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Introduction to Country Music

by: Lizzie O'Connell

Introduction to Country Music MUSC 144

Lizzie O'Connell
GPA 3.57

Jocelyn Neal

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Jocelyn Neal
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This 58 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lizzie O'Connell on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUSC 144 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Jocelyn Neal in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see /class/228667/musc-144-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in Music at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
Spotify Playlists Ch13 new and pop country Ch14 Atl Ct ost unk amp retro Ch15 Listening Playlist I made one with the three chapters listening guiz final Day of Test How many women are in Billboard top 10 1 Taylor Swift Countrypop 2 Kimberly Perry of The Band Perry Countrypoprock 3 Carrie Underwood Countrypop Hey y all I made a quiz from almost all of the reading quizzes Hope it helps Except that the stupid website will only let you take it once sorry http39lwwwguibblocomguizhQCSy4VMUSO144 So who else is totally screwed for this at least two more of us also who else is not planning on sleeping or at least not much not sleeping here Here is an email for Dr Neal concerning studying for the exam For the nal exam remember that the quotshortanswer stylequot questions will notjust be about terms That39s a great place to start and it also gives you a good list of people But I may also draw on people terms and events that I39ve emphasized in class lectures and some ofthe questions will ask for ideas or bigger concepts rather than the more isolated term or name For studying recommend making sure you know the terms listed for each chapter in the book but then also write a question as ifyou were in charge ofwriting the exam for each essay listening guide and chunk of a chapter in the book That will force you to articulate what the big ideas were in each movement Table of Contents Click on the link to go to that section I got tired of scrolling Essay Questions Listening Book Outline Country Styles Guide Parts of a Song Reading Check Answers ESSAY QUESTIONS go back to Table of Contents 1 Identify three different styles from three different decades when the quotothernessquot of country music was threatened Describe what challenged the otherness making reference to specific songs artists events etc as relevant and explain what lasting contribution those styles made to the genre Nashville Sound Countrypolitan and Country Pop The otherness that Nashville sound in the 1950s challenged is the distinction between country and pop and also its allegiance to country s tradition Typical descriptions of the Nashville Sound as a musical style emphasize its use of piano strings drums played with brushes and smooth back up vocals singing oohs and ahhsquot Artists include Jim Reeves Jimmy Dean Lefty Frizzell and Patsy Cline For instance Patsy Cline had many crossover hits that incorporated pop elements Producer Owen Bradley also played a large part in crafting this style Patsy Cline s Faded Lovequot is a prime example of a song that challenges the otherness This is a cover song which is also covered by non country singers that threw out everything related to fiddling steel guitar and swing beat In this session there were over twenty musicians that participated on strings arranged in a way with no twang whatsoever Some contributions Nashville sound brought was Bradley and Chet Atkins saved country music from going out of business even if it meant selling out Producers were big in the making of new musical style Chet Atkins Don Law Owen Bradley and Ken Nelson Countrypolitan gained popularity in mid 1970s to early 1980s and crossed over into pop during the Urban Cowboy era It shared characteristics with pop rock and blues It can be said to be a continuation of the Nashville Sound of the 1950s Buckley defined the countrypolitan sound as a synonym for Nashville sound which aimed to to attract the largest number of listeners Barbara Mandrell is an example of a country singer that challenged the otherness factor She was heavily influenced by RampB and soul She wore long evening gowns and an image that denied any downhome country associations Islands in the Streamquot by Kenny Rogers and Dolly Parton lacks any of the stereotypical markers of traditional country music in its lyrics instrumentation vocal styles or musical structure Instead it boasts strings horns synthesized sounds pop style drums and rhythmic syncopation The contributions Countrypolitan had was propelling country music back towards its more traditional twang centered roots with the Neotraditional style that followed Country pop that occurred in the last half of the 90s is another crossover era Shania Twain and producerhusband Mutt Lange helped start the country pop movement The features that challenged the otherness of the Country Pop style was that country music took on a brand new image that was far younger sexier and more glamorous than ever before Line Dancing became associated with country pop Lyrics avoided any honky tonk or redneck themes but had a more optimistic philosophical outlook Female singers were on radio Helped give rise to the altcountry scene which is the antithesis of country pop which is more traditional twangy and harder edged style Shania Twain s album Up epitomizes this movement as had remixed versions that were pop infused rock country and world versions Twain s song Man feel like a Womanquot is an example of Country pop Lyrics of country pop challenges traditional honky tonk by veering away from traditional honky tonk themes of drinking lost love working class identity and redneck roots Country pop didn t use traditional signifiers or sounds that marked country music and the audience was not the working middle class in the suburbs As before the popularity of country music and the country pop style of the 90s helped build a countermovement As it became more popular and mainstream fans felt that it abandoned its core identity and not really country music 2 Within the last ten years of country music what specific connections do you find to country music from before 1955 Be specific making reference to songs artists events etc as relevant Roots Revival of Bluegrass roots revival bringing back old music bluegrass reintegrated into music frequent fiddle use Long Time Gonequot 2002 Dixie Chicks shows rootsrevival has fiddle narrative style song motive to go back to bluegrass was because they wanted to get away from commercialization of their music proving the authenticity of bluegrass and folk things that were around before 1955 Bluegrass coming up popular in 1950 s like Foggy Mountain Breakdownquot Flatt and Scruggs and the Foggy Mountain Boys Instrumentation similar Scruggsstyle threefinger rolling pattern still used in contemporary country like Long Time Gonequot uses acoustic instrumentation banjo mandolin acoustic guitar and fiddle dobro Riding the Bluegrass Expressquot Rhonda Vincent 2001 quot 39from 39 and quot formed own bluegrass band the ragequot Got the same sponsorship from company that supported Flatt and Scruggs in 1950s quotBaby Now that I ve Found youquot by Alison Krauss is Bluegrass revival Terminology hillbilly coined in 1900 by New York Journal Variety Magazine gave it a negative connotation attacking certain distinctions of social class a North Carolina or Tennessee and adjacent mountaineer type of illiterate white whose creed and allegiance are to the Bible the Chautauqua and the phonograph The mountaineer is of poor white trash genera Hillbilly Bone 2010 Blake Shelton is an ex of this terminology being connected current country music Regardless of this definition Al Hopkins country music pioneer referred to himself as one helped with giving this style of music an identification redneck also has negative connotation but it was turned around with Redneck Woman song not only referred to middleclass Americans from all ways of life but gave them pride too Also redneck life is praised in other songs like Redneck Yacht Club by Craig Morgan Honky Tonk themes honkytonk in 40s50s honkytonk themes revisited HonkyTonk Badonk A Donk Trace Adkins Redneck Woman Gretchen Wilson both fall under honkytonk revival with elements of commercial country in it First person narratives a similar to Dixie Chicks Long Time Gone b Taylor Swift We are never ever getting back together c Wanted Hunter Hayes d Hard to Love Lee Brice Lyrics describing an outlook on life that we can summarize as hardliving devilmaycare Saturday night fun with a corresponding guilt trip Sunday morning redneck woman Gretchen Wilson Red Solo Cup Toby Keith Honkytonk themes for many bring country back to its original roots relating one s music to the same style as Hank Williams argued as the epitome of authentic country can certainly bring a sense of authenticity back into the mix ln Redneck Woman Gretchen sings about doing what she wants regardless of what others think living out her lifestyle the way she wants to This gives her a sense of control and power conveying a similar theme of feminism and gender power This can be compared to Pay Me Alimony by the Maddox Brothers and Rose written in 1951 Ca39un Music reference cajun music 1st came to country in midto late 1950s Cajun is folk music from Acadians modern day Maine people of French origin In 1940s Acadians moved to Texas and their music mixed with honkytonk and western swing Cajun music had a lot of accordion lt emphasized weak beats 1234 Fiddling alternates long bowstrokes with short ones ExRoy Acuff Jole Blon Hank Williams Jambalaya In New Country during early 90s cajun style rhythms became popular again Cajun 2 beat rhythms fiddling styles and accordion sound Ex Garth Brooks Cowboy Cadillac Even later in commercial country of late 19902000s Cajun was popular Ex Long Time Gone Dixie Chicks used strings and percussion in Cajun style Latino sounds Bob Wills San Antonio Rose sounds of Mexican mariachi bands Commercial countryBeachLatino music When the Sun Goes Downquot Kenny Chesney and Uncle Kracker 3 Identify three styles or eras from three different decades when the tension between innovation and tradition was a defining force in country music Explain how the tension shaped the music making reference to specific songs artists events etc as relevant could use most of question number 1 s answer Radio Show era 1930s Grand Ole Opry was symbol of authenticity Grand Ole Opry didn t allow drums on stage because they weren t traditional hid them behind curtain because drums aren t traditional country Great Depression sales had plummeted from 70 mill to 11 mill It was during the Great Dep that musical styles and changes occurred new generation of radio stars based mostly in Southeast who held to traditional oldtime music nostalgia jazz fusion contradicted this dance music TENSION IS CLEARLY SEEN BETWEEN RADIO SHOWS wellestablished barn dances WLS s National Barn Dance had pop groups on the show but their biggest stars were oldtime traditional providing contrasting sounds within the same countrybased medium Vagabonds were pop singers and country Would create folk songs and traditionalsounding numbers for Opry appearances but the rest of their music was mainly pop like When It s Lamp Lighting Time in the Valleyquot change came primarily for business reasons station managers wanted to hire musicians who could play on the Opry and also provide entertainment on other shows throughout the week that featured different genres of music George D Hay advocated for oldtime music hillbilly images and a folksy quality to the show whereas Harry Stone favored a more upscale image and music that kept abreast of popular trends Rockabill era 50s60s b country mixes with rock n roll Elvis s version of Blue Moon Of Kentuckyquot changes rhythm from waltz time 12 3 to quadruple beat 1234 General instrumentation of this style was very different from traditional country twelvebar blues chord progression Tradition switches makes moves towards blues tradition slapback echo and reverb added in recording process Lyrics were often about teen romance sex or partying Tradition switches makes moves towards blues tradition Johnny Cash using the twelve bar blues pattern in Johnny Cash Folsom Prison Blues and ending at the 11th bar Breaking tradition but also creating a sense of anticipation in the music Countmpolitan era 80s People didn t like it brought up issues of authenticity Responded to with Neotraditionalist era It s in the name Tried to revitalize tradition in response to Countrypolitan because it completely derailed tradition Bluegrass 4 Choose three different ways in which the concept of authenticity has been invoked in country music Explain these different ways drawing on specific styles time periods songs artists groups of fans events etc as relevant Recording cover songs that were previously recorded by artist who were considered traditional or authentic artist Dolly Partons covering Mule Skinner blues which was originally written and performed by Jimmie Rodgers also know as Blue Yodel 8 Wildflowers cover of Carter Family Playing of instruments Dixie Chicks are seen as more authentic because they play their own music Referencing authenticity in their song lyrics I Was Country When Country Wasn t Coolquot Barbara Mandrell Dixie Chicks Long Time Gonequot George Strait amp Alan Jackson Murder on Music RoW They acted as if they were the only ones left with authenticity Groups of fans