrees Belgian and Voitech Preissig Czech How did all of these images move from the Irvtram fuwa Oll drawing boards and studios of artists to become posters on the sides of buildings in hotel and theater lobbies and on the fences and kiosks of the streets Gibson organized and coordinated the work using commercial standards and pro cedures He felt that design competitions and national contests wasted precious time so when possible he avoided that practice of the federal government and simply handed out assign ments with the direct assistance of his trusted colleague Frank DeSales Casey vicechairman of the DPP The government took the role of the PH 6030 client and the artists provided the required serv ice Juries for the work did exist both in New York and Washington but their function was largely to accept reject or revise the submitted work based on the overall campaign rather than judge it solely on its artistic merit Every Friday evening gov ernment representatives with specific design projects met with artists at 200 5th Avenue and then adjourned to Keen s English Chop House a landmark restaurant still in business today on 36th Street Later when the group outgrew Keen s it met at the Salmagundi Club where one or two of the likeliest artists would be seated next to the requesting of cial during dinner the bet ter to get a feel for the job Every week Casey lugged a seven ty vepound container of the latest drawings to Washington where he made the rounds delivering the artwork and picking up new orders WINTER 2000 2001 41 i quot quot1 ii J I r g V at 1 v Ea Tbe Omgemlseetcbwhich bedfei um a i tram ride mm York to Philademia Red Plate JOSeh PE hiladelphian Jose ph39 11 6 neu 18574926 one of theiagrtists in the Divis ien of Pictorial quotPublicity wrote several bricks about the art and illustratio s His publicatie jeseph Penne s liberqr Loan Pearce1918 is a detailed tour threugh the creation of his Fourth Liberty Loan Drive poster I i i P e nnell explains that produeingji a litho graph is differe t frem Other of print I 39 Hv 39 A 7 k 39 quotdquot V 39 THAT LiBE W HALL NOT PERIS H FROM THE EARTH LIBERTY LO AN w I 7736 Pwp le39 Plate 611 s rihte ing raisedquot 51 quotlowered surfaces as type or engraving are pressed agaimt 9a surface to Createa reproductien of a1 In lithegrgphy an illustratien mad39edireetly mm transferred t0ei eit surfaee ef Stone or and a chemieal process multiplies the image using a differ ent plate for each color to create the nal wivefsim Because he Was a neiiartist rather than ing V 339 BERTY SHALL ii 0139 PERISH mom THE mm B LIBERTY BONDS i39 I The Trial emf I Sion 39 a commereial39 i ustrator Pennell submitted 3 this poster of New York Harbor as a n ished lithograph rather than a nal draw3h w ingHis39eifiginal submiSSienghewas quick totell reaeiers did not useitheflegend We seat f i gt quot3 here Penne was morete the point He 393 suggested the following legend BUY LIB A BONDS OR WILL SEE THIS No i one could accuse him i of beingindirect 1 4 Ir 1 39 L27 u V V 1 v 39 39 v 1 L quot r f ht n w39 39 I V A 391 w IOSIZPH PFINNE LL DEL e RTY SHALL OT RIS FROM TH ARTH BUY LIB RTY BONDS M Y1YRJENIME IIIIJINP quot779m Lib nfy 519022 Not Pen st are Earlh Tbe nal versiomof bepo er released by the DPP captures the drama 9f Fennel 19 o gmqlgli bogmpb if color In fom it measure 28 x 41 incbes WISCONSIN MAGAZINE 0F HISTORY some 700 poster designs 122 bus and trolley cards 310 advertising illustrations and 287 cartoons for the war effort In 1917 General John Pershing commissioned eight artists to travel overseas with the Allied Expedi tionary Force to draw and paint They sent back more than 300 artworks which later formed the basis of a major war art exhibi tion During American involvement in the war approximately 3000 different war related posters were printed for government and civilian agencies The latter included the Red Cross and the YMCA so the Division s contributions were a substantial portion of the total number as well The four Liberty Loan Drives and the Victory Loan Drive The government paid only X 13 000 for the Division s expenses for designers who 5 FOOD ADMINISTRATION EAT MOPE CORNOATS AND RYE PRODUCTS FISH AND pouurnv Filmrs VEGETABLES AND POTATOES BAKED BOILED AND BROILED FOODS ordinarin received anywhere from a thousand to ten thousand dollars a sketch produced over 16 million individual printed posters So many posters were printed that they still can be found in abundance today Does being on the winning side and surviv ing as artifacts eighty years into the future constitute commercial or artistic success Perhaps what remains most intriguing about these posters is neither what they earned for the government nor the number 7 E of places in which they appeared Perhaps it is the obvious belief of individuals such as George Creel who saw in these illustrators works some basic element that would appeal to the average citizen as both advertisement and as art Have we not found in our rediscovery of N C Wyeth Howard Chandler Christy and although not within this body of work but certainly in the same genre Norman Rockwell a re ec tion of our national character that still resonates with us today