Introduction to the Environmental Sciences
Introduction to the Environmental Sciences ENST 202
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This 48 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janet Herzog on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENST 202 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Brian Evans in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/228698/enst-202-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in Environmental Studies at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
History of Environmentalism Outline Westward Expansion Birth of Conservation Era of Prosperity amp Wealth Birth of Modern Environmentalism Backlash Shift in Environmental ethics 01d Rush 1848 CA G 1862 Homestead Act Application improve land request deed 160 640 acres 1890 s Birth of Conservation Closing of the frontier 1901 1909 5 National Parks 1906 Antiquities Act 1917 preserves historic landmarks 105 1 Preserve natural wilderness 1890 s Birth of Conservation 111C 39dol39Forest Thoreau 39 7 Su39vlce i 2 l Romantic transcendental Gifford Pinchot Resource Conservation Ethic VS Conservation Ethic the first fact about conservation is that I stands for development the first duty Nature has inherent V31 independent of human use of the human race is to control the use of the earth and all that therein is Production Prosperity Technology Hooker Chemical 22K tons toxic waste 1960 s amp 1970 s Birth of Modern Environmentalism Command amp Control Management of natural resources fails Myquot at aquot 1960 s amp 1970 s Nation demands cleaner environment 6 ENVIRONMENTAL DeFeNSe FUND finding ma wya mm week GREEWEACE 1972 Marine Mammals Protection Act 39 Clean Water Act 1973 39 Endangered Species Act Clean Air Act 1974 39 Safe Drinking Water Act 39139 Public support high 2 Bad guys easy to identify point sources Today Paradigm shift Contemporary Environmental Themes 1 Sustainability 0 Renewable natural resources 0 Fisheries amp Forests grow faster than needed to keep population stable 0 Development 2 Holism 0 Single species Ecosystems 0 Regulation Consensus 3 Stewardship caring for something on behalf of someone else Shifting cultural values 4 Sound science 9112009 Ecosystem Structure Goals ME 0 Describe what is meant by ecosystem structure Convey the holistic and connective nature of ecosystems YOU 0 Identify the trophic levels of given organisms Identify types of interactions between organisms Know how abiotic factors in uence species interactions Know the difference between an ecosystem and biome Ecosystem Structure Outline De nition amp Examples Structural Components 7 Spatial Structure 7 Trophic Categories 7 Trophic Relationships Food Cl 39ns Food Vebs Biomass Pyramid 7 Symbiotic Relationships 7 Competitive Relationships Abiotic Factors Ecosystem Structure Example Biomes 9112009 stems Defined A1 unit within a given area that includes all organisms interacting with each other and their physical amp chemical enVir nent so that energy and materials ow through within the S tern 7 Spatial Characteristics 7 Structural Characteristics Biotie component Abiotie component 7 Functi 1al Characteristics next topic Eco ystem Examples Kelp forest 9112009 Ecosystems Examples Which is not an ecosystem Size Doesn t Matter Puddle Ecosystems Spatial Characteristics Any unit Within a given area I atial Sea 0 Boundaries depend on spatial perspective 0 Connective Open 9112009 Punul n ans Grassland a I 1 nm Mummm Ec ystems Structural Components that includes all organisms interacting with each other and their physical amp chemical envil mnent Structure Parts amp how they t together 1 Bi otic Parts 0 rganisms Interactions feeding competitive symbiotic 2 Abiotic Parts Inorganic Material 9112009 Ecosystems Biotic Structure 1 Trophic Categories Autotrohs 11 Producers Cllemoautotrophs Photoautotrophs quot H Ecosystems Biotic Structure 1 Trophic Categories Heterotrohs 1 Consumers Higher Order Herbivores amp Grazers quot Consumers 9112009 Ecosystems Biotic Structure 1 Trophic Categories