GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 101
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Chapter 11 Notes Personality 0 Personality refers to an individual s unique collection of consistent behavioral traits 0 Personality trait a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations Factor analysis correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables 0 Five factor model of personality I Extraversion people who sky in extraversion which is called positively emotionality are characterized as outgoing sociable upbeat friendly assertive and gregarious 0 Positive predictor of occupation Neuroticism people who score high in neuroticism tend to be anxious hostile self conscious insecure and vulnerable 0 Negative predictor of occupation o Elevates probability of divorce 0 Elevated physical and mental isorders Openness to experience openness is associated with curiosity exibility vivid imagination artistic sensitivity and unconventional attitudes Agreeableness those who score high in agreeableness tend to be sympathetic trusting helpful cooperative and straightforward o Decreases probability of divorce Conscientiousness those who tend to be diligent disciplined well organized punctual and dependable sometimes called constraint 0 Higher grades 0 Less illness reduced mortality 0 Positive predictor of occupation o Decreases Psychodynamic theories include all of the diverse theories descended from the works of Sigmund Freud that focus on unconscious mental forces Psychoanalytic Theory attempts to explain personality motivation and psychological disorders by focusing on the in uence of early childhood experiences on unconscious motives and con icts and on the methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges o In arguing that people s behavior is governed by unconscious factors of which they are unaware Freud made the disconcerting suggestion that individuals are not masters of their own minds I Second in claiming that adult personalities are shaped by childhood experiences and other factors beyond ones control he suggested that people are not masters of their own destiny Third by emphasizing the importance of how people cope with their sexual urges he offended those who had Victorian values at the time and also got a great deal of criticism 0 Structure of personality 0 Id the primitive instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle 0 Chapter 11 Notes Personality I By this he meant that the id houses the raw biological urges to eat sleep defecate copulate and so on that energize human behavior I Pleasure principle demands immediate grati cation of its urges I Primary process thinking primitive illogical irrational and fantasy oriented o Ego the decision making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle I Mediates between the id with its forceful desires for immediate satisfaction and the external social world with its expectations and norms regarding suitable behavior Reality principle seeks to delay gratification of the id s urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found He ego strives to avoid negative consequences from society and its representatives 0 Superego the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong I Emerges out of the ego at around 35 years of age Levels of awareness o Conscious consists of whatever one is aware of at a point in time o Preconscious contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be retrieved o Unconscious thoughts memories and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great in uence on behavior Sex and aggression o Freud believed that con icts centering on sexual and aggressive impulses are especially likely to have far reaching consequences 0 He thought that sex and aggression are subject to more complex and ambiguous social controls than other basic motives 0 He noted that the aggressive and sexual drives are thwarted more regularly than other basic biological urges Defense mechanisms largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt o Repression keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious I A traumatized soldier has no recollection of the details of a close brush with death Projection attributing one s feelings and thoughts and motives to another I A woman dislikes her boss thinks she likes her boss but he doesn t like her Displacement diverting emotional feelings usually anger from their original source to a substitute target I After parental scolding a young girl takes her anger out on her little brother Reaction formation behaving in a way that is exactly opposite of one s true feelings I A parent who unconsciously resents a child spoils them with gifts 0 O O Chapter 11 Notes Personality Regression a reversion to immature patterns and behaviors I An adult has a temper tantrum when he or she doesn t get their way Rationalization creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior I A student watches TV instead of studying and says that additional studying wouldn t help anyway Identi cation bolstering self esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person of a group I An insecure young man joins a fraternity to boost his self esteem o Psychosexual stages developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality 0 Fixation a failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected I Can be caused by excessive gratification of needs at a particular stage or by excessive frustration of those needs I Leads to an overemphasis on the psychosexual needs prominent during the fixated stage 0 Stages I Oral 01 0 Mouth sucking biting o