Black Experience to 1865
Black Experience to 1865 AFAM 101
Popular in Course
Popular in African American Studies
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krystina Kirlin on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AFAM 101 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Barbara Anderson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/228706/afam-101-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in African American Studies at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
Reviews for Black Experience to 1865
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/25/15
Axum Was in modern day Ethiopia Est in 1st century AD by immigrants from the Arabian Peninsula This empire made most of their money taxing the transsaharan trade Was the 1st Christian state in SubSaharan AfricaSuffered environmental depletion upon collapse WesternSudan Synonymous with Western Africa at this time Citystate Consisted of villages that supply the main city The city often offered protection from invasion Timbuktu Central trading post of the Mali empire established by Sundiata A lot of religious education happened here as well Mali 12351468 Presentday Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled transSaharan trade the Ghana Empire the Mali Empire from which Mali is named and the Songhai Empire During its golden age there was a flourishing of mathematicsastronomy literature and art Mali was once the site of one of the richest and largest empires in the world Mali was also one of the earliest nations to make a declaration of human rights Ghana Founded by Sonnique people they were skilled in iron smelting Held a strategic position for the transsaharan trade The name Ghana actually refers to the name of the person in charge of the kingdom s gold supply Sonnique people didn t mine the gold they just taxed it Became known as wealthy area by the Muslim arabs They were defeated by the Berbers regained control and then lost control again to the Sosso Songhai 14641591 In 1340 the Songhai took advantage of the Mall Empire39s decline and successfully asserted its independence Disputes over succession weakened the Mall Empire and many of its peripheral subjects broke away The Songhai made Gao their capital and began an imperial expansion of their own throughout the western Sahel And by 1420 Songhai was strong enough to exact tribute from Masina In all the Sonni Dynasty would count 18 kingsThe first emperor of Songhai was Sonni Ali reigning from about 1464 to 1493 Like the Mall kings before him All was a Muslim In the late 1460s he conquered many ofthe Songhai39s neighboring states including what remained of the Mall Empire Sunni Ali quickly established himself as the empire39s most formidable military strategist and conqueror His empire was the largest empire that Africa has ever seen Labor theory of value are heterodox economic theories of value which argue that the value of a commodity is related to the labor needed to produce or obtain that commodity Griots Societal Historians of African societies that tell an oral history often accompanied by musical instruments Africanisms refers to characteristics of African culture and people that can be traced through societal practices and institutions ofthe African diaspora A widely cited example is the Gullah language or Gullah dialect of the South Sea Islands off the United States39 South Carolina and Georgia which contains several words of African origin Provision grounds Plots of land owned by a slave owner but set aside fortheir slaves in order to grow their own crops or make their own crafts The Great Awakening The term Great Awakening is used to refer to several periods of religious revival in American religious history Historians and theologians identify three or four waves of increased religious enthusiasm occurring between the early 18th century and the late 19th century Each of these quotGreat Awakeningsquot was characterized by widespread revivals led by evangelical Protestant ministers a sharp increase of interest in religion a profound sense of conviction and redemption on the part of those affected an increase in evangelical church membership and the formation of new religious movements and denominations Loyalists English Colonists living in the American colonies that wanted the colonies to remain under English control Themes Patriots Those Colonists living in the American colonies that sought independence from England Esteban A black interpreter and explorer that went on many Spanish explorations was one of the first blacks to do so lsabel de Olvena A mulatto woman that traveled through New Mexico with Spanish explorers in the 1600s oJointstock companies Primitive corporations that carried out British and Dutch colonization in the Americas during the 17th century Chattel slavery A form of slavery in which Africans are enslaved and treated as legal property of their masters Anthony JohnsonWas an black indentured servant from the Chesapeake region Fully participated in many facets of the society after he worked for his freedom Planted his own tobacco made money and bought his own land Prior to 1670 race was not much of an issue in this region oBacon s Rebellion 1676 Not really a rebellion was started bc of a disagreement between Nathaniel Bacon and William Berkeley about a policy regarding Indians Bacon united some followers but died before the actual rebellion This rebellion led the elites to realize that Blacks and white indentured servants could unite together over a cause This led to relying on a solely black slave labor force to avoid further rebellions Whites believed that their freedom and prosperity was dependent on denying blacks freedom Save codes Further defined slavery as a system that exploited blacks and used them for free labor Had rules such as Blacks couldn t testify against whites in court Can t leave the master s estate without permission Couldn t gather in groups larger than 34 Couldn t enter into contracts with other people Couldn t legally marry Couldn t bear arms No longer gained freedom by converting to Chrisitianity Ladinos African slaves that were wellversed in European language and culture Bozales unacculturatedafricans came directly from West Africa Asiento in the history of slavery refers to the permission