loved the song didn t realize it was mocking their very existence in the genre quotDon t You Think This Outlaw Bit s Done Got Out of Handquot Waylon Jennings The Neotraditional style and their cover songs Being countryA big part of the genre is paying homage to roots in the Southern US and alluding to things like food religion work Also not every artist can be considered country Many artist who came from American Idol like Carrie Underwood had to go through a couple of years as a crossover artist before she was considered an insider 5 Summarize define and describe country music as a genre assuming you are writing for an audience unfamiliar with the genre Then identify five recordings you would choose as representative and justify your choices Country music commercia genre from 20th century rural white mostly Southern working class popular music Cowboys twang working class Protestant evangelical theology songwriting relying on storytelling relatable for everyday experience church and family fiddes steel guitars banjos mandolins acoustic six string guitars Biographies of artists at times comes into play w music s history when singer s hometown family or occupation may be invoked to help define the genre Whether the country fans accept the music throw in a song or two that are completely different from main themes of country but still fall under country music because it shows that there is always change and diversity in this genre no one artist can be pegged as a certain style as they change their sounds all the time to fit and mold with the culture and context of the time All of the 5 songs were accepted by the country audience Man I Feel Like AWomanquot o Shania Twain 0 Shows a swing towards pop toward what is not standardly considered country 0 Shows country is a growing thing 0 Does not always conform to above characteristics 0 Periodic periods throughout history pendulum swings from country to pop 0 Lacking Twang and signifiers 0 Working everyday women can relate Challenges gender identities feminism again Back In the Saddle Againquot 0 Singing Cowboy o Fiddles o Describes the everyday activities of the cowboy o roots country represents original pure country signifiers in a time where these things were being established 0 Steel Guitar 0 Gene Autry Mama Triedquot o Mentions ties to family Bakersfield sound represents one of the few hot spots for country music Religion Tells a story of the singer life as he is growing up and all the mistakes he made despite his mother s attempts to keep him out of trouble 0 Merle Haggard He Stopped Loving Her Todayquot 0 Paints a picture of the funeral of the man who was madly in love with the women 0 She did not feel the same way 0 He loved her until the grave 0 Common Theme of Heartbreak 0 George Jones Your Cheatin Heart 0 Honky Tonk in vocals and instrumentals o Hank Williams 0 Steel guitarquot 0 fiddle o Cheating song perfect ties with honky tonk and the sad lonesome characteristics of it o Hank Williams is an iconic figure in country music who was seen as genuine and unchanging 6 Describe the basic altcountry ideology that was part ofthe altcountry movement then discuss three prior instances of this ideology in country music referring to specific artists songs events places etc as relevant Alt Countryquot was not a musical style it was a movement Incorporated the perceived anticommercial nature of early country young demographic DIY aesthetic regionally based During the 90 s anything that wasn t commercial was alternative 1 outlaw movement wanted to be different tried to make a statement Waylon Jenning s Don t You Think this Outlaw Bit s Done Got Out of Handquot The Byrds had rock based country Graham Parsons Flying Burrito Brothers formed by Graham Parsons after The Byrds which was very alternative 2 lquot 39 39 quot39 quot of Rock and Roll Rock and roll comes from youth culture and dance music Gave out vibes ofjuvenile social rebellion much like Alt Country of the 90s Talk about Johnny Cash and his image 3 Bluegrass The relationship between bluegrass and country music Bluegrass moved further from the mainstream sounds of country music It remained part of the Grand Ole Opry which is an indication of continued inclusion into the genre however it developed a more independent identity as well almost becoming its own genre In the 50s and 60s fans and historians viewed bluegrass as a counterbalance to the other mainstream country that moved closer to pop and rock Bluegrass represented something less commercial and more traditional esp with teen crooner starting up in the 50s It encompasses the politically left folk revival whereas country se rvative af rm 39 l 39 m 13 m 5 v Iquot l139vlquot 1 potentially but wasnt it all anticommercial back then in the 50s and 60s there was nashville sound and rockabilly which were definitely commercial 4 maybe neotraditionalist because neotraditionalist was a backlash to commercial country very anti establishment 7 Explain the commercialanticommercial paradox in the songs quotMurder on Music RoWquot and quotLong time Gonequot including their relationship to country music as a genre any relevant history and context that informs that relationship and the songs39 contributions to that genre Murder on Music Row was a song by George Strait and Alan Jackson lt criticized the current state of country music Music Row is the nickname for the location of many music publishers and record companies in downtown Nashville home place for mainstream commercial country music Throughout the song Strait and Jackson lament that country radio has died and because they turned away from Merle Haggard Hank Williams and George Jones and that someone has committed murder and killed the very heart and soul of country music The drums and rock and roll electric guitar have replaced the fiddle and steel guitars in search for commercial success and fame Murder on Music RoW is honkytonk in nature beat fiddle and steel guitar It was re ll 3 PM u vi xu ml Ji However George Strait and Alan Jackson were extremely of the most pr ominent figures in mainstream commercial country 39 l a M 7 7 0 ill in e In their defense Strait and Jackson did not send the song to radio stations but DJs found it on their own It is ironic that when CMA gave them an award for the song and all the country superstars of contemporary country music stood and applauded the song In other words the song shows l Kw 1 1quot M7 lliw galquot aim l39w a h i music and not only alt country dtwo w ii lwgil w an ii wgi time so 4 m 1 gltiw39iirprsfi ui Cm i li i l Long Time Gone was the Dixie Chick s lead single from the album Home This album is the epitome of roots revival in mainstream country as well as the impact of 0 Brother They lionize legends like Johnny Cash Merle Haggard and Hank Williams three artists whose styles or songs are not found on the radio at the time This song contains all elements of a traditional bluegrass stringband however deviates sonically with a cajun groove Written by Darrell Scott childhood story where he learned that the music business offers nothing but empty promises Long Time Gone is technically a cover song as Darrell Scott put it on his live album with Tim O Brien With traditional sounds of banjo and acoustic instruments this continued the country tradition of selfreferential irony much like Murder on Music RoW Song was not changed so when the singertalks about loving another girl and it s sung by Natalie Maines there were four interpretations of this could have been ignored entirely could assume the relationship was platonic female friendship could have been a lesbian relationship or she could have been singing someone elses song realizing that she was singing another s song undid the connection between singer and song which is very far and distant from the traditions of traditional country music like in Hank s songs This also refocused the idea of songwriters behind the scenes creating the songwriterperformer concept againCould have been ironic bc the song was received relatively well among the country audience despite the fact of seeming that it is going against commercial country music in the actual song 8 Select one artist we have studied this semester whose career has spanned at least three different musical styles Explain the artist39s role and identity within country music and compare and contrast the different styles of the artist39s recordings situating each in its historical context and drawing on specific examples of songs recordings people events etc as relevantJohnny Cash Rockabilly Outlaw Folk UMM NOT FOLK BUT ALTERNATIVE COUNTRY Cash s Rockabilly had many rockabilly hits innovated by weaving strips of paper into his guitar strings for a crackling sound rock and pop crossover man in blackquot personality counterbalances lighter aspects of popcountry Folsom Prison Bluesquot very early Rockabilly has many covers contrasting songs about SINNING and GOSPEL MUSIC represents core dualities of country music Cash s Crossover into Nashville Sound Whether it was with vocals or styles of music Johnny Cash always experimented with different sounds Ring of Firequot is a good representation of experimentation One significant part of Nashville Sound was that other instruments and technology snuck into the music like the trumpets used in this song With smooth resonant crooner vocals Johnny Cash completely switches styles when comparing to his history with Rockabilly Nashville sound is composed of borrowed sounds from pop recordings smooth crooner vocals new technology and new features in the songs themselves Ring of Firequot is a great example of this This song was also very mainstream which had Latin sounds as seen in this song cash was a man of innovation change and experimentation All while maintaining the same man in the blackquot badass outlaw image This song influenced other songs like Tom T Hall s Faster Horses The Cowboy and the Poetquot uses trumpets as well Song also covered by Dwight Yoakam Cash s Connection to Traditional Country Joined Columbia Records because they would let him record gospel and have autonomy in his music Joined the Grand Ole Opry 1956 Dolly Parton With career spanning more than four decades and covering all aspects of the music business Dolly Parton is a major force within country music Immediately after graduation she moved to Nashville where her uncle and songwriter Bill Owens helped herto establish a successful career in country music From the very beginning of her career Parton was tailored for the success She broke her contract with Wagonerher first manager to reach a larger audience She then chose Sandy Gallin who had no ties to country music was wellknown in pop music Parton is remembered as a sawy businesswoman who has built an empire as a songwriter producer and brand manager She has shown remarkable abilities to transform her music and her identity to stay ahead of trends in country music Now let s dive in into each instance of her career and analyze stylistic changes that she had gotten through 0 classic country Dolly Parton started her career as a classic country star She entered the scene around 1960s and her contribution was the songs that explored gender relationships Country music is known for disproportionately large number of male singers and very few female singers Especially in 1970s it was extremely hard for a female singer to get a nationwide recognition For instance in 1970 top Billboard songs only four out of 23 were sung by women Therefore when Parton chose to cover a masculine Muleskinner Bluesquot that Jimmy Rodgers and Bill Monroe made famous it was considered to be a very radical move and crossed the gender boundaries in country music Dolly Parton s version of Muleskinner Bluesquot featured whip cracking and whistling which signifies that female signers are ready to be bold and commanding and not feminine girl singersquot as it was expected then This lineage of female singers challenging gender roles continued after Parton and Muleskinner Bluesquot was a raising masculinity among female singers Rhonda Vincent for example cut herfirst solo record by covering Dolly Parton s Muleskinner Bluesquot 0 Countrypolitan During her career in classic country Parton has already been in the flow of mainstream country so when the Urban Cowboy era arrived she simply continued immersing into into popcrossover sound By the early 1980s Parton had successfully drifted to countrypolitan with 9 to 5 connection between Hollywood and Nashville the movie where she was starring She broadened herfan base even more and in 1983 she recorded a duet with Kenny Rodgers another established country star Islands in the Streamquot topped both Billboard s country chart and the Hot 100quot chart The song lacks any of the stereotypical markers of traditional country music in its lyrics instrumentation vocal styles or musical structure Instead the recording is full of strings synthesized sounds rhythmic syncopation It s also worth to note that the song uses a prechorus segment of the song after the verse that ramps up the energy for upcoming chorus which will be a signifier of pop influenced sound later in new country era 0 Neotraditionalist Best known neotraditionalist album Trio with Emmylou Harris and Linda Ronstadt Feature autoharp in the recording connection to Carter Family linedance country pop hit in 19908 0 Roots revival traditional bluegrass in the late 1990s right before the roots movement Dolly Parton redefined herself as a bluegrass singer explaining to interviews that she has started out singing bluegrass and considered it her musical home In 1999 she release