The artists who produced these posters were neither the young turks of the art world nor the lions of the academy Instead and with few exceptions such as Pennell and Pen eld EAT LESS VIIl EATI MEAT SUGAR AND FATS TO SAVE FOR THE ARMY AND OUR ALLIES PH 6030 Eat More Corn Oats and Rye Products L N Britton presented a visual menu for patriotic Americans complete with cooking instructions in his 2012 x 29inch poster on food conservation for the US Food Administration who were appreciably older most were middleaged successful commercial artists in 1917 Their works clearly re ect their advertising heritage They are not works of perfection particu larly in the tendency of some to shortchange the image in favor of advertising text which often as not was didactic self righteous or boring Whatever their shortcomings however these posters do have an honored place in the history of advertising and a select WINTER 20002001 45 2g wquot 39 390 a r m UNITED STATES FUEL ADMINIS I39RATIOH Above C Leyeiidecker known for his Arrow collar man and Cream of Wheat advertisements produced this 20 x 2972iacla poster for the US Fuel Administration asking citizens to plan their energy needs carefully Above ght Slovakia is Rising is this 25 x 36inch poster Voitecb Pressig the foreigriaborn bead of the Werztwortb Institute ofBostoii direct ed a group of art students to create the image for the New York based Czechoslovakian Recruiting O ice Far light K Watleiri s 20 x301e iricl 1 poster from the final bond drive re ects changes in transportation that would EL Qitllliallv become a part Of civilian life as airplanes began to PH 6030 PH 6030 overtake trains in power and importance Inset above N Nuytterz s simple image of ambulance drivers in action makes a silent appeal to American men to join tbe gbt in France The Ariieiican Field Service poster measures 2212 a 34 inches NK vV PH 6030 nov q PH 6030 FOOlD WILL WIN THE WAR You came here seeking Freedom You must now help to preserve it WHEAT is needed for the allies n PH 6030 3 AMERICAN COMMITTEE ilFR RELIEF lN THE NEAR EAST V q quot GREECE 9 SYRIA PERS 1A e w PMGN essooooooo I PH 6030 Charles Edward Cbambersis 20 x 30azTrzcb poster top offers a lesson in Civic responsibility while Wadyslaw Theodore Bends quots romantic image bottom 22 x 33 inches nmlaes a succinct plea for help fl it it e his r GEORGE L VOGT has been the Director of the State Historical Society since 1996 He earned a bachelors degree in history from Yale College and a doctorate in American history from the University of Virginia in 1978 A native of lllinois George spent thirteen years working at the National Archives and was director of the South Carolina Department of Archives and Histo ry for nine years before coming to Wisconsin He lives in Madison few are classics of the genre The State Historical Society ofWis consin holds a particularly distinguished and varied World War I poster collection that complements the Society s large and out standing collections in the history of American advertising and mass communications This collection PH 6030 World War I Posters includes more than 350 unique posters created by 126 identi ed artists and many unidenti ed individuals The posters appear in many languages including English French German Czech and Spanish There are seventeen different series within the collection and 65 subseries so patrons can nd speci c posters easily I invite anyone who has an interest in this topic to contact the archives and plan a visit L I l Resources and Further Reading Currently readers will nd significantly more attention being paid to the posters of the Second World War than those of World War l Readers interested in the art and impact of the earlier war however do have some resources Walton H thwls s Wake Up Americttf World War I and the American Poster New York Abbeville Press 1988 is the latest work on the poster art of World War 1 Joseph Durracott s The F irsr World War in Posters New York Dover Publications Inc 1974 offers a significant amount of information about more than seventy individual posters as well as specif ic biographical sketches of artists from both sides of the war The best known poster artist Charles Dana Gibson is the subject of the biography by Fairfax Davis Downey Pm39rmir gram Era As Drmrn by CD Gibson A Biography New York Charles Scribner s Sons 1936 while fine artist Joseph Fennel wrote his own book Joseph Penna 5 Liberty Loan Poster A TextBookfor Artists and Amateurs Gor e rnmenrs and Teachers and Printers Philadelphia lB Lippincott Company l918 Readers who seek the commercial work of several wellknown artists will nd David Stivers s Nabisco Brands Collection of Cream of Wheat Advertising Art San Diego Collectors Showcase 1986 it rich and lushly illustrated resource Background infor fruition about the Creel Coml nittee appears in American Public Diplrll i39itlt39 39 The Pen spear ch of39Fiiy Years 39Medford MA Tufts University 1967 Robert F Delaney and John S Gibson editors Finally the Encyclopedia ofAmerr39ctm History New York Harper and Bros 1953 Richard B Morris editor serves as an excellent overa all reference


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