Weaning from a breast or bottle I Anal 23 0 Anus feces o Toilet training I Phallic 45 0 Genitals masturbating 0 Identifying with adult role models coping with Oedipus crisis I Latency 612 0 None sexually repressed 0 Expanding social contacts I Genital puberty onward o Genitals being sexually intimate 0 Establishing intimate relationships contributing to society through working 0 O O 0 Carl Jung 0 Analytical psychology encouraged his owers to develop their own views I Personal unconscious the same as Freud s version of the unconscious 0 Houses material that is not within one s conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten I Collective unconscious a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people s ancestral past Archaetypes emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning dream analysis was of great concern to him because he thought that dreams contain important messages from the unconscious 0 Alfred Adler Chapter 11 Notes Personality 0 Individual psychology the foremost source of human motivation is striving for superiority I Striving for superiority a universal drive to adapt improve oneself and master life s challenges I Compensation involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one s abilities o Inferiority complex exaggerated feelings of weakness and inadequacy 0 Evaluating psychodynamic perspectives o Psychodynamic theory and research have demonstrated that I Unconscious forces can in uence behavior I Internal con ict often plays a key role in generating psychological distress I Early childhood experiences can in uence adult personality I People use defense mechanisms to reduce their experiences of unpleasant emotions o Criticized on several grounds I Poor testability you can t prove or disprove the assertion that the id is entirely unconscious I Inadequate evidence depend too heavily on clinical case studies in which it is too easy for clinicians to see what they expect to see 0 Freud apparently frequently distorted his patient s case histories in order to make them mesh with his theories I Sexism Freud believed that female s penis envy made them inferior to men and in general it has always had a male point of view 0 Behaviorism the theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior 0 Skinner s principles of operant conditioning were never meant to be a theory of personality I He argued that it s useless to speculate about private unobservable cognitive processes and instead he focused on how the external environment molds overt behavior I Determinism asserting that behavior is fully determined by environmental stimuli I Skinner viewed an individual s personality as a collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations 0 Albert Bandura is one of several behaviorists to add cognition to behaviorism since the 1960s I He and likeminded theorists originally called their behaviorism social learning theory and Bandura called his model the social cognitive theory 0 Conditioning is not a mechanical process in which people are passive participants 0 People actively seek out and process information about their environment to maximize favorable outcomes Chapter 11 Notes Personality I Observational learning occurs when an organism s responding is in uenced by the observation of others 0 Model a person whose behavior is observed by another Self efficacy one s belief about one s ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes 0 Perceptions of self efficacy can in uence which challenges people tackle and how well they perform 0 Walter Mischel I People make response that they think will be reinforced in the situation at hand I Social learning theory predicts that people will often behave differently in different situations 0 Humanism atheoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth 0 They assume that I People can rise above their primitive animal heritage I People are largely conscious and rational beings who are not dominated by unconscious irrational con icts I People are not helpless pawns of deterministic forces 0 Carl Rogers was one of the fathers of the human potential movement which emphasized self realization through sensitivity training encounter groups and other exercises intended to foster personal growth I Self concept a collection of beliefs about one s own nature unique qualities and typical behavior I Incongruence the degree of disparity between one s self concept and one s actual experience Rogers was concerned with how childhood experiences promote congruence or incongruence between one s self concept and one s experience 0 Some parents make their affection conditional which depends on the child s behaving well and living up to their expectations 0 Other parents made their affection unconditional which allows children to understand that they re worthy of affection no matter what they do 0 Abraham Maslow proposed that human motives are organized into a hierarchy of needs I Hierarchy of needs a systematic arrangement of needs according to priority in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused 0 When a person manages to satisfy a level of needs reasonable well this satisfaction activates needs at the next level 0 From bottom to top 0 Physiological needs hunger thirst etc 0 Safety and security needs long term survival and stability Chapter 11 Notes Personality o Belongingness and love needs affiliation and acceptance Esteem needs achievement and gaining of recognition Cognitive needs knowledge and understanding Aesthetic needs order and beauty 0 Need for self actualization realizing potential 0 Need for self actualization