given by the Spanish government to other countries to sell people as slaves to the Spanish colonies between the years 1543 and 1834 oMinas Gerais A Brazilian state in which slave labor was used to build a great road to the port cities of the country Treaty of Tordesillas The Treaty of Tordesillas was intended to resolve the dispute that had been created following the return of Christopher Columbus In 1481 the papal bull Eterniregis had granted all land south of the Canary Islands to Portugal On 4 May 1493the Spanishborn Pope Alexander VI decreed in the bull Inter caetera that all lands west and south of a poletopole line 100 leagues west and south of any of the islands ofthe Azores or the Cape Verde Islands should belong to Spain although territory under Christian rule as of Christmas 1492 would remain untouched oGoIden Law 1888 A law signed by Isabel the Imperial Princess of Brazil which emancipated all of the slaves in Brazil Reconquista is a centurieslong period in the Middle Ages in which several Christian kingdoms succeeded in reconquering the Iberian Peninsula from the Islamic kingdoms Neg ro Watch A watch in which white people of slave societies volunteered to keep an eye out for slaves out past curfew according to the slave codes If found in violation the whites beat the slaves oBenjamin Banneker A black man that championed the freeing of the slaves His grandmother was an indentured servant who earned her freedom He was taught by his grandma to read and write George Washington had Banneker survey the land for Washington DC in 1792 he published an Almanac sent it to Thomas Jefferson and led many whites to realize blacks were not inferior intellectually Philis Wheatley Born in Africa shipped in America at age 6 or 8 Was a slave in Boston for the Wheatley family who taught her to read and write She was the first African American woman to publish a book in America Many of her poems highlighted the opportunities America provided and how nice it was to be in America She became a symbol of the adoption of white culture by black people Sou roeOrigins of Misconceptions about Africa and Africans Th ree Important Facts of Life in the Western Sudan The trans saharan trade was essential to Western Sudan s economy Enjoyed Military Advantages thanks to the weapons built from iron smelting Had an expansion over people not land as a source of power Most wars were over the control of people Models for the Development of Humans out of Africa model vs the multi regional model which says that all regions evolved at approximately the same rate West African Society and Culture Usually centered around a citystate Some men were polygamists a lot of war and struggle was happening at this time The main two religions were indigenous religions and Islam Islam fostered literacy in the region 6075 of people of the region lived in a citystate Role of Women in West African Society and Cultu re Was a male dominated society but women did enjoy a higher status in West Africa than was enjoyed in most regions at this time Women played a role in economy farming and trade military politics family and religion The European Age of Exploration The TransAtlantic Slave Trade The Atlantic Slave Trade Legacies and Implications Patterns for Settling Africans in the Americas Sugar Forced Labor in Brazil Mexico and Hispaniola The Peoples of North America Slavery in North America under the Spanish began with settlers39 enslaving the local indigenous peoples in the Antilles The Spanish colonists used slavery and production quotas to force the local labor to bring a return on the expedition and colonization investments During the first decades of the colonization the widespread and abusive slavery cost many thousands of lives of indigenous peoples who died from forced labor in crop fields and searching for gold After decades of pressure primarily from priests and friars who argued that slavery was incompatible with Christianity the Council of the Indies mandated to protect the native people by the Laws of the Indies stopped the encomienda system and the enforced slavery ofthe natives Together with high fatalities from infectious diseases brought from Europe the native population died in great number in a matter of decades depopulating the West Indies In addition in the West Indies the colonists needed a new source of labor and began to import African slaves joining the transatlantic slave trade Spain was a customer of Dutch and British slave traders it generally did not deal directly with personnel in Africa Slavery in North America under the French Slavery in the Northern Colonies Slavery did not supply the labor force in the northern colonies but there were slaves in the North By the 1740s Philadelphia was 9 percent slave New York 18 percent In total there were more than 15000 slaves in New England There were obvious differences between slavery in the North and South Most slaves in the North lived in cities and worked in homes or shops Few families owned more than a handful of slaves This differed dramatically with slavery on the plantations Urban slaves had more opportunities to become literate learn a skill and hireout for wages on occasion They also had more of a chance to plan revolts Slave revolts were foiled in New York in 1712 and 1741 Leaders at both of these aborted revolts intended to burn the cities down free all the slaves and then flee to the countryside Although plans like these were made by slaves on southern plantations it was the urban slaves who were literate and held greater skills who came the closest to carrying out wellorganized successful slave revolts Slavery in the Chesapeake Was a harsh area in which to be a slave indentured servants were taught a skill after they served their time as servants Carolinas Was influenced by the West Indian Slavery plantation system focused on rice cultivation not tobacco The climate in the Carolinas led to a lot of absentee masters masters often lived elsewhere Africans that came to the region were from the Gambia river region of Africa and were good at cattle herding Georgia Initially slavery was banned in the region the colony was originally intended as a refuge for England s poor Rice cultivation was the key crop in this area Enslaved people often died here as the climate and working conditions