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International Relations and World Politics

by: Opal Gleichner

International Relations and World Politics PWAD 150

Marketplace > University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill > none > PWAD 150 > International Relations and World Politics
Opal Gleichner
GPA 3.55

Layna Mosley

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Layna Mosley
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Opal Gleichner on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PWAD 150 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Layna Mosley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/228676/pwad-150-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in none at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
Notes I Failed States 57 1States with de jurequot sovereignty but limited de factquot control 0 Economic collapse 0 Government Corruption 0 Government sponsored violence against citizens 0 Armed Insurgency 0 Low life expectancy health crises 2 Variety of causes 0 Colonial history 0 Poverty 0 Drug trade criminal networks 0 Natural resource curse Sudan Sierra Leone 30ccurrence or reoccurrence of war Civil and Ethnic War 1Civil wars gt1000 deaths 0 125 since end of WWII 20 are onging 0 Civil wars have killed approximately 20 million Compare interstae war 3 million 2Civil wars last longer 0 Median duration 67 years 0 Interstate wars 3 months 3Civil wars tend to reoccur 4Good portion stem from demands for autonomy o 132 identified minority groups currently seeking selfdetermination 99 employ protest 18 use violence 0 Since 1950 70 territorial autonomy conflicts 5Conflicts tend to involve o Territory Seccesionist and irredentist claims 0 Policy dissatisfaction with central government policies 0 Regime demands for control of government and resources 6Why do some intrastate conflicts become violent 0 Economic curse Collier Inequality no relationship with likelihood of war Poverty risks of war are much higher for nations that are poor and are experiencing economic decline I Resource scarcity competition between groups Lack of oppurtunities for youth Relative power of rebels changes greater when government faces economic downturn Controlling for income democracies are no less likely to experience conflict onset than non democracies 39 Natural resource dependence rebel groups have incentive to seize 0 Ancient Enmities Huntington Members of different ethnic groups have highly divergent attitudes and beliefs about the past I Demonization mythmaking blame for past atrocities I End of Cold War allowed for the revival of ethnic hatred In many cases enemies manage to COEXSIST PEACEFULLY Some types of ethnic diversity reduce risk of civil war 2020202020 split vs 6040 split 9 Dilution of hatred 0 Strategic Leaders Political leaders can increase power by drawing attention to ethnic divisions I Easier to accomplish in authoritarian system Milosevic in Yugoslavia Response to selfdetermination claims Etioni I If the central government gives into one ethnic group they will give in multiple times I OR more challenges with few concessions 0 Conflict Resolution Difficult to commit credibility to a civil war settlement Most CWs end with outright victory Reoccurence of conflict is most likely among semidemocracies External agents UN to enhance commitments International Intervention I Unilateral often motivated by politicalsecurity interests VietnamIraq I Multilateral UN AU EU PowerSharing I Most Civil Wars don t end with powersharing 75 end with decisive vicotry c Alliances 1States coordinate their actions to accomplish a common goal Helps members to cooperate militarily Bilateral or Multilateral Offensive or Defensive 2 Determinants of Alliance Formation Walt Balancing vs Bandwagoning Balancing allying againsta common threat Bandwagoning allying with the source of danger Balancing is more common Reasons for bandwagoning Offensive intentions Weak states When no allies are available and threat is imminent In later stages of war outcome is clear Balance of Power vs Balance of Threat BoP Formed on the basis of other states capabilities BoT Formed on basis of other states intentions I States might ally with the US because it seems mostly benevolent I States might ally against Iran because it seems mostly threatening o Alliances can deter potential attackers N Korea or China 0 Alliances can also embolden members S Korea or Taiwan Both effects are conditional upon the credibility of alliance commitment with the US d Alliance Examples 10utbreak of WWI Division of Europe into rival alliance camps Triple Entente and Triple Alliance Delicate balance of power Losing ally Dangerous Risk that small conflict would spread widely Uncertainty about ally commitments Britain 2WWII Weak alliance commitments 3Cold War NATO and Warsaw Pact 0 Great power disparities between US and its allies USSR and it allies 0 Highly institutionalized alliances 4 NATO after 1989 0 To what extent would cooperation persist after the Soviet threat dispersed Sperling and Webber Relates to claims about international institutions Forces cut from 300000 to 100000 troops But there is membership expansion 99 04 09 0 1990s acting