The Grass ls Blue Parton s transformation from popcrossover star to bluegrass singer won over fans who perceived her music as authentic downhome and real Parton won several IBMA awards and recorded to more bluegrass albums However after 2001 Parton switched back to a more commercial country identitiy Ch 1315 LISTENING QUIZ PORTION go back to Table of Contents Do the Spotify playlists not match this chart Because there are way more here than on the playlists at the top Just curious The Dance Garth Brooks 1989 New Country starts with sappy piano guitar finger pick songwriter Tony Arata ie Friends in Low Places Garth Brooks 1990 New Country We Shall Be Free Garth Brooks 1993 New Country gospel choir in the background Boot Scootin39 Boogie Brooks and Dunn 1991 New Country Achy Breaky Heart Billy Ray Cyrus 1991 New Country Gone Country Alan Jackson 1994 New Country Independence Day Martina McBride 1994 New Country Songwriter Gretchen Peters Is There Life Out There Reba McEntire 1991 New Country Any Man of Mine Shania Twain 1995 Country Pop Producer Mutt Lange Written by Mutt Lange and Shania Twain Man I Feel Like a WomanShania Twain 1997 Country Pop Can39t Do This Anymore Faith Hill 1994 New Country This Kiss Faith Hill 1998 Country Pop No Depression Uncle Tupelo 1990 Alt Post Punk Songwriter A P Carter Suppose Tonight Would Be Our Last 1999 Alt Retro Written by George Jones Two Dollar Pistol wTift Merritt and Melba Montgomery Man of Constant Sorrow Dan Tyminski 2000 Roots Revival 0 Brother Where Art Thou I39ll Fly Away Alison Krauss 2000 Roots Revival 0 Brother Where Art Thou Delia39s Gone Johnny Cash 1994 Alt Retro I asked TA Baby Now That I39ve Found You Alison 1995 Alt Country Originally by The Krauss Bluegrass Revival Foundations 1967 Whiskeytown Hard Luck Story 1996 Alt Post Punk I asked TA Goodbye Earl Dixie Chicks 1999 Commercial Country Murder ballad part of Roots Revival early country and folk music Songwriter Dennis Linde Oh My Sweet Carolina Ryan Adams 1999 Alt Post Punk Murder on Music Row George Strait amp 2000 Cowritten by Cordle amp Alan Jackson Larry Shell Bluegrass Express Rhonda Vincent 2001 Roots Revival lTold You So Carrie Underwood w 2009 Commercial Country Cover of Randy Travis Randy Travis Roots Revival All Want Darius Rucker 2008 When the Sun Goes Down Kenny 2004 Commercial Country Latin influences beach Chesney w Uncle Kracker themes The House That Built Me Miranda 2010 Commercial Country lnvokes Loretta Lynn Lambert Pop Crossover image in song by returning to childhood home Love Story Taylor Swift 2008 Commercial Country Pop Crossover Courtesy of the Red White and Blue 2002 Commercial Country The Angry American Toby Keith Roots Revival Whiskey Lullaby Alison Krauss amp Brad 2004 Commercial Country Sad themes ofa couple Paisley Roots Revival drinking themselves to death and carrying sadness to grave is theme common in honkytonk written by Bill Anderson amp Jon Randall Redneck Woman Gretchen Wilson 2004 Commercial Country Redneck Honkytonk People who normally do well on listening quizzeswhat info do you actually study ive studied multiple hours for the ones in the past and havent done very well on any of them advice would be much appreciated Split them into five year increments and once you have done flash cards write out each style in a timeline and put songs and artists down Hope this helps Memorize them linearly gut them in order of date and if you know it s the song between song x and song 2 you know it s song y CHAPTER OVERVIEWFROM BOOK go back to Table of Contents Chapter 1 Hillbilly Music 1920s1930s Ceci Sharp British Folklorist traditional song collector who travelled in mountain regions of Appalachia Wrote English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachiansquot with help from Maud Karpeles 1917 Olive Dame Campbell also collected songs at the same time and their collaboration Campbell and Sharp s collaboration English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians 1917 Country music had paperback hymnals that used shape notes system used shapes for different pitches Singers would improvise new verses Used swing which involved unequal divisions of the musical beat which is jazz Medicine shows had entertainers Helped musicians get start Minstrel shows series of skits songs speeches dances racist blackface Radio Barn Dances imitated live performance atmosphere 1st Barn Dance was National Barn Dance on WLS in Chicago Worlds Largest Store George D Hay hosted on WSM We Shield Millions barn dance program He renamed WSM the Grand Ole Opry Grand Ole Opry settled in Nashville Ryman Auditorium WSM at Nashville WSB Welcome South Brother from Atlanta had Fiddlin John Carson WBAP We Bring a Program radio barn dance tradition Texas WSM from Nashville Fiddlin John Carson old time mountain music from ATL Hillbilly nasal harsh vocals southern tradition singing style 19201930 1st generation country music Ralph S Peer is one of the most influential producers Dr Humphrey Bate and Possum Hunters on WSM Grand Ole Opry in Nashville They were at 1st dressed sharp but then adopted overalls and personalities of hayseed hicks publishers helped start country music 1st recording by Eck Robertsonchampion fiddler played Sallie Gooden 1922 Style Early Hillbilly theme of old time nostalgic pathos drenched slave racist Deford Baileyharmonica player One of most popular performers on Grand Ole Opry in late 1920s 1st black star Harmonica Wizardquot from Nashville played on WSM barn dance American Bluesquot train rolling down track Vernon Dalhart most famous early hillbilly music star who was not hillbilly Had professional musicians playing piano and viola Accompanied New York Studio Sessions Halleluiah Side 1926 on Victor records Ernest quot and the Dixie 39 Hillbilly Gospel Had family members in band Bradley Kincaid smooth trained vocal style with a personal devotion to concept of authentic oldtime folk music career offers another illustration of the fact that the commercial aspects of the music business often encompassed ideas of oldtime music as noncommercial performed on WLS National Barn Dance in 1926 Carl T Sprague from Texas added cowboy songs to the early hillbilly record business When the Works All Done this Fallquot 1925 Chapter 2 The Big Bang of Country Music Hillbilly Blues and Gospel BRISTOL SESSIONS 1927 from Tennessee provided a creation story for the genre that eventually grew to mythic proportions These sessions became legendary for two main reasons 1 The Carter Family and Jimmie Rodgers were discovered at the sessions who became the 1st superstars in country music 2 It took place in App Mt far from NYC whose lives appeared to be the essence of what hillbilly music is all about Ralph S Peer major producer with power and influence copyrights were introduced Instrumental in figuring out how to take recordingstudio equipment on the road and set up temporary studios in remote locations which he knew was a crucial step in finding local blues and hillbilly talent Copyright Copyright was a songwriter s most valuable possession in the early days of country music oRequired anyone singing on a record to pay royalties to whoever held the copyright for that song usually a publishing firm oRalph Peer saw this opportunity to make money by licensing the copyrights to songs that the hillbilly artists wrote oCatch songs were only eligible for copyright protection if they were newly composed by the person who brought them to Peer they couldn t be old folk tunes or traditional songs Interesting conflict industry flourished from songs that sounded old traditional and nostalgic but money was made from newer songs so Peer s business model required songs that sounded old and traditional but that were in fact newly written and eligible for copyright registration Keep on The Sunny Side by the Carter Family 1928 Hillbilly Gospel The Carter Family First Family of Country Musicquot recorded 19271941 generations of music Blue Yodel 1927 by Jimmie Rodgers Hillbilly Blues about a man who was wronged by his woman and seeks revenge lts strophic form all verses twelve bar blues 1st big hit Rodgers never dabbled in religious tradition of hillbilly music He is the Father of Country Music its first major star and singer whose recorded T for Texas and Blue Yodel Texas became his new home Muleskinner Blues Died of health problems Can the Circle be Unbroken bye and Bye 1935 The Carter Family has autoharp hillbilly gospel Contributions of Jimmie Rodgers and Carter Family 1 Country singers nationally known 2 two new imag 39 39 family and tragic 3 Songs reflected personal experiences 4 Musical content defined Blue Yodel 9 by Jimmie Rodgers Hillbilly Blues Victor Records Rodgers and Louis Armstrong collaboration mixes country with pop jazz and blues Jimmie Rodgers intertwined pop and country Carter Family and Jimmie Rodgers associated with the Big Bangquot roots of the genre By this time Country Music outgrown hillbilly identity Chagter3 Brother Acts 0 Blue sky boys Western Swing o texas dance halls o Broke traditions 0 fits into the legacy ofjazz music as well Singing Cowboy 0 Western Films B Western Films 0 allowed talking films to be made 0 imagery associated with cowboy would have a place in future country music 0 Image of american solidarity during the great depression I Sponsorship became a large factor Stars 0 Roy Acuff Hillbilly 0 Milton Brown 0 Bob Wills 0 His band emerged after death of M Brown 0 Gene Autry the singing cowboy Great Speckled Bird 0 Delmore brothers Chagter4 Honky Tonk Heyday Point of separation between countryhonky tonk and folk as they both went their separate ways ideologically and musically Honky Tonk lyrics describe an outlook on life that we can summarize as hard living devil may care saturday night fun with a guilt trip sunday morning Cheatin songs Louisiana Hayride picked up many honky tonkers because the hayride allowed drums and electric guitars Answer songs also became popularkitty wellsit wasn39t god who made honky tonk angels Innovations 0 Multi track recordingallowed for the splicing of recordings together 0 Songs could be pieced together Stars 0 Eddy Arnold regular on the Opry smooth voice Hank Williams Webb Pierce Lefty Frizzel Chapter 5 Bluegrass music began to function as a distinct genre oldtime traditional backwoods high lonesomequot vocals instruments banjo mandolin fiddle acoustic guitar acoustic bass Bluegrass appeared in tv like Andy Griffith Show and The Beverly Hillbilliesquot with Flatt amp Scruggs theme song for show The Ballad of Jed Clampettquot Main Characters 1 Bill Monroe Father of Bluegrassquot Muleskinner Bluesquot 1940 as coverto Blue Yodel 8 by Jimmie Rodgers 2 Earl Scruggsformed Foggy Mountain Boys with Flatt Foggy Mountain Breakdownquot 1949 3 Lester Flatt M 4 The Stanley Brothers This Weary Heart You Stole Away Wake up Sweetheart 1953 5 Doc Watson 6 The Osborne Brothers Rocky Topquot 1968 showed bluegrass moving in progressive direction they formed 39 39 quot with 39 country V J by both 7 Sally Ann Forrester woman in bluegrass Chapter 6 Count Teen Crooners and Rockabilly Rockabilly fusion of honkytonk w RampB 12 bar blues chord progression swing rhythm amp boogie pattern exaggerated vocal expressions enthusiasm lyrics often about teen romance sex or partying some didn t consider country because it wasn t very conservative o Wanda Jackson I Gotta KnoW 1956 Elvis Presley Blue Moon of Kentucky 1954 ProducerSam Phillips Johnny Cash Folsom Prison Bluesquot 1955 I Walk the Linequot 1956 he blended boogie rhythms amp jump blues with hillbilly honkytonk music 0 5 main contributions I large of rockabilly hits I substantial crossover success in rockpop music I man in blackquot personality counterbalance to lighter popcountry trends I songs he wrote many covered 20 I juxtaposition of his troubled sinner songs amp gospel music represents core duality in country music Teen Crooner late 1950s early 60s combo of RampB and pop music just as much country sounding as rock and roll but lacked any of the typical signifiershad sweet innocent crooner sound 0 Sonny James Young Lovequot 1957 foreshadovvs Nashville Sound 0 Marty Robbins A White Sport Coat and a Pink Carnationquot 1957 Chapter 7 Chapter 7 The Nashville Sound and Musical Innovation 19581960s Nashville Sound This style included 1 instrumentation borrowed from mainstream pop recordings and the elimination or deemphasis of traditional country instrumentation such as banjos and fiddles 2 smooth resonant crooner vocals 3 the incorporation of new studio technology into the recordings and 4 new structural features in the songs themselves Key Artists Mainly Patsy Cline and Jim Reeves Other artists included Roger Miller Floyd Cramer and Jimmy Dean Outline the phrase Nashville Soundquot first appeared in print in 1958 in The Music Reporter magazine A new generation of stars were working with a few key producers Chett Atkins and Owen Bradley Country music historians struggle to come up with a clear definitiondescription of what Nashville Sound isit is one of the most polarizing topics in country music s history because it 39 quot the quot quot quot between country and pop and countrv s quot to tradition changes that occurred with the rock n roll music helped to facilitate the development of the Nashville sound country music was also getting more attention from record labels who recognized the genre s potential These record labels included Decca RCA Columbia and Capitol One major defining quality of the Nashville sound was the shift in power from the artists to the 39 and the quot infrastructures of the quot publisher recording studio