Introduction to Language
Introduction to Language LING 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nola Keebler on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LING 101 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Staff in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Language in Linguistics at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
TYPES OF APHASIA NONFLUENT aphasias eg Broca s aphasia usually results from damage to Broca s area located in front half of left hemisphere speech is labored many wordfinding pauses speech is agrammatic disturbed word orders lack of function words language looks telegraphic suggests economy of effort some dysprosody abnormal intonation language comprehension may generally appear okay but tests show some loss of comprehension of complexambiguous sentences e g reversible passives similar problems in signers with BA 7 dys uent agrammatic sign production automatic speech sometimes unaffected in aphasics e g singing swearing prayersrecitations alphabet days of the week may indicate that deeply ingrained linguistic memories are stored separately than creative speech generally high level of insight into problem A Broca s aphasic patient is trying to explain how he came to the hospital for dental surgery Yes ah Monday er Dad andPeterH his own name andDad er hospital and ah Wednesday Wednesday nine o39clock and oh Thursday ten o39clock ah doctors two an39doctors and er teeth yah FLUENT aphasias eg Wernicke s aphasia usually results from damage to Wemicke s area located in back half of left hemisphere speech is uent with good intonation and pronunciation many lexical errors word substitution neologisms jargonnonsense words flow of speech makes no sense but is otherwise grammatical difficulty in speech comprehension perhaps even their own speech generally unaware of problem I called my mother on the television and did not understand the door It was too breakfast but they came from far to near My mother is not too old for me to be young Institut for AnglistikArrrerkauistik PhilippsUniversitat Marburg WS 200506 lntroductlon to Lrngulstlcs Anna Bauer Morphology I morphemes and typology Keywords word morpheme af x stem root base content vs function morphemes bound vs free morphemes inflectional vs derivational morphemes lexeme paradigm analytic and synthetic isolating fusional and agglutinating languages 1 Morphemes and morphological analysis Can you divide the following words up into meaningful units What do the units do 1 horses D 1 1 39 1 1 39 quot enlarge teacher fastest Definitions 139 r Morphemes are the smallest meaningful units words are composed of there are several diiferent types 0 Free morphemes are morphemes that can stand alone as a word while bound morphemes cannot stand alone 0 Most bound morphemes are af xes which fall into two broad groups pre xes attaching to the beginning of the stem and suf xes attaching to the end of a stem 0 Morphemes with an independent meaning are called content morphemes while morphemes that only provide grammatical information are called function morphemes o Derivational morphemes are used to build new lexemes while in ectional morphemes only contribute to the in ectional paradigm of a lexeme o Lexemes are those words listed in the mental lexicon o en written in capital letters A paradigm lists all in ectional variants all word forms of a lexeme Identify all free and bound morphemes all af xes in the following words 2 wizard bluish unspeakable jinx cousin39s antidisestablishmentarianism quotAll bound morphemes are af xesquot Discuss on the basis of the following data 3 impose expose compose propose transpose induce introduce reduce produce adduce infer confer refer prefer transfer 2 In ection and derivation In English and many other languages as well both in ection and derivation usually occur through af xal modi cation of a base 0 base a general term the part af xes can be attached to o stem the part which remains if all in ectional suf xes are cut off used mainly in the context of in ectional morphology 0 root the irreducible core of a word with no in ectional nor derivational af xes attached to it roots can be free eg walk book sweet or bound such as duce as in reduce Identify root stem and base in the following words wizardry 5 magicians 6 removals 7 unfaithfulness 8 perceive 9 hexed Institut fUI AnglistikAruerkauistik PhilippsUniversitat Marburg WS 200506 Introductlon to Lrngulstlcs Anna Bauer Find all in ectional and derivational suffixes in the following words 10 bewitcheal 15 Potion maker 11 clueless 16 sallower 12 decapitate 17 scores 13 enlarge 18 seer 14 hexing 19 terri What can you say about their autonomy Can they stand alone free or bound function What kind of information do they encode lexical or grammatical production What kind of words are produced new lexical items or word forms position Are they pre x or suf x to the base Derivational vs in ectional morphemes Derivational morphemes often change the word class of their base and neither is their meaning always predictable nor are they llly productive ie not every member of a word class can take the morpheme cf intelligence vs cleverence In ectional morphemes on the other hand are llly productive thus eg s attaches to every verb to form the 3m person singular and they have a predictable meaning They do not bring about a change in word class but create new word forms of a lexeme When attached to a base in ectional suffixes follow a er derivational ones Consider the following words How many morphemes 7 give the type as well 7 do they consist of 20 legalisation reuni cation librarians disentanglement stepmother39s 3 Morphological Typology Languages dilTer systematically in the way in which they employ in ectional morphology Take a look at the data below to see some aspects of this variation The following sentences all have the same meaning How do they dilTer morphologically How many morphs can you find How many words are there 21 a they leam ed English 3rd PL pronoun learn PAST b ta men xue le Mandarin Chinese 3rd pron PLURAL learn PAST c di dic erunt Latin PAST learn PAST 3rd PLURAL d va ka dzidz a Shona 3rd PL PAST leam VERB Definitions In analytic or isolating languages each morph is expressed by a separate word there are few or no in ectional af xes Languages which make use of af xation are called synthetic languages They can be divided up into two nther types of languages Jsional and agglutinating languages In agglutinating languages there are clear morpheme boundaries every morpheme is expressed by one distinct morph In fusional languages morpheme boundaries may be blurred One morph may express several morphemes there can be stem changes etc 2
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