quotout of area 93 95 sanctions enforcement then air strikes in support of UN operation in Bosnia 99 air strikes against Yugoslavia Kosovo o 2001Present Afghanistan OEF US Operation Enduring Freedom SAF International Security Assistance Force NATO I 68000 troops total I 32000 are US troops Expansion of SAF missions and responsibilities 0 Challenges Burdensharing Sperling and Webber Iraq War US vs Others ntraEuropean II Collective Securities 1All states have an interest in r 39 g and I quot U to DC 0 Organizations tend toward universal membership 2Challenges of collective security organizations 0 Collective action problem Public good freeriding o DecisionMaking Problem Members have mixed interests 3Solution Delegate authority to a subgroup of powerful states 0 League of Nations o UNSC b United Nations 1General Assembly GA 0 One country one vote includes all UN members 0 Resolutions 23 vote not legally binding 2Security Council 0 UN charter outlaws the use of offensive force except in selfdefense collective selfdefense or collective security 0 Chapter VII UNSC is authorized to identify acts of aggression 0 quotPeace Enforcementquot Korea 50 53 and Iraq 91 0 Uses peacekeeping more often Never mentioned in the charter from Cold War Impasse UN troops are borrowed from members under neutral command Blue Helmets Maintain peace once hostilities have ended 0 Issues General tension between sovereignty and human rights in cases of human rights and war crimes Annan Achieving consensus between permanent UNSC members Weapons of Mass Destruction 1 Distinguished from conventional weapons by there enormous potential lethality relative to their size and cost 0 Nuclear Work via fission or fusion Use Uranium or Plutonium 0 Chemical 0 Biological o Often used in short or long range ballistic missles 2 Proliferation spread of WoMD into the hands of additional actors 3Chemical and biological weapons are rearely used in war 4 Efforts to govern the spread of nuclear weapons are more advanced b Nuclear Proliferation 1 Problem 0 Nuclear weapons induce caution quotCrystal Ballquot Effect ColdWar era peace Waltz 0 Proliferation is dangerous Sagan US opposes proliferation Recent proliferation is not the same as Cold War proliferation I 2quotd strike capabilites Issues with quotCommand and Control I CivilMilitary relations Sagan on Pakistan I Acquisition by nonstate actors terrorists I The alwaysnever dilemma o The Three Animals Porcupine I Nuclear weapons increase the power of weaker states I Waltz India and Pakistan have good reason for wanting NWs I FLS Offer extended protection Nuclear Umbrella Pit Bull I New nuclear states may act more aggressively I Often are involved in regional conflicts with competing claims to territory I With small NW arsenals states may be tempted to use them early Sagan Preventive War Incentives I These states should have different views about using NWs Turkey I May have a hard time solving command and control problems I It took the US a long time and lots of effort to solve safety problems New states may not have as much time and resources for safety I The safe sex solution c Governing Proliferation 1The Nuclear Proliferation Treaty 1968 o Declared nuclear states work to reduce their arsenals 2Monitored by the Interantional Atomic Energy Agency IAEA o Enforced by the UNSC 3 Problems with NPT o Hypocrisy from the original five nuclear powers 0 Some nations have not signed Israel Pakistan India 0 Some sign then violate N Korea Libya d Terrorism Weapons of the weak 1 Premeditated political violence that targets civilians deliberately and discrimantorily o Carried out by nonstate actors operating transnationally o ntened to influence audience 0 Most terrorism is domestic 2A range of users leftwing rightwing anarchists religious fanatics 3State sponsored terrorism Iran Syria 0 Weakfailed states are havens for terrorist groups 4Strategies of Terrorism FLS o Coercion Attacks as a means of making future threats credible Most often directed at democracies Pape o Provocation Elicit a disproportionate response from target government Build support for terrorists among home population 0 Spoiling Prevent a peace agreement call into question government control over terrorists o Outbidding Competition among terrorist groups 5 Physical Effect Casualties 6 Recruitment Tool 0 Can be effective but violence may alienate potential supporters 0 Middle East Public opinion turning against idea of fundamental Islamic government 7Sometimes governments make concessions in the wake of terrorist attacks 0 V2 the time suicide terrorism is effective for achieving modest policy chages Pape o Ineffective to achieving major policy changes 0 High levels of suicide terrorism alienate supporters IV Global Economy 1Reciprocal interactions between wealth economy and power politics 2Causes and effects of economic globalization o How quotnewquot is contemporary globalization Frankel o Is globalization politically sustainable o How do domestic politics affect countries trade policies 3Impact of international institutions 4 Relationship Between International trade and finance and economic development 5IPE Overview Look in notes 6 Determinants of economic openness 0 Government policies