technicians and the session musicians Four major record producers of the time 1 Owen Bradley Decca a Patsy Cline 2 Chet Atkins RCA 3 Don Law Columbia 4 and to a lesser extent Ken Nelson Capitol These record producers pioneered a recording process that heavily relied on a small group of exceptionally talented studio musicians working efficiently to record 3 to 4 songs in full during a three hour session 21 N w 1 Four Trends of the 1950s Country songs routinely becoming pop hits Rock n roll captured audiences that would conventionally listen to country therefore record labels and radio stations scrambled to find a market for themselves Country music especially in Nashville had a huge reserve of talent and ability to turn out records quickly Country music was being sold in the pop market as the sound blended together traditional country with other genres Jim Reeves signed with Chet Atkins at RCA and helped to establish a general recording process formula that proved to be very successful downplaying the twang steel guitar and raw honk onk elements Similarities can be drawn with the crossover hits of the rock n roll era however the difference is that the Nashville sound was not pitched at teen audiences and more importantly the core country audience accepted Nashville sound as a new direction for country music and not just a tangent The Stars The two biggest stars at the time Jim Reeves and Patsy Cline Nashville sound was not their debut styles but instead helped them to gain popularity They did not write their own songs The Songs Pop albums brought in typical country symbolism ie Cowboy Hats such as Ray Charles album Modern Sounds in Country and Western Music 1962 Two main themes appeared in the song lyrics of the Nashville sound recordings 1 songs focused on love and heartbreak and 2 nostalgic depictions of the Old West saga songshistorical ballads were a way of making country very countryquot without tapping into the negative hillbillyhayseed stereotypes Folk revivalEI Paso Marty Robbins A number of songs borrowed from the Latin American musical traditionsthe Latin Dance Craze 1960s Instrumentals songs with no lyrics were quite popular and had resurfaced from the past The Second Wave of Nashville Sound Artists Both Patsy Cline and Jim Reeves died in plane crashes in the 1960s The Beatles took over America in 1964 Nashville sound style persisted in a toneddown version The Nashville sound style became so prevalent that even those holding out against the style gave in to the new sound Shift in common song topics Novelty songs drew upon old country comedy Roger Miller came out with songs that featured rhythmic inventiveness and particularly memorable popstyled hooks 22 Making 0 More traditional hardedged country music made its way back From here country music would move into the classic country period Sense of the Nashville Sound Chet Atkins described the Nashville sound style as sounding like jingling in his pocket many thought that this new style was simply a way for record companies to just make a lot of money Thus the Nashville sound period challenges the issue of authenticity that has been recurring throughout the history of country music Many questioned whether the Nashville sound period sold out country s authenticity more recent scholarship suggests that the Nashville sound was an evolution within country music that was brought about by both social and economic forces One of the most significant of these forces was the changing identity of the country audience It occurred during the time of the great white migrationquot where many white Southerners whose families had worked in coal mines as sharecroppers and on farms left the region to join the industrial workforce in urban areas The Nashville sound both mirrored that shift and aligned with an expanded country music audience as its audience melded into the larger middleclass suburban family population country music quite literally became a musical representation of that lifestyle which in turn gave it access to an even bigger audience The studio system that Chet Atkins and Owen Bradley ushered into Nashville was another reason why the Nashville sound merged so well with mainstream popular culture In sum to a huge population of fans the Nashville sound was great country music professionally made by talented musicians with which they connected But the Nashville sound took country music to one extreme of pop assimilation straining some fans perceptions of authenticity and tradition in the music This development provided the catalyst for an opposing style to take root Chapter 8 1960 s Three major developments 1Bakersfield soundout of working class dance halls in farming and oilwell communities north of Los Angeles 2Progressive bluegrassmerged traditional bluegrass instrumentation w experimental sounds of 1960 s in particular folk rock 3Coun try rock evolved later 60 s as more young rock musiciansmany of whom had played bluegrass bandsturned country music as a means of connecting w musical roots brewing in California which offered unique opportunity for crossover w folk and rock which contrasted significantly w traditions of mainstream country music By 1970 s Bakersfield Bakersfield California merged w mainstream country while progressive bluegrass and country rock music headed in different directions outside of country 23 o Bakersfield CA displaced individuals displaced from their homes due to Dust Bowl and simply trying to find work By 1950 s Bakersfield musicians had unique style which was planted in honkytonk Bakersfield working class music w smoky honky tonk o Bakersfield California 0 combine western swing with honky tonk add electric instrumentation and a hardedged rock sound 0 backbeat and shufflebeat o telecaster guitars o minimalist instrumentation with piano drums bass electric guitars steel 0 recording bands are not studio musicians o people Buck Owens Merle Haggard Billy Mize Ferlin Husky Tommy Collins Wynn Stewart 0 irony The quotBakersfield Shufflequot o walking bass quadruple meter 4 count music 0 chugachuga guitar rhythms 0 Ray Price 1926 0 Buck Owens 1929 2006 Act Naturallyquot 1963 o Alvis Edgar Owens from Sherman TX 0 formed his own band Buckaroos o Merle Haggard 1937 Mama Triedquot 1968 o born in Bakersfield o 1980 Bakersfield Summary 1 geography o 2 musical style 0 3 a coexistence with rocknroll o 4 related to what was happening in Nashville 0 5 takes on symbolic significance in country history Bluegrass Meets FolkRock Progressive Bluegrass traditional bluegrass sounds that experimented with electric instruments drums and pianos all used in ways that evoked the developments in folkrock and more generally 1960s rock Dillards o Doug and Rodney Dillard brothers from Missouri form quartet in 1960 go to Los Angeles in 1962 o record in 1963 become involved in the California country rock scene of the late 1960s 0 adventures in musical experimentation and rock as bluegrass 24 0 Doug Dillard and Gene Clark of the Byrds form Dillard and Clark quotCosmic American Musicquot that pulls the 60s rock and country rock and folk rock into a bluegrass setting 0 television roles as The Darlings on the Andy Griffith Show Folk Rock to Country Rock Dylan b 1941 1966 Blonde on Blonde album recorded in Nashville 1967 John Wesley Harding album 1969 Nashville Skyline album 1969 appears on Johnny Cash39s TV show Byrds Roger McGuinn 1942 David Crosby Gene Clark Michael Clarke and Chris Hillman 1944 personnel changes occur and the band lineup in 1968 is Gram Parsons 1946 1973 with McGuinn Hillman and Kevin Kelley Flying Burrito Brothers 0 Gram Parsons and Chris Hillman left the Byrds Nitty Gritty Dirt Band 0 founded in 1965 Long Beach California as the quotIllegitimate Jug Bandquot 0 Jeff Hanna and Bruce Kunkel started the group 0 Will the Circle Be Unbroken album 1972 release sold millions includes Maybelle Earl Scruggs Doc Watson Merle Travis Brother Oswald Kirby Vassar Clements Roy Acuff Randy Scruggs Chet Flippo as journalist writing the notes all sing as a multigenerational group on the title track Eagles 0 Don Henley 1947 drums 0 Glen Frey 1948 guitar 0 Randy Meisner 1948 bass 0 Bernie Leadon 1947 banjo mandolin Key Terms not mentioned above ACM1964 organized in California as an alternative to CMA lt s founders were displeased by the Nashvillecentric nature of the CMA as well it s preference for the crossover Capitol RecordsHaggard signed with them major label in country music by 1950 s artist who signed with them made recording in California Concept albumalbum w central story or narrative that runs throughout all songsDesperado by the Eagles 25 Bob Dylanfolk rock musician in the mid1960 s ll 7 lra HayesJohnny Cash sang the ballad of Ira Hayes Chris HillmanCalifornia musicians moved bw bluegrass folk and country rock during 1950 s and 1960 s eventuallyjoined the Byrds Old and In the Way Bonnie OwensBuck Owens former wife who performed w Merle Haggard Gram ParsonKeyboardist guitarist and vocalist part of the Byrds Don Richtalented fiddle player guitarist and vocalist whom met w Owens and they collaborated for about 20 years Died and Owens never recovered from the lost Shuffle Rhythms TroutsHonky tonk opened in the 1950 s nightclub scene Chagter 9 classic county 0 Song lyrics and plots re ect concerns of the working and middleclass mainstream white audience of the 1970s especially economics and social upheaval from the early 1970s to the early 1980s we hear a substantial change in the musical style the rise of popcrossover sounds and the in uence of disco Country artists at the time were working hard for more mainstream acceptance country fans later viewed them as distinctly quotcountryquot and country artists today bypass them as an audible musical in uence picking other 70s music instead In other words this music s meaning is highly contextual and constantly changing Classic Countryblends Nashville Sound with the rhythms ringing guitars intricate rhythm guitar picking patterns and use of electric instruments that were all common in Bakers eld then adds a dose of traditional twangy honkytonk and bluegrass elements Cultural Context Social destabilization Economic destabilization Average annual US In ation based on the Consumer Price Index Energy crisis high unemployment Vietnam War esp early 60sl975 Distrust of the establishment Nixon Watergate Male Voice of the 1970s quotTraditionalistquot Terminology Arrangement decisions about instrumentation the relationship of the instruments to each other the assembly of the song s components form performance choices for both musical content and style 26 Modulation or Key Change shifting the musical chord that functions as quothome basequot and the point of reference for all the chords to a new chord Conway Twitty 1933 1993 Harold Lloyd Jenkins from Mississippi Dolly Parton Kenny Rogers 1938 The Gambler 1978 George Jones 1931 He Stopped Loving Her Today 1980 StoryTelling Tom T Hall 1936 quotHa er ValleV PTAquot 1968 sung by Jeannie C Riley written by Tom T Hall Moe Bandy 1944 from Mississippi quotTwo Lonel Peo 1equot 1978 by Benjamin and Penny It was dark it was lonely It was late it was Monday And I was looking and she was sitting at the bar She was crying and I was trying To get her attention But she didn39t seem to notice that I was standing there at all Two lonely people one lonely night Nothing behind us nothing in sight The later it got the more it looked right For two lonely people one lonely night She looked up and Iwas smiling Ifilled her glass and she stopped crying It was late it was Monday it was free They were playing some old love song Though Ihadn t danced in so long She took me by the hand and Iheld her close to me Two lonely people one lonely night Nothing behind us nothing in sight The later it got the more it looked right For two lonely people one lonely night Gary Stewart 19442003 Duets Loretta Lynn and Conway Twitty quotAfter the Fire Is Gonequot 1971 George Jones and Tammy Wynette 27 quotGolden Rin quot 1976mm Kenny Rogers and Dottie West quot Til I Can Make It On My Ownquot 1979 Porter Wagoner and Dolly Parton quotThe Last Thing On My Mindquot 1968 Ensembles Statler Brothers Harold Reid Phil Balsley Lew DeWitt Don Reid First real hit is quotFlowers On The Wallquot 1965 by DeWitt quotClass of 57quot 1972 by the Reid brothers quot 11 Go To My Grave Loving You quot1 1975 by Don Reid quotMore Than a Name On a Wallquot 1989 by Jimmy Fortune who replaced Lew DeWitt in the early 80s Oak Ridge Boys Duane Allen 1943 Richard Sterban 1943 Joe Bonsall 1948 William Lee Golden 1939 later Steve Sanders replaced Golden quotElviraquot 1981 Glen Campbellhighly regarded for his talent guitar work as a session guitarist for the Beach Boys Tried a solo career but failed He specialized in pop country Artist from another genre than country that helped alter the position that country was basically a bunch of backwoods people John Denvermoving into country from pop mid 1970 s softrock singer songwriter styling about stereotypically rural topics girl Singersinger in a group that is a girl what Dolly Parton was considered at one time it was not a significant role Tom T Hallmaster of the story song as a songwriter and some of his songs were modest hits for country songs ie Harper Valley PTA Hee Hawshow that ampli ed the sterotypes of country music and was hosted by Buck Owens and Roy Clark A way for fans to connect over shared musical legacy Olivia Newton John Won Female Vocalist of the Year CMA and it was controversial bc she was a known pop star She said wanted to meet Hank Williams in Nashville he was dead though Oak Ridge Boysvocal ensemble relied