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Linguistic Phonetics

by: Cornell Funk

Linguistic Phonetics LING 520

Cornell Funk
GPA 3.74

Jennifer Smith

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Jennifer Smith
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cornell Funk on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LING 520 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Jennifer Smith in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/228672/ling-520-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in Linguistics at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
l innuiqtirs 520 innuistic Phonetics lPraat handout 5 TextGrids Labeling parts of your sound file You can create a set of labels called a TextGrid for any Sound in your list of objects You can use these labels to identify individual words or speech sounds in the sound le so that it is easier to nd what you want to measure or work with You can also use them to keep a record of what you have measured or to cut a large sound le up into smaller ones to be saved separately Some TextGrid basics are presented here For more information see the TextGrid Editor page from the Praat help manual available from the Help menu once you have a TextGrid open in an editor window The Praat software is frequently updated by its authors The changes are usually small but if you are using this handout along with a different version of Praat than the one listed below you may find that some of the functions and features look or act slightly differently from the way they are described here These instructions were updated for Praat version 5 032 on October 30 2008 51 Using a TextGrid to make labels 1 The rst step is to select highlight a Sound in the list of objects in the Objects window Then go to the rightside menu bar and click on Annotate gt To Text Grid 2 You will get a dialogue box that asks you to give tier names and say which of the tiers are point tiers What all this means When you create a tier by naming it it gives you a place to put labels on your sound le It doesn t matter what tier names you use and you can change them later see below Just put as many names in the box as the number of tiers you want to have for your sound le You can also add or delete tiers later as needed There are two kinds of tiers interval tiers and point tiers As the terms indicate an interval tier lets you mark off an interval in a sound le like a vowel or a word and label the whole interval A point tier lets you mark a speci c point in a sound le like the point where you want to measure formants and label that point Tiers are interval tiers by default but you can make a tier be a point tier instead by indicating that in the dialogue box 3 Once you have named your tiers you will see a new object in the list of objects called a TextGrid with the same name as the Sound you made it from 4 To see your Sound with the TextGrid attached you have to select both of these objects in the list of objects Here is how to select or deselect an object while keeping others selected Windows Click on the first object you want to select Then hold down the CTRL key while clicking on the second object you want to select Macintosh Same as above except use the COMMAND key the Cloverleaf key 5 6 7 8 9 Once you have a Sound and its corresponding TextGrid selected together click on Edit in the rightside menu bar of the Objects window The sound le will open up as usual but there will be text tiers as many as you speci ed visible below the spectrogram To demarcate and label an interval word vowel on an interval tier a Click to place the cursor at the point in the Sound part of the display ie on the waveform or the spectrogram where you want the interval to begin b Where the cursor crosses the text tiers there is a small circle at the top of each tier If you click on the circle on a particular tier it will place a boundary at that point which becomes visible when you click elsewhere and move the red cursor You can also place a boundary by pressing the ENTER key c Repeat step b to place a second boundary on the text tier d Now you have an interval between the two boundaries Click inside the interval on the text tier It will turn yellow You can place a label in this interval by typing something into the large white box at the top of the window To demarcate and label a point on a point tier follow the same procedure except that there is a label for each point instead one one label for a whole interval Editing your intervalspoints and labels a Move a boundary by clicking and dragging it b Change or remove a label by clicking on the interval in the text tier and making changes in the white box at the top of the window c Remove a boundary by clicking on Boundary gt Remove on the menu bar at the top of the window You can also remove the currently active boundary by typing ALT BACKSPACE d Add and remove tiers and perform other functions with Tier on the menu bar Be sure to save your TextGrid object your labels to disk Two ways to do this From the TextGrid window choose File gt Write TextGrid to text file From the Objects window highlight the TextGrid and click on Write gt Write to t ex t f i l e The next time you want to use your labels read this file into the list of objects in the Objects window With Read gt Read from file 52 Useful things to do with a TextGrid 10 11 Making a large sound le easier to work with Suppose you have recorded a speaker reading a list of sentences You could use one TextGrid to identify each sentence and another TextGrid to identify the speci c speech sounds you want to analyze Keeping track of what you have measured If you are measuring something like formant frequency at a point or duration of an interval using a TextGrid to mark the exact place 12 13 where you have taken your measurements makes it easier to go back and check or revise your measurements later on An interval is like a shortcut to making a selection Once you have created an interval clicking on it in the text tier is the same as selecting the associated part of the sound le This makes it easy to do things like play zoom in etc with that speci c part of the sound le Also if you want to save parts of your large sound le as separate les you can first mark them as intervals on a text tier then select an interval and use the Pi ie menu in the Sound window to do things like Write selected sound to WAV file Praat also allows you to combine multiple sound les into one large le with a TextGrid a Read into the list of objects all the sound les you want to combine b Select all of the les at once c In the rightside menu bar click on Combine sounds gt Concatenate recoverably This creates two new objects in the list of objects a Sound called chain and an associated TextGrid The TextGrid contains an interval tier where the labels on the intervals are the names of your original Sound objects


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