reduced barriers 0 Technology transportation and communication costs 0 Despite economic openness we are a long way off from perfectly integrated markets llHome country biasquot in trade and finance 7 Effects of economic openness 0 Increased sensitivity and vulnerability of national economies 0 Links between trade openness and economic growth Frankel 0 Race to the bottom Very mixed evidence 8 Historical comparisons 0 Earlier era of high economic integration 1880s1913 Trade did not regain its preWWI importance until early 1970s 0 Earlier backlash against globalization interwar years b Theories of IPE Gilpin 1975 1Focused at a general level quotgrand theory 0 Deep historical roots 2What do different approaches suggest about the relationship bt wealth and power in the global economy 0 Liberalism neoclassical economics eg Adam Smith David Ricardo Limited role for the state 0 Mercantilism overlap with realism focus on state survival Economic nationalism state management industrial policy Role of hegemony in economic cooperation o Marxism international version of Marx s views on the domestic economy labor versus capital class based Dependency theory of economic development Core vs periphery c Theories of IPE 1To a great extent each of these approaches is prescriptive how ought countries to manage their economic relations 2To gain a better descriptive understanding to explain why countries pursue the policies they do we also need to look inside states 0 Domestic interest groups Firms industries workers consumers Distributional winners vs losers 0 Political institutions Democratic vs autocratic governments Executive vs legislative branch in US d The Rationale for Free Trade 1 Neoclassical trade theory Adam Smith David Ricardo trade is more efficient than autarky or protectionism 0 Every country has a comparative advantage in producing some good even if they have an absolute disadvantage in the production of every good Assumption countries have different resource endowments eg skilledunskilled labor land capital Endowments generate comparative advantages HeckscherOhlin theorem 0 Freer trade lowers prices for consumers 0 Trade openness is linked with economic growth at the aggregate national level e Protectionism 1 International trade is more efficient and yet most nations have barriers to the free flow of goods and services Why 0 Concentrated costs vs diffuse benefits ie sugar industry 0 Adjustment to openness is painful and longterm 2Various forms of protectionism exist 0 All shield domestic producers from imports 0 Include tariffs and quotas as well as quotnontariff barriers 0 Levels of protectionism vary Over time globally and Across countries at the same point in time and Across industries within a given country Diagrams 1 Failed State Index 2009 Most states in critical or high level danger of collapsing are located in Africa and Asia 2 Risk of Future Instability Highest risk in African Countires Kenya DR Congo Niger and Nigeria 3 Global Trends in Armed Conflict Since the end of the Cold War Civil Wars and War in general has declines while interstate war has stayed low and stable 4 US Major NonNATO Allies Austrailia Argentina Egypt Morocco Japan Pakistan 5 NATO Membership 3 rounds of enlargement 99 04 09 6 Former Yugoslavia Hungary Romania Slovenia Bulgaria Albania Serbia BosniaH Kosovo etc 7 Most Military and Police Contributions to the UN Pakistan Bangladesh India Nigeria Nepal 8 Most Financial Contributions to the UN USA Japan Germany UK France Italy China 9 18 completed peacekeeping missions administered by the Dept of Peacekeeping Operations 10 12 peacekeeping missions administered by the Dept of Peacekeeping Operations in progress 11 Terrorism African Terrorism has highest rate of lethality per attack Near East and South Asia have highest number of attack and deaths 12 Terrorism II 15732 fatalities were nonUS citizens 33 were Countries with most deaths Iraq Pakistan Afgh Somalia India Congo Over half of the victims were Muslims 13 Terrorism III Half of attacks by Sunni Islamic Extremists and a quarter were unknown 14 Bombings Armed Attacks and Suicides were highest ranked methods of lethality 15 Does terrorism work 0 kills 6703 1 kill 2889 24 kills 1556 59 kills 387 10 235 16 Terrorism was highest in Iraq from 20062007 17 World merchandise exports and GDP have increased significantly and are leveling out since 1950 C urrent Events httpunnnu 11 39news2009 39 39 lasheskiIImilita nts Readings 1 2 3 4 The Anarchic Structure of World Politics Waltz p 2949 Balancing power when there is no central government between states to regulate interactions The Fungibility of Force Art p 18197 Money and force have the ultimate fungibility used for a variety of tasks and across different policy domains 0 in anarchic realm The Conditions for Cooperation in World Politics Oye p 6982 Look in quotLLquot notes Reshaping World Order Brooks and Woloforth p 4964 5 Institutions that regulate can create benefits to weak and strong states Realism 6 Transnational Activist Networks Keck and Sikkink p 47783 0 TANs get the attention of state govs by using info symbolic leverage and accountability politics 7 Perception and Misperception Jervis Ch 3 8 The Diplomacy of