on traditions of four part gospel harmony OprylandA Disney style theme park that included family oriented music entertainment ridesand petting zoos With the Opry as the centerpiece 28 Dolly Partonduet in classical country music Charlie PrideAfrican American Country Artist who recorded classic country Charlie RichSet the paper on fire once he saw entertainer ofthe year was John Denver when we was supposed to announce it Ryman AuditoriumOriginal location of the Grand ole Opry Billy Sherrillproduced many of George Jones Songs allowed Jones the full range of vocal expression from tears and cries in his voice to quivers walls and scoops that conveyed raw direct emotions as in honky tonk Shel SilversteinSuccessful songwriter in the realm of story songs He is known for children s books cartoons plays and other projects classic country truckin songscountry songs that celebrated the lure of the open road and the massive infrastructure ofthe American freeway system that not only connected communites by enabled the American way of life through the transportation of goods ie Convy peak at 1977 Porter WagonerDuet in classical country music Wilburn Brothersbrother act w their own television show and publishing firm Helped extract Lynn from Zero Records contract secured a deal for her w Decca Records promoted her on television show and in concerts and effectively launched her national careers Classic Country was an identifiable mainstream style Gender became a primary topic within classic country Dolly Parton Tammy Wynette and Loretta Lynn blazed new trails for female country artists in both performance and the music industry Classic Country Commonalities in the Music of these three women 0 Enormous stars within a man39s world for example in 1967 when Dolly Parton first got a country solo chart hit exactly 5 out of the top 50 songs were performed by women Loretta Lynn 1935 Biography 0 born in Butcher Holler Kentucky Music 1971 duet partnership with Conway Twitty leads to five consecutive 15 quotAfter the Fire ls Mquot 1971 quotLead Me Onquot 1971 quotLouisiana Woman Mississippi Manquot 1973 quotAs Soon As Hang Up the Phonequot 1974 and quotFeelings39quot 1974 Twitty and Lynn win CMA vocal duo of the year 1972 73 74 75 Tammy Wynette 1942 1998 29 Virginia Wynette Pugh from Mississippi Producer Billy Sherrill 1936 signs her in 1966 Sherrill worked with Barbara Mandrell Janie Fricke Charlie Rich George Jones Tanya Tucker etc at Columbia and Epic Trained under Sam Phillips first recording is quotApartment 9quot 1966 first big hit is quotYour Good Girl39s Gonna Go Badquot marries George Jones in 1968 1971 first Jones Wynette duet recording quotTake Mequot 1975 divorces Jones quotStand By Your Manquot 1968mm by Billy Sherrill and Tammy Wynette cover version 1974mm by B Sherrill Tammy Wynette and George Jones Duets quotGolden Rin quot 1976 by Braddock and VanHoy quotTwo Stow Housequot 1980 by Dubb Lindsey and Wynette Jeannie C Riley quotHarper Valley PTAquot 1968 by Tom T Hall 43m Dottie West 19321991 quotSix Weeks Every Summer Christmas Every Other Yearquot 1971 by Fran Powers gm Dolly Parton 1946 Autobiographical Story quotCoat of Man Colorsquot Artistic Control quotMule Skinner Bluesquot 1970 Rodgers original 1930 andcover 1940 andremake 1950 quotJoshuaquot 1970 by Parton quot Will Always Love Youquot 1973 by Parton Female Audience Connection quotJolenequot 1974mm Dolly Parton Feminist Independence in Love Radical Lyrics quotJust Because I39m a Womanquotyrics 1967 by Parton 1971lyrics Dolly Parton by Parton Chapter 10 Outlaw Country and Southern Rock Directly impacted by 1 refocused attention on the performers as musical creators 2 drew 1970s counterculture amp youth into country expanding the audience 3 disrupted corporate traditions that had become deeply entrenched in Nashville 4 Spotlighted geographic centers for country music outside of Nashville 30 5 reintroduced an edgier stripped down twang driven aggressive musical sound that counterbalanced classic country outlaw country resurrected some elements of Honkytonk started in Austin Texas 0 Waylon Jennings 0 Willie Nelson 0 red headed stranger1975 I 6 instruments used in all I guitar bass drums piano mandolin and harmonica southern rock developed across the South bridged country and rock Chapter 11 Most country songs that had reached wider audiences had musical ties to other genres such as rock amp pop The most popular was the popcrossover Nashville sound from the 60 s which incubated and emerged in the late 70 s as Countrypolitan Countrypolitan left behind the associations with workingclass and rural life but rather fused country with pop and dance music disco The widespread of acceptance of Countrypolitan among pop audiences threatened the otherness of music and prompted the development of a new country style in reaction to it 1980 to 1985 1 Countrypop crossover existed since late 50 s was main sound but shortlived 2 country music mirrored mainstream cultural political and economic trends of middle class America 3 many artists expanded careers beyond country music however kept their country identity 4 countrypolitan faded fused with pop culture while alienating traditional fans This fueled a countermovement that becomes main focus for the remaining 80 s Histom amp Rise of Crossover Country 0 initial popcrossover styles occurred in late 50 s with the invention of Nashville Sound Patsy Cline amp Jim Reeves moving forward crossover styles persisted o traditionalists weren t fond of crossover artists even during the 60 s and 70 s Glen Campbell Lynn Anderson OliviaNewton John John Denver all popular on country radio 0 in the late 70 s more singers were shifting into popinfused style The already established Barbara Mandrell was becoming more popular 3 characteristics that differentiated countrypolitan from popcrossover that had come before 1 popcrossover was overshadowed but now was the spotlight of country music 31 2 many who were seen as classic country and other traditional styles switched to countrypolitan disco and popular dance music was a major part of countrypolitan it gave crossover now a different sound than the crossover from the Nashville Sound Era early 70 s a Countrypolitan 0 specific sound of crossover popular during midlate 70 s became mainstream of early 80 s 0 loud drums electric bass additional percussion hand claps shakers and tambourines horn interjections electric guitars strings along with smooth backup singers electric piano organ minimal use of fiddles and steel guitars traditional lots of reverb and echo 0 influence from rhythm and blues 0000 0 Pop Culture the Cowboy and Country Boy 0 late 70 s rise of the glamorous cowboys in the media deemphasized rural and workingclass origins of original cowboys Dallas 7891 romanticized cowboy lifestyle and Texas enticing mythic place of money Dukes ofHazzard 7985 amplified cowboys as rugged independent amp loyal Urban Cowboy was the catalyst for country s early80 s crossover trend growth in popularity of nightclubs and country dancing partner dancing disappeared upon the arrival of rock amp the entirety of its reign but disco brought it back and proposed country music to jump on the partner dancing bandwagon again Developments that affected country music 1 cavernous night clubs transferred traditional honkytonk into urban settings 2 other country night club owners merged conventional honkytonks with upscale appeal amp nightclub environment of disco Country Discos fans could indulge in glamorous and sophisticated lifestyles and still remain loyal to their preferred music New Media Breaking Down Genre Borders 0 specific developments that pushed country music into mainstream acceptance 1 country stars found jobs outside the genre 0 a few artists moved to Vegas others began working in film and TV 2 country stars upgraded their appearances 0 women wore long sequined gowns men wore suits as they had in the early 60 s no western getup or traditional signifiers 3 country stars adopted some features of RampB 32 4 music videos and TV connected country with pop 0 CMT arose shortly after MTV Barbara Mandrell 0 style was heavily influenced by RampB and soul music 0 born in Texas grew up in Southern California 0 hired by Johnny Cash in 62 as a part of his touring act Patsy Cline amp George Jones were also on this tour represented the most extreme version of bespangled crossover countrypop performances in long sequined evening gowns an image that denied any downhome country association Anne Murray 0 initially a pop singer who crossed into country charts 0 after recording songs such as I Just Fall in Love Againquot 79 she was known as a country artist who crossed into pop market Ronnie Milsap 0 always infused music with more RampB than most country artists 0 between 80 and 82 Milsap had 10 songs reach the 1 spot on the Billboard o Smoky Mountain Rain 80 was one of these songs I quintessential countrypolitan song hitchhiking truck drivers smoky mountains heartbreak Johnny Lee 0 sang the theme song for Urban Cowboy Lookin for Lovequot Alabama 0 had a 21 single run on the country charts 0 dominant sound of country music 0 softrock approach was the essence of Countrypolitan Lee Greenwood 0 working in Vegas when offered a country record contract End of Urban Cowboy o dominated for a halfdecade ended abruptly in mid 80 s 0 country stars became part of mainstream pop music and fixtures on TV shows 0 expansion from 8083 came at a price 0 newfound country audience different background and socioeconomic identity not concerned that country had merged with pop traditionalists singers and fans were dissatisfied with countrypolitan style amp the general direction country music had moved pop audiences moved away from country music and the country music fan base dwindled rapidly country music was in a decline 0 a new generation of stars emerged who had a radically different outlook on country music made a more dramatic shift toward the more traditional styles of country music 0 stars known as neotraditionalists O O 33 o countrypolitan had propelled country music back towards its more traditional twangcentered roots Chapter 12 The Sound of Neotradionalists The ensembles and textures were often stripped down One or two voices performing harmony banjos and mandolins are clear signifiers reappearance of hammered dulcimer mountain dulcimer and autoharp often included Bakersfield shuffle rhythms twobeat basic honkytonk patterns were common western swing and swing rhythms were also common naturalized vocals that displayed regional accents electric guitars electric basses and prominent drums with a lot of reverb remained in use from the previous era as well The Sound of Neotradionalists did NOTinclude electric keyboards large string sections oohs and ahhs from background vocals horns special effects extra percussion such as handclaps and tambourines Key points of Neotraditionalists 1 Biography was very important Howthe artists grew up how they dressed and how well they were versed in the history of country influenced howthe fans of this style saw the artists 2 The features of this movementits much smaller and older core audience its reverence for the past and its desire to reclaim the past forthe present reflected the political and cultural sentiments of the late 1980 s The new technology of the era questioned the country way of life The change of the era fostered nostalgia which further increased this trend s momentum 3Cover songs were an essential part of the movement Cover songs were a way of paying homage to the original artist and showed that the artist covering the song was versed in the history of country music Five points that cover songs raised 1 made a connection between the current and old artist 2 helped educate the younger generation about the genre s past 3 shows the lack of pressure from record labels for artists to produce their own material 4 authenticity meant the traditional way rather than an original composition which is a connection to one of the main themes of the course 5 cover songs undercut the other type of authenticity original compositions 4 Branson Missouri became a second option for music tourism away from Nashville Roy Clark from the show Hee Haw with Buck Owens opened up a theatre Later Willie Nelson and Merle Haggard set up shows these shows were short lived because the Branson audience was looking for familyfriendly folksy entertainment Major Neotraditionalists 1 George Jones Conway Twitty and Merle Haggard these three artists remained traditional even while countrypolitan was in the mainstream These are the precursors to the actual neotraditional movement that occurred later in the 1980 s 2 George Strait was the face of neotraditionalism His refreshing brand of western swing cleancut image Texas rancher roots and musical honesty became hallmarks of the trend 34 Strait honed his ability to entertain a large crowd while in military service in Hawaii and while performing regionally with the Ace in the Hole band 3 Ricky Skaggs a mandolin player that resurrected bluegrass Played in the Clinch Mountain Boys and laterjoined Emmylou Harris s Hot Band Was a good example of a Neotraditional artistfrom Kentucky grew up listening to traditional bluegrass paid his dues by being in other bands and his first big album was a collection of covers He layered bluegrass instrumentals and a high lonesome style of singing over a thoroughly modern rhythm section of bass drums and guitars 4 John Anderson was the third pioneer of this era Strait and Skaggs were the first two Sang with a heavily naturalized twangy voice similar to George Jones Presented