Onmivores Ecosystems Biotic Structure 1 Trophic Categories Detritus Feeders Detritivore Decomposers Organics gt Inorganics 9112009 Ecosystems Biotic Structure 1 Trophic Categories Parasites live on or in host organisms plants amp animals Endoarasites Ectoarasites tapeworm T r h Protozoans Malaria lam prey Ecosystems Biotic Structure 2 Trophic Relationships Higher Order Consumer Higher Order Detritivores 2 Detritivores 1 Consumer Detritivores amp Decomposers it Detritus 2 Detritusbased food chains can be more important 9112009 Ecosystems Biotic Structure 2 Trophic Relationships Food W39ebs 9 Lake Michigan Food Web is v 1 oCompleX ll 0 Feeding at multiple trophic levels Ecosystems Biotic Structure 2 Tropllic Relationships Biomass Pvramid 9112009 Ecosystems Biotic Structure 2 Tropllic Relationships Biomass PVI amid Exlained co mm 0 one wales mm m um Ecosystems Biotic Structure 3 Symbiotic Relationships Secies 1 Secies 2 Relationshi Mutualism Comensalism H Pal asatismquot 9112009 Ecosystems Biotic Structure 4 Competitive Relationships Interspeci c amp Intraspeci c Niche environmental conditions in which a species lives 7 multidimensional Environmental resources 7 Food 7 Mates 7 Spacehabitat Competitive exclusion principle 7 Species with the same niche cannot coexist Ecosystems Biotic Structure 4 Competitive Relationships Similar Diet Habitat Puerto Rico Jamaica RIOI hOIOgy depends on substrate diameter Limb length 9112009 Ecosystems Abiotic Factors Resources consumed by organisms W39ater nutrients light oxygen space etc Objects of competition Conditions not used up or available to organisms Temperature pH wind salinity etc Alter ecological process rates Organism growth and survival greatest under optiman abiotic conditions Ecosystems Abiotic Factors Liebig 5 Law of Minimums v Optimums amp Minimums explain why global regions have distinct biotic communities 9112009 Ecosystems Comprehensive Example 1 Competition amp Abiotic minimums Connell 1961 Transplant amp removal experiments Larvae of both settle throughout intertidal Barnacle vertical zona on f quot39 39ngh in rocky intertidal Mquot Chthamalus transplants Chthamalus Survive well in lower zone Balanus transplants Balanus Die in upper zone Ecosystems Comprehensive Example 2 Trophic Relationships amp Disturbance Paine 1966 32 species 1 Species Space lilnited resource Starfish amp disturbance opens space 9112009 Ecosystems Global Biomes major communities classi ed according to the predominant vegetation and characterized by environmental conditions 7 Temp 7 Precipitation Ecosystems Global Biomes What geographic features control climate Takehome messages stems are open systems with gradient boundaries that are dependent on your spatial perspective Ec stems are structured based on Types of organisms trophic categories Types of interactions feeding amp non feeding relationships Abiotic factors Ec stem structure can be represented by Food chains food webs amp biomass pyramids Biomes are different than ec stems and are characterized primarily by vegetation amp climate 9112009 Biogeochemical Cycles p Solar energy F 002 gas 1 in atmosphere l r Geo Bio 0 ph u otos these 4 n quot allquot Er 2 at g Precipitation ol skeletons Burlal Decomposition Copyrighl 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc mm m me Shani um mavulsnn mm Carbon Cycle Forms of Carbon K Bicarbonate Carbon Cycle Components 2 Components Geolog cal Biological Time scale Millions of years Days to thousands 0f years Processes Physncal amp Phys1cal chemical amp chemical biological barbon Pools Large Relatively small Carbon Cycle Pools Fluxes amp Residence Times W4 A Atmosphere Carbon Store ReserVOIrs 0 Gm 0f carbon Living biomass ossii Fuel Dmu sion Emissions Biosphere Photosynthesis Atmospheric CO2 760 GtC 3 Carbon Store Respiration amp Decomposiiio Oceanic dissolved 002 740 GlC Soil Organic axier Aquamz Bioma Oceanic carbonate ion 1300 Gr Organic carbon in soilssediments 1800 GtC Marine carbonate sediments 2500 GtC Fossil fuels 4700 GtC i Oceanic bicarbonate ion 37000 GtC Ocean Coal