Violence Schelling 13952 0 War is no longer about victory but coercion intimidation and deterrence With military force there is no need for bargaining 9 Offense Defense and the Security Dilemma Jervis 15373 0 An increase in one state s security decreases the security of others Easier to take than to defend 10 Rising Powers and Global Institutions Ikenberry 56066 0 Power transitions to China and India The role of int l institutions will make power transitions more peaceful 11 Anarchy and the Struggle for Power Mearsheimer 5060 0 Cooperation easiest among competitive nations 9incentives There is still security competition but none for world power anarchy 12 Anarchy is What States Make of It Wendt 618 0 How the the 3 parts of poli structure ordering principles differentiation distribution of capabilities affect interactions under anarchy 13 The Uses and Limits of Int l Law Hoffman 114118 0 Int l law instrument of comm policy process guide world order 14 International Institutions Can Interdependence Work Keohane 119126 0 Notes 15 Transnational Organized Crime and the State Williams 491503 0 Org Crime sometimes acts in place of state s gov and are also more likely found in weak states that will not confront them 16 The Era of Leading Power Peace Jervis 37994 0 War among great powers in not forseeable in the future 17 The Clash of Civilizations Huntington 395410 0 Interactions between states causes tension especially in the case of religion 18 Rotberg quotFailed States Collapsed States Weak Statesquot AampJ pp 427434 0 States failure is largely due to instituional fragilites and poor leadership 0 Failed states have become an internation affair because they pose enormous dangers beyond their borders 19 BL Collier quotThe Market for Civil Warquot 0 Governments and multilateral orgs need to help stop rebel financing and armament in nations at civil war 0 Civil war will decline dramatically with int l institution to help accelerate economic development 20 Walt quotAlliances Balancing and Bandwagoningquot AampJ pp 96103 0 Argues the differences between balancing and bandwagoning and which states will do one over the other 21 BL SperlingWebber quotNATO From Kosovo to Kabulquot pp 491511 0 Just like Bosnia and Kosovo before it Afghanistan is but the latest episode in which NATO is seen to be facing its darkest hour 22 Annan quotReflections on Interventionquot AampJ pp 517522 0 Argues that the UN Security Council is the most appropriate body to make decisions about intervention in civil wars 23 Sagan quotNuclear Instability in South Asia AampJ pp 21727 0 Command and control problems in India and Pakistan Need US aid to prevent accidental nuclear warfare 24 Walt quotNuclear Stability in South Asia AampJ pp 228238 o The presence of nuclear weapons in Pakistan and India create a sense of nuclearpeace Nuclear peace limits conventional warfare escalation 25 Pape llThe Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorismquot AampJ pp 198215 0 Enforce a type of demographic separation Kaufmann Using methods of stronger border controls to prevent suicide terrorists from entering states 26 Gordon llCan the War on Terror be Wonquot AampJ pp 419426 0 The war on terror cannot be won by conventional military strategy of brute force 0 Terror can only be beat when the ideological behind it loses support US needs to fight a defensive war 27 Gilpin llThe Nature of Political Economyquot AampJ pp 263279 0 argues that the relationship between politics and economics is a reciprocal one o argument about international political economy is that nationstates are the most important actors 28 Frankel llGlobalization of the Economyquot AampJ pp 303318 0 points out that numerous studies have found that openness to trade tends to have a positive effect on countries growth rates 0 argues that contemporary economic globalization is in some ways similar to earlier eras of openness such as that of the late 19th century 29 Hiscox llThe Domestic Sources of Foreign Economic Policiesquot AampJ pp280289 30 Kaufman llPossible and Impossible Solutions to Ethnic Civil Warsquot AampJ pp 435455 0 Argues that separation is the only viable solution to ethnic violence 0 Ethnicity is immutable and the Int l community should separate ethnic factions 31 BL Etzioni llThe Evils of SelfDeterminationquot pp 2135 0 Argues selfdetermination is now bad bc it s a tool of political entreprenuers 0 Democracy requires a pluralistic society 32 Dobbins quotNationBuildingquot AampJ pp 457465 0 US and UN missions are distinct in scope and scale 0 UN are more cost effective but when the UNSC doesn t agree or conflict is expensive US takes over 33 Roberts llThe United Nations and International Securityquot AampJ pp 539547 0 UN peacekeeping depends on its adaptability o UNSC needs to be reformed to be more cohesive about intervention and who pays for them 34 Posen quotA NuclearArmed Iranquot AampJ pp 239254 0 Argues that Iran getting nuclear weapons is not a big deal 0 US and allies have superior material capabilities compared to Iran 35 Ghemawat llWhy the World Isn t Flatquot AampJ pp 319324 0 The world is not flat Borders language and distance determine trade patterns 0 Only 10 of economic activity is int l policy