Linguistic Phonetics LING 520
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nola Keebler on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LING 520 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Jennifer Smith in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/228672/ling-520-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in Linguistics at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Linguistics 520 Linguistic Phonetics IThe larynx and phonation Pictures and videos related to the larynx and phonation voicing are available on the course web site Link from the Ling 520 home page or go directly to http www unc eduj lsmithlingSZOlarynx html 1 The structure of the larynx The larynx is a valve that closes off the trachea windpipe blocking the ow of air to and from the lungs It rst evolved as a structure to keep food and water from entering the lungs gt See section I of the larynx and phonation web page for diagrams of the major cartilages and muscles of the larynx 2 Vocalfold vibration and voiced sounds There are two major components of voicing the aerodynamics of moving air and the action of the glottal muscles How voicing is achieved H The vocal folds are held loosely together not completely sealed shut N Air is forced through the vocal tract from the lungs The fastmoving air rushing between the vocal folds causes a pressure drop between them the Bernoulli effect Since the vocal folds are soft they end up being sucked together 2 Air ow from the lungs continues but now the vocal folds are closed so air pressure builds up below the closed glottis 4 However the vocal folds are still only being held loosely together by muscle action So when the subglottal air pressure is high enough to overcome the effects of the aerodynamic quotsucking togetherquot of the vocal folds they blow apart and air escapes As air escapes the difference in pressure above and below the glottis evens out so the vocal folds are no longer being blown apart and they return to their state in step 1 This cycle is repeated over 100 times per second in a person with a deep voice and several hundred times per second in a person with a higher voice The faster the vocal folds vibrate the higher the fundamental frequency and therefore the perceived pitch of the resulting sound gt See section II of the larynx and phonation web page for photos and videos of vibrating vocal folds See also VampC Ch 2 section 23 and Ch 13 for photos of the vocal folds To think about In order for an oral stop to be voiced vibrating air must pass through the glottis while the oral tract is completely blocked Some languages have b as their only voiced oral stop Other languages have b d but not 9 Why is this