on a Gas Carbon Store Lithosphere Carbon Store k Marine Depvs s Organic carbon in sedimentary rocks 10000000 GKC Limestone in sedimentary rocks 40000000 GtC Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Halli Inc if Pools Fluxes amp Residence Times Inflow Outflow 60 GtonCyr Atmospheric 60 GtonCyr Respiration and Photosynthesis decomposition Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Carbon P001 Characteristics Y Carbon Cycle Pools Fluxes amp Residence Times Is the atmosphere at steady state Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Measured at Mauna Loa Hawaii Ppmv Annual Cycle Jan Apr Jul Oct Jan Carbon dioxide concentration 1970 1980 1990 2000 Cammmm mmmcc3m ow frost hail 39ce par em material o g ne parent chemical malarial quotsemenquot C02 H20 km N mam Carbon Cycle Biological Component 1 Photosynthesis sco2 12 H20 gt 36111205 02 H20 Inorganic Compounds Glucose Low Potential Energy High Potential Energy What s missing from this equation Carbm Cy a g a1 1mmm m 10 L lm mym m 33 G wmm me mgg Rm 13 Raw material for my synthesis 0f MEET 0 Q Mineral nulrlents 33 9mm Nitrate Phosphate pmducmn Potassium 39 Storage Sugar I starch l I Iquot V39 me mmmm s Carbon dioxide Cell resplrallon Energy release or growth luncuons Water 2 xygen osphe O Atm Hum s u rmlmmmu 5mm mu Pcan mum 1mm re acme M t 9 no Eamm gs Cammm 3 A Emm mm Mineral nul enls Nurale Phaspha39s Parassmm ssua gmwlh Carbon dloxlde 5 co2 Waler 6 H20 Oxygen AImuSDheIE amp b a fm mm Cm eg 3mm L 1951in 33 tmm 13mm 49 Em wm amt mm Mineral numuus Tissue grew Wale Carbon diux de e ccE railan c respl Enavgy ra ease or grown lunchuns I 07 WM es 637553 n mes P Reduced compound A Oxidized compound 8 reducing agent oxidizing agent A 6 V A is oxidized E is reduced losing electrons gaining electrons 1 A 39 1 f on Oxidized Reduced compound A compound B Course of reaction Free energy v Products Org Matter Oxidizing Inorg C Reduced Agent Agent CHZO 02 CO2 CHZO NO339 CO2 CHZO Fe3 CHZO Mn4 CHZO SO42 CO2 CHZO HCO339 CO2 quot1 Biological Component Gross Primary Production NPPGPP R Gluing pyaduted dunng phmsynmus Grass v mary Prndumnm Mumquot gimme mild in he laid as new quotmum 4mm mu mum leurllon some gimme used It simply energy m We may pvucexxex Carbon Cycle Biological Component Measuring Primary Production NPP GPP R 1Rate of photosynthesisrespiration What s happening in each bottle 6 CO2 12 1120 gt C6111206 02 Rate of C02 depletion or 02 easy production LightDark Bottle experiments 1 hr 0 Initial 8 mgDOL 39 Light 10 mgDOL Dark 5 mgODOL R NPP What about for producers you can t put in a bottle Gamma Cyglm Bim ggjcea mmmm Measuij 9mm NEW 3 R 0 W113 Mg mm M13 mimmqu OWammmmmwm immmw Alas bed and reels Tropical rain hams marsh Say Bursa Varas Iaiga Wandand and shrubland munman and an p ssland Ave 7 Wmquot 5mm m QmEyrl 5 W T atmslrlal b a Carbon Cycle Biological Component 3 Biological Pump W 39 quot 7 V Bicarbonate Carbonate 88 Phytoplankton x CO2 Transfer of C to higher trophic levels Organic C sinks to deep ocean 10 oftotal C in deep ocean gaum A Organic matter delivered to seabed as 3 Biological Pump Sources of Particulate Organic Matter POC 0 Mainsoureeoffoodtooeeanic benthicecouystems Phytodetritua 23 of POC Fecal pellets from gran k Melts shed body parts Murine snow am Gnome r i V Biological Component 4 Deep Water Formation 90 of total C to deep Great ocean conveynr bait y 39 wnn milm V eumm Q Cold and saw deep mum VMHVMJ amwmvmmwumlnmm Mm nummmzmmmw Mmrmmummxwuumn cmmwut m Carbon Cycle Takehome messages Chemical physical and biological processes cycle carbon amp energy through the 4 spheres Geological amp biological components of the carbon cycle differ in their processes time scales and size of carbon pools Photosynthesis respiration decomposition next topic amp the biological pump are 4 important biological processes in the Carbon cycle Quantifying NPP is important for knowing how much Carbon is xed in different ecosystem39sbiomes Microscopic organisms important on global scale
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