were harsh Slaves in the region enjoyed a level of autonomy not typically enjoyed elsewhere by slaves The enslaved population grew by importation here The most strict slave codes existed in the low country of the Americas The Declaration of Independence and African Americans Many blacks believed that the Declaration of Independence applied to them as well but it did not Many fought in the Revolutionary war alongside of or instead of their masters and fought underthe assumption that they would be granted freedom afterthe war had ended What type of slave society was in St domingo versus the type of crops grown in St Domingue In St Domingue present day Haiti there were more than 3000 indigo plantations The typical workday consisted of the cultivation of sugar cane tilling digging clearing of land planting and picking The work day was typically 18 hours long forthe slaves Both men and women worked in the fields while women did a majority of the domestic works Authors to know and what they wrote about Eric Williams Economics not racism as the root of slavery David Brion Davis Ideas and Institutions David Eltis Cultural Roots of African Slavery Linda Heywood and John Thornton European and African cultural differences Mungo Park West Africa in the 1790s PEH Hair African Narratives of Enslavement Joseph Miller West Central Africa Joseph Inikori Guns for Slaves John Thornton Warfare and Slavery MohammahBaquaqua African s Ordeal Thomas Buxton Abolitionist s Evidence Phillip Curtin Historian s Recount Herbert Klein Profits and Losses David Eltis and David Richardson Achivements of the numbers game GUSTAVUS VASSA He was enslaved as a child purchased his freedom and worked as an author merchant and explorer in South America the Caribbean the the American colonies and the United Kingdom where he settled by 1792 Born into the Igbo people of Nigeria Kidnapped along w his sister seperated from his sister they find each other again lose each other again and he goes to be a slave in Barbadoes surviving the Middle Passage Gets taken to Virginia sold to a ship captain sails to England Converts to Christianity baptized goes all over the place on a ship befriends a little black kid gets told he can buy his freedom taken to England again and sold forced upon a West Indian slaver Sold to Mr King in Montserrat is extorted and shit in the West Indies Sails all over again has success selling goods to whites in America tries to save up enough to buy his freedom sees a free mulatto get kidnapped almost gets murdered by a Dr in Savannah GA finally after several voyages saves enough to buy his freedom buys his freedom boards Mr King s ship as a free man on the voyage the captain gets ill and dies Sails for GA shipwrecks sails for Providence get fucked up by a storm gets to GA two white guys try to kidnap him leaves GA for Martinco Gets to Martinco leaves for Montisserat sails for England meets Capt Paschal learns the French horn works with Dr Irving where he learns to freshen sea water Goes to the North Pole with the Dr and then returns to England Leaves Dr Irving headed to Turkey sees some blacks get kidnapped on ship tries not to get kidnapped Goes a ton of places gets cheated by Dr Irving talks a lot about god goes back to England Goes to Sierra Leone petitions the Queen gets married and the story mercifully ends Mary Prince was a Bermudian woman born into slavery in Brackish Pond now known as Devonshire Marsh in Devonshire Parish Bermuda Her autobiography The History of Mary Prince 1831 was the first account ofthe life of a black woman to be published in the United Kingdom A firsthand description of the brutalities of enslavement released at a time when slavery was still legal in British Caribbean colonies it had a galvanizing effect on the antislavery movement Mary Prince39s parents were both slaves her father whose only given name was Prince was a owned by David Trimmingham and her mother a houseservant of Charles Myners When Myners died in 1788 Mary Prince and her mother were sold as household servants to Captain Darrell who gave Prince to his little granddaughter Betsey Williams At the age of 12 Mary was sold for 38 sterling to Captain John lngham of Spanish Point but never took easilyto the indignities of her enslavement and she was often flogged As a punishment Mary was sold to another Bermudian probably Robert Darrell who sent her in 1806 to Grand Turk which Bermudians had used seasonally for a century for the extraction of salt from the ocean Salt was a pillar ofthe Bermudian economy but could not easily be produced in Bermuda where the only natural resource were the Bermuda cedars used for building ships The industry was a cruel one however with the saltrakers forced to endure exposure not only to the sun and heat but also to the salt in the pans which ate away at their uncovered legs Mary returned to Bermuda in 1810 but was sold to John Adams Wood in 1818 for 300 and sent to Antigua to be a domestic slave She joined the Moravian Church and in December 1826 she married Daniel James a former slave who had bought his freedom and worked as a carpenter and cooper For this impudence she was severely beaten by her master In 1828 Wood and his family travelled to London taking Prince with them as a servant Although slavery was not legally recognised in Britain by this date and Prince was technically free to leave Wood39s household she had no means to support herself alone in England Also unless Wood formally gave her her freedom she could not return to her husband in Antigua without being re enslaved She remained with the Wood household until they threw her out She then took shelter with the Moravian church in Hatton Garden Within a few weeks she had taken employment with Thomas Pringle an abolitionist writer and Secretary to the AntiSlavery Society Prince39s life after her book was published is not known nor is it clear whether she was ever able to return to the Caribbean as she wished In 1829 Wood had refused either to manumit her or even allow her to be bought out of his control His refusal meant that as long as slavery remained legal in Antigua Prince could not return there to her husband and friends without reverting to slave status and putting herself again in Wood39s power She is known to have remained in England until at least 1833