decisions should reflect a lessthan global world economy 36 MicklethwaitWooldridge llWhy the Globalization Backlash is Stupidquot AampJ pp 333339 0 Globalization is good provides consumer choices and better environmental and labor standards 0 Policies based on antiglobalization will decrease wealth 37 Abdelal and Segal llHas Globalization Passed Its Peakquot AampJ pp 340345 0 Globalization could decline because it has in the past 0 US should pursue multilateral and legalistic regimes to govern trade Definitions FLS Readings Chapter 3 pp 122125 1 Civil Wars Two or more groups within a country against one another 0 One or more rebel groups fight against the governement or in the absence of government against one another Generally bloddier and herder to resolve than interstate wars Issues of civil war territory policy and regime 0 Problems of Conflict 39 39 39 39 info 39 problems and indivisibility Chapter 5 pp 170213 1 Alliances Institutions that help their members cooperate militarily in the event of war 2 Balance of Power A situation in which the military capabilities of two states or groups of states are roughly equal 3 Bandwagoning A strategy in which states join forces with the stronger side in a conflict 4 NATO Alliance formed in 1949 among the US Canada and most of the states of Western Europe in response to the threat posed by the Soviet Union Required memebers to consider an attack on one them an attack on all 5 Warsaw Pact Military alliance formed in 1955 to bring together the Soviet Union and its Cold War allies in Eastern Europe and elsewhere Dissolved March 31 1991 6 League of Nations A collective security org founded in 1919 after WWI Ended in 1946 and was replaced by the UN 7 UN A collective security org founded in 1945 after WWII With over 190 members the UN includes all recognized states 8 Collective Security Orgs Broad based instituions that promote peace and security among their members 9 Genocide Intentional and systematic killing aimed at eliminating an identifiable group of people such as an ethinic or religious group 10 Security Council Main governing body of the UN Authority to identify threats of Int l peace and securitt and to prescribe the orgs response including military or economic sanctions 11 Permanent Five The 5 permanent members of the UNSC US GB France Russia and China 12 Veto Power The ability to prevent the passage ofa measure through a unilateral act such as a single negative vote 13 Peacekeeping Operations Troops and observers are deployed to monitor a ceasefire or peace agreement 14 PeaceEnforcement Operations A military operation in which force is used to make andor enforce peace among warring parties that have not agreed to end their fighting Chapter 6 pp 216237 1 Comparative Advantage The ability of a country or firm to produce a particular good or service more efficiently than other foods or services and compared to other countries that produce that same good or service 2 Absolute advantage The ability of a country or firm to produce more of a particular good or service than other countries or firms using the same amount of effort and resources 3 HeckscherOhlin Trade Theory A country will export goods that make intensive use of the factors of production in which it is well endowed A laborrich country will export goods that make intensive use of labor 4 Protectionism The imposition of barriers to restrict imports Commonly used portectionist devices include tariffs quotas and other nontariff barriers 5 Trade Barrier Any gov limitation on the int l exchange of goods 6 Tariff A tax imposed on imports 7 Quantatative Restrictions Quantatative limits placed on the import of particular goods quotas 8 Nontariff Barriers to Trade Obstacles to imports other than tariffs Restrictions of quotas regulation of imports and othe rmeasures that discriminate against foreign goods or services 9 StolperSamuelson Theorem Protection benefits the scarce factor of production In a laborscarece country labor benefits from protection and loses from trade liberalization 10 RicardoViner Model Model of trade relations that emphasizes the sector in which the factors of production are employed rather than the nature of the factor itself Chapter 10 pp 381405 1 Terrorism The use or threatened use of violence llagainst noncombatinant targetsquot by individuals or nonstate groups for political ends Extremists Actors to interests are not widely shared by others Individuals or groups who are politically weak relative to the demands they make Coercion A strategy that induces policy change by imposing or threatening to impose costs usually pain or other harm on the target Provocation A strategy of terrorist attacks intended to provoke the target government into making a disproportionate response that alienates moderates in the terrorists home society or in other sympathetic audiences Spoiling A straregy of terrorist attacks intended to sabotage a prospective peace between the target and moderate leadership from the terrorists home society Outbidding A strategy of terrorist attcks designed to demonstrate a capability for leadership and commitment relative to another similar terrorist groups


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