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Linguistic Variation and Language Change

by: Nola Keebler

Linguistic Variation and Language Change LING 202

Marketplace > University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill > Linguistics > LING 202 > Linguistic Variation and Language Change
Nola Keebler
GPA 3.62

David Mora-Marin

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David Mora-Marin
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nola Keebler on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LING 202 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by David Mora-Marin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/228668/ling-202-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in Linguistics at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
Spring 2010 David Mora Marin Comparative Method Checklist Review Steps 1 Compile cognates 2 Compile correspondence sets either in rows or columns 3 Apply reconstruction principles guidelines 4 Check for overall regularity no arbitrary changes take place changes are either unconditioned and regular or conditioned and regular 5 Reconstruct individual morphemes and their glosses Reconstruction principles guidelines 1 Regularity 2 Known tendencies in directionality of sound changes a IVIGJ39 J 39 I I I 3 Phonological symmetry of protolanguage 4 Synchronic phonologies of individual languages 5 Overlapping correspondence sets a Phonemic contrasts Minimal pairs within a language or absence of conditioning environments across the languages to distinguish a given pair of correspondences suggest phonemic contrast in protolanguage eg b v v of ProtoRomance Alloset Complementary distribution ie conditioned sound change within a language suggest no allophonic contrast in protolanguage eg ProtoRomance Id gt 6 gt svjig d gt kjelsewhere in French 6 Majority wins a Whole segments not a very reliable guideline b Phonetic features can be very useful indeed 7 Simplicity a Fewer changes from protolanguage possible Fquot Sub grouping Checklist Steps 1 Apply comparative method first 2 Apply subgrouping principles guidelines 3 Check for consistency and for differential weight of di erent shared innovations 4 Reconstruct history of innovations of each language and language subgroup 111 JI 39 I 39JI39 4 1 Rank changes in terms of naturalness 2 Weigh those that are less common eg 00 gt uu ee gt ii hp gt pp more than those that are more common eg 1 gt n t gt cifront cons s gt zViV and could be the result of independentparallel innovations 3 Use only shared innovations to group languages together 4 Begin from the bottomup the two languages that share more innovations first the next one second the next one third etc 5 Simplicity Fewest changes shared innovationslosses possible Subgrouping and Comparative Reconstruction Forward Reconstruction Once a subgrouping model has been selected as the most likely to be correct comparative reconstruction can take advantage of that subgrouping by means of what is referred to as forward reconstruction Comparative reconstruction alone can only allow for backward reconstruction the cognate dataset is compared to reconstruct the ancestral forms However once a subgrouping model is arrived at it is possible to use it to reconstruct from ancestral forms to descendant forms Example Figure 1 Four languages A B C D Subgrouping based on one correspondence set s A z B r C D The context of the change was ViV intervocalic and thus likely s gt z gt r Figure l ProtoABCD Now suppose that language D has a sound t that corresponds to d in C ie t D d C Based on those two one might reconstruct t for ProtoCD based on the sonority hierarchy assuming weakening which is more common than strengthening However extending our search we nd that t in D and d in C correspond to d in B ie t D d C d B Given this evidence and given the subgrouping above based on gtks gt z gt r we could propose the following scenario Figure 2 ProtoBCD had d ProtoCD inherited d and D innovated the change of d gt t This model is simpler one innovation only than the alternative Figure 3 ProtoBCD had t B innovated t gt d after its split from ProtoBCD ProtoCD retained t and C then innovated t gt d after its split from ProtoCD two innovations Ideally once other items are taken into account a clearer picture that takes into account all the data will emerge But for now Fig 3 is a more parsimonious model Figure 2 Figure 3 ProtoABCD d ProtoABCD ProtoBCD ProtoCD d D A Bd Cd dgtt How would things change if A had t How would things change if A had d Draw the alternatives below 39 e4 Fi e5 ProtoABCD ProtoABCD ProtoBCD ProtoCD At Bd Cd Dt Of course the scenarios provided were incomplete no mention was made of the phonological contexts for the distribution of d and t Suppose in one scenario the correspondence dst occurs intervocalically What would be a more likely historical account in such case Now suppose that in the second scenario dst occurs word nally What would be a more likely historical account then Fi e539d39foc ProtoABCD V e439d39focw V V ProtoABCD ProtoBCD ProtoCD At Bd Cd Dt ProtoCD Fimlre 439 d39rnccurs V V Fimlre 539 d39rnccurs ProtoABCD ProtoABCD ProtoBCD ProtoBCD ProtoCD ProtoCD Ad Bd Cd Dt Ad Bd Cd Dt


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