the need to ful ll one s potential and is the highest need in Maslow s motivational hierarchy I Self actualizing persons people with exceptionally healthy personalities marked by continued personal growth 0 Evaluating humanistic perspectives I Many aspects of humanistic theory are difficult to put to a scientific test Humanists have been unrealistically optimistic in their assumptions about human nature and their descriptions of the healthy personality I More experimental research is needed to catch up with the theorizing in the humanistic camp 0 Eysenck s Theory views personality structure as a hierarchy of traits in which many superficial traits are derived from a smaller number of more basic traits which are derived from a handful of fundamental higher order traits 0 He has proposed that introverts tend to have high levels of physiological arousal which makes them more easily conditioned than extroverts 000 0 People who condition easily acquire more conditioned inhibitions than others and these make them more bashful tentative and uneasy in social situations 0 Shared family environments appeared to have little impact on personality I Parents don t matter and they have a very small impact on how their children actually develop 0 David Buss the Big Five personality traits stand out as important dimensions of personality across a variety of cultures because those traits have had significant adaptive implications 0 Daniel Nettle asserted that the traits themselves are products of evolution that were adaptive and ancestral environments 0 Terror Management Theory emerged as an in uential perspective begins with the assumption that humans share an evolutionary heritage with other animals that includes an instinctive drive for self preservation o Humans have evolved complex cognitive abilities that permit self awareness and contemplation of the future 0 Self esteem buffers people from the profound anxiety associated with the awareness that we are transient animals destined to die 0 Terror management theory has much to say about people s reactions to the contemporary threat of terrorism I The theory predicts that people will embrace their cultural worldviews even more strongly than before 0 Self Report Inventories personality tests that ask individuals to answer a series of questions about their characteristic behavior 0 Only as accurate as the information the respondents provide Chapter 11 Notes Personality I Deliberate deception I Social desirability bias I Response sets tend to either agree or disagree with every question 0 Proj ective tests ask participants to respond to vague ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal the subject s needs feelings and personality traits I Thematic Apperception Test TAT has a series of pictures of simple scenes presented to individuals who are asked to tell what s happening in the scenes and what the characters are feelings I Proj ective hypothesis says that the ambiguous materials can serve as a blank screen onto which people project their characteristic concerns con icts and desires I Proponents of the projective tests says its strengths are 0 They are not transparent to respondents and they don t know how their information is relevant to the tester o The indirect approach used in these tests may make them especially sensitive to unconscious latent features of personality Chapter 13 Notes Disorders 0 Abnormal Behavior 0 Medical model proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease I Abnormal behavior usually involves a deviation from social norms rather than an illness I The medical model s disease analogy converts moral and social questions about what is acceptable behavior into medical questions 0 Medical Concepts I Three stages 0 Diagnosis involves distinguishing one illness from another 0 Etiology refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness 0 Prognosis a forecast about the probable course of an illness 0 Criteria people are judged to have psychological disorders because their behavior has become extremely deviant maladaptive or distressing I Deviance what constitutes normality varies somewhat from one culture to another but all cultures have such norms When people violate these standards and expectations they may be labeled mentally ill Maladaptive behavior in many cases people are judged to have a psychological disorder because their everyday adaptive behavior is impaired In some cases it is the maladaptive quality of the behavior that makes it disordered I Personal distress based on an individual s report of great personal distress This is usually met by people who are troubled by depression or anxiety disorders 0 Classification of Disorders I DSM IV a multiaxial system that asks for judgments about individuals on five separate dimensions or axes o Clinicians record most types of disorders on Axis I 0 Axis II is used to list long running personality disorders or mental retardation 0 Anxiety Disorders a class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety 0 Generalized Anxiety Disorder marked by a chronic high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat I Their anxiety is frequently accompanied by physical symptoms such as trembling muscle tension diarrhea dizziness faintness sweating and heart palpitations Chapter 13 Notes Disorders 0 O O O Phobic Disorder marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger I People can develop responses to virtually anything I Many people realize that their fears are irrational but still are unable to calm themselves when confronted by a phobic object Panic Disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and expectedly I After a number of anxiety attacks victims often become apprehensive wondering when their next panic will occur I Agoraphobia a fear of going out to public places often connected to panic disorder Obsessive Compulsive Disorder marked by persistent uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts obsessions and urges to engage in senseless rituals compulsions I Obsessions often center on in icting harm on others personal failures suicide or sexual acts people troubled by obsessions may feel that they have lost control of their mind Compulsions usually involve stereotyped rituals that may temporarily relieve the anxiety produced by one s obsessions Posttraumatic Stress Disorder involves enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event I Research showed that PTSD can be caused by a variety of traumatic events besides harrowing war experiences Common symptoms of PTSD include reexperiencing the traumatic event in the form of nightmares and ashbacks emotional numbing alienation problems in social relations an increased sense of vulnerability and elevated arousal anxiety anger and guilt One key predictor to vulnerability that emerged in a recent review of the relevant research is the intensity of one s reaction at the time of the traumatic event vulnerability seems to be greatest among people whose reactions are so intense that they report dissociative experiences 0 Etiology of Anxiety Disorders 0 Biological Factors I Concordance Rate indicates the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relative that experience the same disorder 0 The results of both twin studies and family studies suggest that there is a moderate genetic predisposition to anxiety disorders Some people are highly sensitive to the internal physiological symptoms of anxiety and are prone to overreact with fear when they experience these symptoms Chapter 13 Notes Disorders 0 Therapeutic drugs that reduce excessive anxiety appear to alter neurotransmitter activity at synapses that release the neurotransmitter GABA o Conditioning and Learning I Many anxiety responses may be acquired through classical conditioning and maintained through operant conditioning 0 Once a fear is acquired through classical conditioning the person may start avoiding the anxiety producing stimulus o The avoidance response is negatively reinforced because it is followed by a reduction in anxiety 0 This process involves operant conditioning thus separate conditioning processes may create and then sustain speci c anxiety responses I Preparedness Martin Seligman believes that classical conditioning creates most phobic responses he suggests that people are biologically prepared by their evolutionary history to acquire certain fears more easily than others Evolved Module For Fear Learning maintain that there is an evolved module which is automatically activated by stimuli related to past survival threats in evolutionary history and that it is relatively resistant to intentional efforts to suppress the resulting fears 0 Cognitive Factors theorists maintain that there are certain types of thinking that make some people more vulnerable to anxiety disorders than others I Some people are more likely to suffer because they 0 Misinterpret harmless situations as threatening 0 Focus excessive attention on perceived threats 0 Selectively recall information that seems threatening 0 Stress I Faravelli and Pallanti found that patients with panic disorder had experienced a dramatic increase in stress in the month prior to the onset of their disorder I Brown and colleagues found an association between stress and the development of social phobia o Somatoform Disorders physical ailments that cannot be fully explained by organic conditions and are largely due to physiological factors 0 Psychosomatic diseases genuine physical ailments caused in part by psychological factors especially emotional distress I These diseases include maladies such as ulcers asthma and high blood pressure have a genuine organic basis and are not imagined o Malingering deliberate faking of illness for personal gain Chapter 13 Notes Disorders 0 Three Types of Somatoform Disorders I Somatization disorder marked by a history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin 0 Occur mostly in women an coexist with depression and anxiety disorders 0 The distinguishing feature of this disorder is the diversity of victim s physical complaints because over the years they report very random and unrelated symptoms Conversion Disorder characterized by a signi cant loss of physical function with no apparent organic basis usually in a single organ system 0 People with conversion disorder are usually troubled by more severe ailments than people with somatization disorder 0 Conversion disorders tend to have an acute onset triggered by stress Hypochondriasis characterized by excessive preoccupation with one s health and incessant worry about developing physical illnesses 0 Don t only suffer from physical distress but they mainly over interpret every sign of illness and this usually comes with anxiety disorders and depression 0 Etiology I Cognitive Factors 0 Barsky asserts that some people focus excessive attention on their internal physiological processes and amplify normal bodily sensations into symptoms of distress which lead them to pursue unnecessary medical treatment I Personality Factors 0 Neuroticism seems to elevate individuals susceptibility to somatoform disorders I The Sick Role 0 Many people with somatoform disorders are avoiding facing up to marital problems