himself as a country rebel wearing a cowboy hat a brooding expression and a scraggly beard His songs were steeped with nostalgia and heartbreak Most of his songs had the pop influenced aspects such as heavy strings pop chord progressions and heavyhanded production his being a neotraditionalist demonstrates the importance of biography to this style 5 the Judds motherdaughter duet who included oldtime mountain music elements such as a dulcimer Their songs were littered with themes of family and nostalgia 6 Reba McEntire most considered the most successful neotraditionalist woman in the era Her music embraced many different styles which reinforces the idea of biography being more important than the actual music Her music borrowed from pop and RampB and featured extended displays of vocal virtuosity and improvisation boogie and rock rhythms and plenty of electric guitar Was a frontrunner for the movement in which middleaged women were the main audience As was common in this era she did not write her own songs 7 Randy Travis wrote his own songs and did not specialize in covering songs His vocals had the naturalized diction of old honkytonk songs sounded like George Jones His music was straight honkytonk 8 Highwaymen group featuring Johnny Cash Waylon Jennings Kris Kristofferson and Willie Nelson Brought back outlaw country with their album that featured old covers and cowboy songs 9 Dwight Yoakam when he originally went to Nashville he was considered too country Absorbed the traditions of Bakersfield Sound after going to California His music blended the twang of Bakersfield with rockabilly s electric guitars 10 kd lang was an enigma in the neotraditionalist country movement because her biography did not match up with the other artists She was a lesbian whose vocal talent was compared with that of Patsy Cline Owen Bradley produced her album Shadowand 11 Dolly Parton Emmylou Harris and Linda Ronstadt made the Trio album which was a collection of old country covers sung in close harmony and laced with oldtime sounds such as the autoharp Chapter 13 The Commercial Country Explosion New Country and Country Pop 1990s2000s Shift from Neotradionalist to New Country occurred in 1989 with death of Keith Whitley Class of 1989 brought 1 talented newcomers 35 2 they brought a new approach to the art of making music largely informed by rock music 3 new technologies helped rebrand country music 4 economic and cultural climate in US shifted which made mainstream population more receptive to country music Major stars that started New Country Garth Brooks Alan Jackson and Clint Black who had western image with cowboy hats and western wear T 39 39 a such as Nielsen Broadc Data Systems BD and SoundScan allowed country music to become more popular Garth Brooks Had huge impact on Country music in 1990s Many believe he was the essence of country music while others say he threw country music off its traditional course corrupted music s authenticity and sold out to commercial interest One of the highest selling solo acts of all time Critics say he sought sales at the expense of his art Discovered playing at Bluebird Cafe and signed contract with Capitol Records Had loyal and strong relationship with fans but lost touch with his roots and focused too much on his own success and commercial power Fans say he emphasized business over art which is important part of the construct of authenticity Took on fictional character of Chris Gaines which sold out Brooks country identity In 2001 he released Scarecrow which resurrected his images and sounds from his first albums where the album art has him wearing same style clothes as when he was popular and reinstated himself in country music scene His biggest contribution to music is the fusion of neotraditionalist honkytonk the entertainment appeal of stadium rock and a fierce loyalty to fans He modeled his sound on neo traditionalist George Strait and included his name in lyrics lyrics were honkytonk with fiddle Considered the antihank to some Two themes tension between country authenticity and commercialization Second is the otherness of country where for the first time ever fiddle steel and honky tonk themes were mainstream and the identity of pop culture With the economy in the dump due to government spending millions of dollars and the Persian Gulf War many turned to conservative values and religious stances and country music appealed to these connections Country music became the music for soccer moms New Country and Country pop Essay New country arrived with the class of 89 and amplified neotradionalist features Country pop from mid 1990s onward had more elements from outside country music Country pop had syncopated riffs more rhythmic electric guitar patterns and extra sound effects and dense musical texture Line dancing became part of the music s lyrics Themes in New Country 36 1 a celebration of modern working class lifestyles and values which were often laced with humor 2 a growing attention to global and societal issues that affected the middle class 3 a new wave of feminist themes and concerns Friends in Low Places 1990 by Garth Brooks style New Country Song was barroom anthem for working class identity in country music Honky tonk song had other versions of songs Independence Day 1994 by Martina McBride is a song about how Martina recalls how her mom was a victim of abuse from alcoholic husband and mom burned down house This caused controversy like Garth Brooks song The Thunder Rollsquot Most songs fight for social issues and against child abuse and domestic violence that represents middle class females Gone Country 1994 by Alan Jackson New Country contemporary commercial country song talks about how country music accepts older singers historical and ongoing links between country music and folk wholesome family values that the genre has come to represent All that are in agreement in Southernization of America Song also about howthe new musicians songwriters and producers had not been long time country folks who didn t have tradition Song also talks about howthe genre s booming success is what drew outsiders into Nashville lronic Stylistic Pendulums and Country Pop country music becomes roots oriented then swings to a pop crossover then back to its historical roots Example countrypolitan in Urban Cowboy era now Country pop in mid 90s Line dancing became popular with country pop based off hip hop styles which was an ongoing evolutionary change for country music Shania Twain country pop star who outsold every female country star She transformed the genre that relied on down home wisdom age and hillbilly roots into a youthful glamorous version of itself Was considered by some to be the Highest paid lap dancer in Nashville but was also face of country music ls from Canada Album The Woman in Me in 1995 as a classic country girl with honky tonk styles Twain abandoned country themes in 1997 with Come on Overquot which was pop infused and had three different versions The next album Upl had three different versions of each song country poprock and world Country pop had four major developments 1 took on new image that was young and sexy 37 2 lyrics avoided overtly honky tonk or redneck themes and was more optimistic 3females were in large numbers on radio 4 country music went away from honkytonk sounds which helped give rise to Alt Country which was the antithesis for country pop Alt Country also set the stage for a shift to more traditional twangy harder edged styles Any Man of Mine 1995 Shania Twain Country pop Any man of Minequot had country signifiers such as jeans ranches cowboy hats steel guitar sexy lt retains all these country signifiers fiddle steel guitar acoustic guitar but combines with musical accompaniment to become designated for line dancing which was very popular with this song stomp stomp clapquot stadium rock sound Compared to countrypolitan this style keeps instruments that are country music signifier The biggest impact of this song was the introduction to gender roles that challenged traditional woman stereotypes Chapter 14 Alt Country and Roots Revival Alt count ost unk 1990s2000s Alt count retro 1990s2000s This movement fed on themes of anticommercialism and musical independence Fans of mainstream country and Alt country were different Caused a root revival by the end of the 90s esp in hillbilly honkytonk and Bakersfield and country rock 0 Brother Where Art Thou also helped Ideology Alt country is music against mainstream country yet claimed a lineage to hillbilly and honky tonk roots This movement is identified by 1 new technologies where fans could communicate easier 2 mainstream country had reached high levels of commercial success which alienated country fans that believed that music had sold out 3 Outsiders with little connection to country latched on to early styles of country music as representing an idealized anticommercial roots music Alt County origins emerged aftermath of the punk scene Uncle Tupelo is the band that started the movement Band members were Jeff Tweedy Mike Heidorn Jay Farrar Alt Country characteristics Band members used to be in punk or hard rock bands with little investment in country music They had distorted electric guitars DIY approach with simple chord progressions singers favored emotional expressivity had attitude that disavowed contemporary country music industry songs written by band members that wanted personal identity movement paid tribute 38 to the Carter Family Hank Williams and singers who were defiant toward mainstream like Johnny Cash and Merle Haggard Bloodshot records based in Chicago No Depressionquot monthly article for Alt Country Gillian Welch and Lucinda Williams were older artists that made it in alt country that fell off country music charts Tift Merritt is retro alt country and did duets with John Howie Jr from Two Dollar Pistols o merrit is from the Area Went to UNC Ryan Adams front man of Whiskeytown Left country for more rock influenced music No Depression 1990 Uncle Tupelo written by AP Carter Alt country post punk This song solidified the connection between old time country and the folk revival This is a cover song of the folk revivalist New Lost City Ramblers which is a cover song of the Carter Family song recorded by James D Vaughn UT regularly performed cover songs Producer Rick Rubin got Johnny Cash in with Alt Country because of his dark mix with rock country and an anti establishment attitude which was the perspective of Alt Country Album Unchained won a Grammy Many older artists Steve Earle Lucinda Williams Neil Young won over new audiences long after they slipped off mainstream radio Loretta Lynn worked with Jack White Pat Green made the leap from alt country to mainstream country successfully which was hard to do because Alt Country denounced Nashville Americana used to describe music that claimed american folk styles both hillbilly and blues black and white as roots without venturing into pop music It represented simplicity native identity originality and a homegrown noncommercial authenticity Bluegrass was also revived during the Alt country scene and Dolly Parton was one of the older stars who reinvented themselves musically in bluegrass Dolly Parton said that she had started out singing bluegrass some three decades ago and considered it her musical home She released The Grass ls Bluequot which was completely different from the Countrypolitan music she used to sing People sawthis crossover from pop to bluegrass as authentic down to home and real Rhonda Vincent one of the biggest bluegrass stars and her career is a case study of the relationship between country music and bluegrass Did not really enjoy or make it in mainstream 39 country music and saw it as an assembly line businessquot with little regard for musical talent She went back to Bluegrass and became popular again See question 7 for info on Murder on Music Row 0 brother Where Art thou was a catalyst that shifted country pop back towards its roots The movie 0 brother Where Art Thou was full of bluegrass songs Movie brought huge new audience to bluegrass styles The O brother phenomenon was the same as what fueled the alt country movement pronouncement that commercial country had lost touch with its roots even though it took a few years for country music shift to switch back to its roots Man of Constant Sorrow 2000 The Soggy Bottom Boys Dan Tyminski songwriter Traditional style traditional bluegrass Theme song for O brother where art thou Song derived from an Old Baptist hymn Wandering boyquot the song is strophic with only verses Chapter 15 Into the Present Commercial Countr roots revival hon tonk revival themes latin influence southern rock influence 2000s Long Time Gone 2002 Dixie Chicks Songwriter Darrell Scott Style commercial countryroots revival Lyrics make puns on the names of Cash Haggard Hank Williams Song features a lot of syncopation Song is a story of singer from tobacco farm to Nashville where he attempts to break onto the country music scene only to find it offers empty promises He returns home where he and Delia the girl who sings in the choir settle and watch their children grow up and lament that Cash Haggard and Williams are long time gonequot from country music Bluegrass artist put it on one of his albums and Dixie Chicks got the song from him Song complains about the soulless state of country music and became a smash hit on country radio Whiskey Lullaby 2004 Brad Paisley with Alison Krauss songwriters bill anderson and Jon Randall 4O MAIN COUNTRY STYLES DEFINED go back to Table of Contents Hillbilly music blues amp gospel 1920519305 Fiddlin John Carson Vernon Dalhart was not biographically speaking a hillbilly Uncle Dave Macon Charlie Poole Eck Robertson Carl T Spraguesparsely textured sound of guitar and vocalist that s typical of cowboy singers Gospel Ernest Stoneman and the Dixie Mountaineers Gospel Carter Family Carter Scratch Blues Jimmie RodgersYodeling borrowing AA phrases Roy Acuff King of Country Musicquot and his Crazy Tennesseans Roba Stanley Charlie Poole and the NC ramblersHillbilly String Bandpicking technique SoundsInstruments fiddle banjo guitar sparse sounding natural vocals autoharp yodeling Western Swing 1930519505 Dance music played in a jazz style by a hybrid of string bands and big bands conceived in the 1930 s and widely popular in the Southwest and on the West Coast through the 1950 s Swing rhythms Jazz Harmonies Repertory drawn from popular music Improvisation Innovations in instrumentation into country music Music rhythms subdivided the basic beat of the music into a longer and short pulse ratherthan into 2 evenly spaced pulses If played in a swing style the duration of each pair of short notes is altered so that first note is almost twice as long as the second Complex chord progressions More than three notes in each chord lots of blues and vaudeville songs into the mix Improvisation New instruments First electric steel guitar modifications by Dunn to his Martin guitar biting tone that cut through the noise in the clubs where the band played Piano Horns trumpets saxophones and at time trombones played on west coast and expanded to violins and even harp accordions No twang or nasal timbres 41 0 Milton Brown and Musical Brownies once were the Light Crust Doughboys Tommy DuncanTex Williams Smooth resonant tone enhanced by vibrato and devoid of extreme regional accents 0 shared characteristics w singing cowboy vocal timbres use of accordions and slick twin fiddles Bob Wills and Texas Playboys Rose Maddox Singing Cowboy 1930519405 I 0 Gene Autry 0 Jules Verne Allen 0 Carl T Spargue 0 Creation of Hollywood film industry 0 New San Antonio Rosequot 1940 Bob Wills best known 0 Movie form Singing cowboy star Ken Maynard 0 Sons of Pioneers 0 Singing Cowboy Brothers Act 1930519405 0 Counterpart know as sister s act 0 Vocal harmony and two string instruments 0 Melody w harmony above it 0 Frequently gospel tunescall and response or after beat sections person singing harmony sings a phrase after the person singing melody echo created Not as strained or roughhewn as hillbilly singers from even half decade earlier guitar w one of the following mandolin tenor guitar or banjo two voice style remained popular through 1950 s Blue Sky Boys Delmore Brothers Honkytank 1940519505 Faron young Hank Thompson Hank Williams Webb Pierce Ernest TubbSwing Beat electric guitar Kitty Wells Queen of Country Musicquot Instruments fiddle steel guitar acoustic rhythm guitar electric lead guitar and bass 0 In the 40 s console steel guitars o In the 50 s steel guitar with pedal 0 sock rhythm style of acoustic guitar 42 o upright acoustic basses Bluegrass 1940519505 Flatt and Scruggs Country Gentlemen Bill Monroe Rockabilly 19505 Johnny Cash guttural grunts yelps and growls wove paper bw guitar strings Wanda Jackson George Jonesdramatic stop time rhythms Elvis Presleyslap bass pulsating interjections Three instruments electric guitar acoustic guitar and acoustic bass Frequent use of the 12 bar blues chord progression Swing rhythms and boogie patterns Percussive rhythms from slap bass and rhythm guitar Exaggerated Vocals expression Slap back echo and reverberation added in the recording process Unbridled enthusiasm and careless energy Lyrics often about teen romance sex or partying Fusion of honky tonk w rhythm and blues especially jump blues tradition Blends black and white musical tradition percussive pops and slaps Bass player adopted slap bassquot chuck noise similar to sock rhythm may have also had drums freight train boogie soundemphasis continual subdivisions of the beat and intense wave of sound rumbling perpetual motion Call out phrases like Ah let s go catquot and right topic love heartbreak and rebellion Teen crooner 19505 Marty Robbins Sonny James George Hamilton lV Country and Rocknroll Pop Did not connect w traditional country or hillbilly identity or to the rebellion and social marginalization that was typical rock less threatening version of Elvis Presleys teen ballads 43 o avoided guttural expressiveness of rockabilly the naturalized twang of honky tonk or the resonant polish of western swing 0 sweet and innocent crooner style Nashville sound late 1950s1960s Floyd Cramer Jim Reeves Roger Miller Marty Robbins Patsy Clinemodulation Eddy Arnold Violins strings played w shimmering tremolo technique Voice drenched in echo and reverb Bakers eld sound 1960s 0 Buck OwensTelecaster guitar Steel guitar fiddle honky tonk piano chugachug rhythm Bakersfield Shuffle Merle Haggard Country rock 1960s1970s o Nitty Gritty Dirt Band 0 Bob Dylan folkrock o The Byrds 0 like Dylan and The Byrds many of the California folkrock bands decided to pursue their interests by recording albums that were what they perceived as authentic country 0 Gram Parsons and the Flying Burrito Brothers helped create country rock The Eagles Linda Ronstadt Olivia NewtonJohn John Denver Not accepted in by country audiences Progressive bluegrass o Dillardsflutes and percussion weave around mandolin and guitars w chords vocal harmony and change in keys Played on the Andy Grittith show as the Darlings Classic country 1960s1970s 0 Oak Ridge Boys 0 Loretta Lynn and Conway Tvvitty 44 George Jones and Tammy Wynette Dolly Parton Jeannie C Riley Kenny Rogers Outlaw 19705 willie nelson and waylon jennings Red Headed Strangerquot album Willie Nelson 1975 Wanted The Outlaws album gave fans a single album to connect to outlaw country Luckenbach Texas Back to the Basics of Lovequot 1977 Nelson and Jennings Don t You Think This Outlaw Bit s Done Got Out of Handquot 1978 Jennings opposition to the antiestablishment movement going mainstream ironically it reached 5 on Billboard Southern rock 19705 built music from the blues tradition in chord progressions musical harmony riff based rock emphasis on electric guitar name checking The South s Gonna Do Itquot Charlie Daniels Band loud drumming and sonic distortion attempted to capture live sound blends of gospel such as the organ short memorable hooks extended jams the use of fiddle and steel guitar showthe intersection between country and rock Count golitan1970519805 Barbara Mandrell Loud drumselectric bass and additional percussion such as handclaps shakers and tambourines Musical interjections from horns trumpets saxophones electric guitars and sometimes specificeffects noises Strings that fill in the overall sonic landscape along w smooth backup singers Electric pianoorgan and synthesizers Minimal use of traditional country fiddles and steel guitars Rhythmic grooves that rely on steady 8th notes and rock beats along w lots of syncopation Lots of reverb and echo Chord progressions that extend far beyond the traditional patterns of classic country Strong influence from rhythm and blues layering of many instruments creative stereophonic mixing into the albums and singles Eddie Rabbit Anne Murray 45 Ronnie Mllsap Juice Newton Janie Fricke Sylavia jane Kirby Marie Osmond Cystal Gayle Lee Greenwood Alabama lack of signifiers in the songs such as names of places clues about social class employment wardrobe lifestyle Emmylou Harris Dolly Parton and Countrypolitan Neotraditional 19805 Judds George Strait Reclaim past country music for present to rekindle traditions Motivated by a strong sense of nostalgia and the belief that countrypolitan had strayed from core values Reba McEntire Randy Travis Resurrection of earlier distinctive techniques of country music updated w modern recording studio tech Identified by rhythmic characteristics and basic instrumentation Main styles that made an appearance honky tonk bluegrass Bakersfield and western swing Some elements of outlaw country especially Old West and cowboy imagery were present as well as rockabilly No Nashville or Countrypolitan like sound Fiddle and steel guitar were prominent lead guitar reappeared Vocal harmony shifted back to 123 voices singing the lyrics along w the soloist rather than ooh s or ahh s Bakersfield shuffle pattern slow waltzes and twobeat basic honky tonk pattern that match country dances Bluegrass breakdown reappeared as did swing rhythm naturalized vocal techniques and regional accents lack of electric keyboards lack of strings lack of backup vocals Cover songs electric guitar and electric basses and drums commonplace w reverb New count 1990520005 Alan Jackson 46 Clint Black Garth Brooks Continued the neotraditional honky tonk sounds of Randy Travis and George Strait Fiddles steel guitars danceable two step beats and voices w audible twang Vince Gill Mark Chesnutt Travis Tritt Country 202 1990520005 0 Faith Hill 0 Shania Twain Altcount 05t unk 1990520005 0 Uncle Tupelo 0 Elvis Costello more postrock o cowpunk trend of punk bands from New York to California who had taken to collecting country records and using them as a source for their music 0 Bloodshot records Altcount retro 1990520005 0 Two Dollar Pistols with Tift Merritt 0 Suppose Tonight Would Be Our Lastquot 1999 updated honkytonk sound Bakersfield shuffle steel guitar classic AABA form r y 39 39country commercial country root5 revival 20005 Dixie Chick Brad Paisley w Alison Krauss commercial country honkytonkredneck 20005 0 Cheatin Songs Gretchen Wilson Sara Evans Carrie Underwood Trace Adkins Neal McCoy s Joe Nichols s Little Big Town Jason Aldean Emphasis on social class distinction and othered identity became front and center othered identity meaning what 47 commercial country quot L L 20005 0 Escaping everyday life no longer meant the farm the small town or the open road now it meant the beach Kenny Chesney and Uncle Kracker Zac Brown Band Blake Shelton Craig Morgan Toby Keith commercial country crossover 20005 0 Zac Brown Band Rascal Flatts Sugarland Taylor Swift Carrie Underwood Popular in both country and pop audiences Lady Antebellum commercial count southernrockderivedl 20005 0 Pulled 1970 s southern rock into the direct lineage of contemporary country music with a corresponding deemphasis on classic country music 0 Songs mentioned southern rock songs bands and places as well as through the sound of the music itself ie chord progressions and rhythmic patterns that were derived for that style Gretchen Wilson Rodney Atkins Lady Antebellum Eric Church Montgomery Gentry Nashville Sound 1950s Jim Reeves Jimmy Dean Patsy Cline Lefty Frizzell Roger Miller Countrypolitan 1970s 1980s Lee Greenwood Barbara Mandrell Dolly PartonKenny Rodgers Alabama Juice Newton CountryPop Late 1990s Shania Twain Faith Hill Dixie Chicks Bakersfield Sound 1960s Merle Haggard Buck Owens Classic Country 1970s 48 Dolly Parton Loretta Lynn Tammy Wynette Conway Twitty George Jones Kenny Rodgers HonkyTonk 1940s 1950s Ernest Tubb Hank Williams Rose Maddox Lefty Frizzell Webb Pierce Hank Thompson Kitty Wells Bluegrass 1940s1960s Bill Monroe Flatt and Scruggs Country Gentlemen Osborne Brothers Rockabilly Late 1950s Elvis Presley Johnny Cash Wanda Jackson Honky Tonk George Jones Teen Crooner Late 1950s Sonny James Marty Robbins Outlaw Country 1970s Willie Nelson Waylon Jennings Charlie Daniels Band Neotraditionalist 1980s Reba McEntire Randy Travis George Strait The Judds Ricky Van Shelton Hillbilly 1920s 1930s Fiddlin John Carson Charlie Poole and the North Carolina Ramblers Ernest Stoneman and his Dixie Mountaineers Eck Robertson Jimmie Rodgers Carter Family Roy Acuff Cowboy 1930s Gene Autry Sons of the Pioneers Patsy Montana Western Swing Late 1930s Early 1940s Milton Brown Bob Wills This is the same thing but reordered and with the missing musical styles and artists Hillbill 1920s 1930s Fiddlin John Carson Charlie Poole and the North Carolina Ramblers Ernest Stoneman and his Dixie Mountaineers Eck Robertson Jimmie Rodgers Carter Family Roy Acuff Western Swing Late 1930s Early 1940s Milton Brown Bob Wills Cowbo 1930s Gene Autry Sons of the Pioneers Patsy Montana Brother Acts 1930s 1940s Blue Sky Boys Delmore Brothers HonkyTonk 1940s 1950s Ernest Tubb Hank Williams Rose Maddox Lefty Frizzell Webb Pierce Hank Thompson Kitty Wells Bluegrass 1940s1960s Bill Monroe Flatt and Scruggs Country Gentlemen Osborne Brothers Rockabill Late 1950s Elvis Johnny Cash Wanda Jackson Honky Tonk George Jones Teen Crooner Late 1950s Sonny James Marty Robbins George Hamilton IV 49 Nashville Sound 1950s Jim Reeves Jimmy Dean Patsy Cline Lefty Frizzell Roger Miller Floyd Cramer Eddy Arnold Bakersfield Sound 1960s Merle Haggard Buck Owens CountyRock 1960s 1970s Nitty Gritty Dirt Band Bob Dylan The Byrds Gram Parsons Flying Burrito Brothers The Eagles Linda Ronstadt Olivia NewtonJohn John Denver Progressive Bluegrass 1960s The Dillards Chris Hillmen Jerry Garcia Classic Count 1970s Dolly Parton Loretta Lynn Tammy Wynette Conway Twitty George Jones Kenny Rodgers Jeanie C Riley Oak Ridge Boys Outlaw Country 1970s Willie Nelson Waylon Jennings Charlie Daniels Band Southern Rock 1970s Charlie Daniels Band Lynyrd Skynyrd Allman Brothers Band Marshall Tucker Band Barefoot Jerry Count olitan 1970s 1980s Lee Greenwood Barbara Mandrell Dolly PartonKenny Rodgers Alabama Juice Newton Eddie Rabbit Janie Fricke Marie Osmond Emmylou Harris Neotraditionalist late 1980s Reba McEntire Randy Travis George Strait The Judds Ricky Van Shelton New Count 1990s 2000s Alan Jackson Clint Black Garth Brooks Vince Gill Mark Chesnutt Travis Tritt Count Po Late 1990s Shania Twain Faith Hill Dixie Chicks AltCount 1990s 2000s Uncle Tupelo Elvis Costello Two Dollar Pistols Tift Merritt Ryan Adams f y Commercial Countrv2000s Everyone you know from southern rock to pop to bluegrass to roots revival to beach to k II I Ito Different Parts of a song go back to Table of Contents Basic sections Verse Fundamental block of a song Where the Plot of the song develops or basic info about the song s subject Similar melody bw different verse End of verse is finished called harmonically closed Harmonically opensounds like there is more to come 50 Chorus Central Point of Reflection in a son contains main idea Not all songs have chorus Heard multiple times usually has has same lyrics melody and harmony End usually sounds finished harmonically closed If song form has a chorus it will typically be the last section ofthe song Bridge Provides contrast to to other sections Usually only once in a song No difference in melody harmony and lyrics than other sections Unfinished at the end harmonically open Leads into another section of the song most common chorus Not in all songs Ex In Long Time Gone Now me I went to Nashvillie Supplementary Sections Introduction lntro opening of a song before the main melody or lyrics appear Just instrument most of the time Section DJ Speaks over Outro matches role of intro just at the end Brief instrumental section that simply wraps up the song after the melody and lyrics Playout Lengthy instrumental section at the end of the song Elaborate improvisation Much longer outro Several different instrumental solos Prechorus Short section of a song usually consisting ofjust two lines of text Forms a link bvv a verse and a chorus Builds energy of the song to launch the chorus ie ramp a climb or a transitional bridge Instrumental Catchall category No lyrics OneMore instruments taking a solo role Can be based on any of the other building blocks 51 Label sections by whatever fundamental sections they are derived from ie instrumental chorus or instrumental verse Instrumental Interlude breif section of music usually few measures that simply serves as a spacer bvv more substantial sections Allows a breather singer can catch his her breath Additional Terms Tag Usually Last section of a song Singer may repeat last line or two of song as a form of punctuation to wrap it up Hook Single most memorable repeatable fragment of the song Contains the essence of the song Title line of the song or the refrain Refrain Single line of the song that is repeated many times possibly even showing up in different sections ofthe song Past Reading Check Questions go back to Table of Contents Chapter 1 1Which of the following was a songwriter and labor activist in NC textile mill towns Ella Mae Wiggins 2 The name of the Grand Ole Opry refers to the emcee of the show lightly mocking and playing off of the nationally syndicated broadcast that aired before the barn dance 3 The first recording to be made that is widely acknowledged as country is Eck Robertson Sallie Goodinquot 4 Early hillbilly entertainers learned many of their gospel songs from their mother and paperback hymnals 5 Record labels sorted and catalogued their recordings by the race and identity of the performers Chapter 2 52 1 The main financial incentive in early country music mechanical royalties provided a revenue stream for songwriters and their publishers 2 African American musicians whom Jimmie Rodgers recorded included Louis Armstrong and Louisville Jug Band 3 The performer who played the autoharp was Sara Carter 4 Where did the Carter Family get many of their bestknown songs AP Carter collected songs from neighbors and friends then sometimes rewrote their lyrics 5Where did Jimmie Rodgers s yodel come from It came from performances in stage shows where Austrian yodelers had been novelty acts Chapter 3 1 The term swing when applied to music means musica rhythm that alternate long and short notes 2 The Grand Ole Opry banned drums 3 Roy Acuff s main contribution to country music in the 1930s was his promotion of oldtime songs and traditional country music 4 Bob Dunn s main contribution to country music in the 1930s was the first electrified steel guitar 5 The Brother Acts of the 1930s contributed the following affordable radio entertainers because of their number of members music that was largely perceived as wholesome and sentimental during the Great Depression Chapter 4 1What hillbilly recording became a major honkytonk hit in 1954 in a cover version In the Jailhouse Now 2 BMl s basic role is to collect money from people who broadcast recordings and distribute it to the songwriters 3 To which of the five main themes did Nudie Cohn contribute most directly Changing signifiers of country music 4 Answer songs were partly the result of changing gender roles in the postWWII domestic landscape 5 Honkytonk vocal performances are naturalized Chapter 5 1 What caused a deep rift between the country genre and the folk genre in the 1950s Cold War politics divided the fan base and the two sides each claimed genre identity for their music as different from the opposition even with the music s source material and style was quite similar 2 Rocky Topquot is 53 a commercially successful song written by two professional songwriters and recorded with Nashville studio elements 3 The accordion player in Bill Monroe s band was Sally Ann Forrester 4 Classic bluegrass instrumentation is banjo fiddle mandolin guitar bass 5 The story of Ralph Rinzler recording Doc Watson for the first time corresponds most significantly to what recurring theme in our studies conceptions of oldtime and traditional music that sometimes clashed with the contemporary practices of actual musicians Chapter 6 1 Classic rockabilly instrumentation is acoustic guitar electric guitar acoustic bass 2 The Cajun song that paved the way for more commercial acceptance of Cajun music from the 1940s on was Jole Blon 3 Female rockabilly stars included Wanda Jackson and Charline Arthur 4 George Hamilton lV wound up in country music mainly for marketing reasons 5 Hijacking in musical context refers to when a betterknown star cuts a song that a lesserknown artists had released and bumped it off the charts Chapter 7 1 During the Nashville Sound era what two major changes occurred in country songwriting We find more consistent use of sophisticated musical forms and craftsmanship We find a change in the lyrics common references away from rural workingclass references and toward uptown topics and images 2 He ll Have to Goquot featured all of the following Floyd Cramer on piano Hank Garland on guitar Bob Moore on bass Marvin Hughes on vibraphone 3 This chapter explores what cover of Bob Wills tune in detail Faded Love 4 The black musician discussed at length in this chapter Ray Charles 5 The notation system used in Nashville studios is called The Nashville Number System Chapter 8 54 1 Fans perceived the Bakersfield sound as the rightful heir to western swing and honkytonk 2 Dylan s Nashville Skyline album illustrates the differences in how music is identified as country or not by different groups of fans 3 At their performance the Byrds provoked Opry management by singing a song Gram Parsons had written 4 Will the Circle Be Unbroken included all of the following participants Doc Watson Maybelle Carter Roy Acuff Earl Scruggs 5 Merle Haggard s intent with Okie from Muskogeequot was impossible to know for certain and the song suggests multiple meaning and is understood in sometimes contradictory ways by different audiences Chapter 9 1 The two major barriers that country music broke in the classic country era were Getting a major star in country music who was black and gaining mainstream acceptability as a musical genre 2 A song that directly challenges a social doublestandard for a woman s sexual promiscuity is Just Because I m a Woman 3 The producer who worked extensively with Tammy Wynette was Billy Sherrill 4 The new Opry house kept what from the Ryman auditorium A chunk of the stage floor 5 In the context of a musical arrangements in country music modulation is changing the key of the music so that the chords and melody sound basically the same only higher Chapter 10 1Who is credited with applying the term outlaW to a musical style and movement Hazel Smith 2 The outlaw aesthetic and movement included all of the following emulating rock stars when negotiating recording and concert contracts demanding artistic freedom respect and financial compensation from the music industry bridging conservative cowboy and progressive hippie culture using sparser musical textures with fewer instruments 3 The album Red Headed Stranger was both a quintessential outlaw country album and released by the NY office of Nelson s record label rather than the Nashville office 4 In the context of this repertory big wheels keep on turning is most directly a reference to Creedence Clearwater Revival and Ike and Tina Turner 55 5 The Marshall Tucker Band included what instrument that was neither stereotypically country nor rock Flute Chapter 11 1 Barbara Mandrell s style was influenced by her many covers of soul music 2 Country singers who cultivated international audiences included Jim Reeves George Hamilton IV Barbara Mandrell 3 Islands in the Streamquot was written by an international disco act 4 The country discos described in this chapter include Cowboy and Diamond Jim s 5 The following plot describes what movie country singer who headlines stadium concerts abandons his tour to rediscover real country music through horses and twostepping Pure Country Chapter 12 1 The three male singers considered the pioneers of the neotraditionalist sound are George Strait Ricky Skaggs John Anderson 2 The first major country singer to open a theater in Branson Missouri was Roy Clark 3 This chapter emphasizes the role and importance of what within the neotraditionalist movement Cover songs 4 The Urban Cowboy era drew to a close when the fad had simply run its course and faded 5 We can best understand authenticity as it was invoked by the neotraditionalist movement as based on reviving older musical styles as part of a nostalgic retrenchment in country roots Chapter 13 1 Soundscan and EDS technologies affect country music because they revealed just how popular country music was and collected information without letting the prejudices of sales clerks or DJs affect the results 2 The soccer momquot demographic of the country audience responded positively to uptempo happythemed songs 3 Shania Twain s album Up challenged the notion of genre and musical style as related for any given artist 4 The most famous venue for songwriters performances in Nashville is The Bluebird 5 Two songs for which line dances propelled their commercial success are Achy Breaky Heart and Watermelon Crawl 56 Chapter 14 1Which of these was NOT a major factor in launching the altcountry movement A group of radio stations broke with their major controlling corporations and boycotted country pop music out of protest for the excessive commercialization of that music 2 The Harry Fox Agency handles the licenses and royalties for songs when an artist decides to record a song by some songwriter other than artist 3 A bluegrass identity worked very well as an alternative musical space and second career revitalization for Dolly Parton and Patty Loveless 4 Murder on Music Row was written by two bluegrass musicians 5 The Chicago record label most associated with altcountry scene was Bloodshot Chapter 15 1 All of these were part of the general roots revival and retro trend of the early 2000s Brad Paisley s duet with Alison Krauss Dixie Chicks album Home The nesting of the Hall of Fame and occasional Opry performances in downtown Nashville John Rich s songwriting especially Mississippi Girlquot and Redneck Womanquot 2 Entertainers who attempted unsuccessfully to enter the contemporary country music scene as artists include Jewel Jessica Simpson Gweneth Paltrow 3 The impact of new technologies and social media on country music is mitigated by the fan base s age and the reticence of much of the country audience to dive into social networking 4 American Idol contestants who have been successful commercial country stars include all the following Scott McCreery Kellie Pickler Carrie Underwood lt3 Josh Gracin 5 The trend in country music that is most reflective of the past few years economic downturn is macho posturing and countryboy stereotypes in song lyrics Appendix A 1 All of these generally describe a prechorus it is often just 2 lines of text it comes before the chorus it ramps up a song s energy for the chorus it showed up in the 1980s countrypolitan music 57 2 A song that consists of all verses with no distinct chorus or bridge is strophic 3 A changing chorus is when a song s chorus so identified by its role within the song s narrative and musical structure reappears in the song with different lyrics 4 In If Love Was a Riverquot recorded by Alan Jackson the chorus starts with trick question the song doesn t have a chorus 5 Which of the following describes How Bluequot it has a tag SAMPLE QUESTIONS 1 Which of the following artistproducer pairs are NOT correct V Shania TwainMutt Lange WGarth BrooksAllen Reynolds X Patsy ClineBuck Owens OWEN BRADLEY Y Jimmie RodgersRalph peer ZJohnny CashJack White SAM PHILLIPSJACK CLEMENTRICK RUBIN 2 Which city captured country music tourism in the 1980s Branson Missouri 3 The current dominant trend in commercial country music emphasized both musical and lyrical references to Southern Rock 58


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