career frustrations family responsibilities and the like because when you re sick people cannot place great demands on you 0 Physical problems can provide a convenient excuse when people fail or worry about failing o The sympathy people may receive when ill may also strengthen their tendency to feel ill Chapter 13 Notes Disorders Dissociative Disorders a class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity 0 O O Dissociative amnesia a sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting I Cases of amnesia have been observed after people have experienced disasters accidents combat stress physical abuse and rape or after they have witnessed the violent death of a parent among other things Dissociative fugue people lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of personal identity I They can remember matters unrelated to their identity such as how to drive or do math Dissociative identity disorder DID involves the coexistence in once person of two or more largely complete and usually very different personalities I Used to be called multiple personality disorder The divergences in behavior go far beyond those that people normally display in adapting to different roles in life The various personalities generally report that they are unaware of each other The disparities between personalities can be bizarre and they can differ in age race gender and sexual orientation Etiology some people believe that people with DID are engaging in intentional role playing to use exotic mental illness as a face saving excuse for their failings Others view DID as an authentic disorder rooted in emotional trauma that occurred during childhood Mood Disorders a class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical perceptual social and thought processes 0 Unipolar I Major Depressive Disorder people show persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure 0 People with depression often lack energy they tend to move sluggishly and walk slowly they are anxious irritable and have low self esteem o Bipolar I Manic Depressive Disorder marked by the experience of both depressed and manic periods 0 In a manic episode a person s mood becomes elevated to the point of euphoria 0 Unlike depressive disorder bipolar disorder is seen equally in males and females Chapter 13 Notes Disorders 0 O O 0 Genetic vulnerability twin studies found a huge disparity between identical and fraternal twins in concordance rates for mood disorders I This evidence suggests that heredity can create a predisposition to mood disorders and environmental factors probably determine whether this predisposition is converted into an actual disorder Neurochemical and Neuroanatomical Factors correlations have been found between mood disorders and abnormal levels of two neurotransmitters in the brain norepinephrine and serotonin I The details remain elusive but low levels of serotonin appear to be a crucial factor underlying most forms of depression Perhaps the best documented correlation is the associate between depression and reduced hippocampal volume where the hippocampus tends to be about 810 smaller in depressed subjects than in normal subjects Cognitive Factors I Learned helplessness passive giving up behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events 0 He originally considered this to be a product of conditioning but eventually raised his theory giving it a cognitive slant 0 Asserts that the roots of depression lie in how people explain the setbacks and other negative events that they experience Pessimistic explanatory style especially vulnerable to depression these people tend to attribute their setbacks to their personal aws instead of to situational factors 0 They tend to draw global far reaching conclusions about their personal inadequacies Hopelessness theory builds on these insights by proposing a sense of hopelessness as the final pathway leading to depression and by incorporating additional factors that may interact with explanatory styles to foster this sense of hopelessness 0 People who ruminate about their depression remain depressed longer than those who try to distract themselves Schizophrenic Disorders encompass a class or disorders marked by delusions hallucinations disorganized speech and deterioration of adaptive behavior Delusions false beliefs that are maintained even though they clearly are out of touch with reality I Affected persons believe that their private thoughts are being broadcast to other people that thoughts are being injected into their mind against their will or that their thoughts are being controlled by some external force Chapter 13 Notes Disorders I Delusions of grandeur people maintain that they are famous or important 0 Deterioration of adaptive behavior schizophrenia usually involves a noticeable deterioration in the quality of the person s routine functioning in work social relations and personal care 0 Hallucinations sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real external stimulus or are gross distortions of perceptual input 0 Disturbed emotion some victims show a attening of emotions others show inappropriate emotional responses that don t jell well with the situation or what they are saying 0 Schizophrenia o Paranoid Type dominated by delusions of persecution along with delusions of grandeur people come to believe that they have many enemies who want to harass and oppress them I They believe that they must be very famous important and often see themselves as great leaders 0 Catatonic Type marked by striking motor disturbances ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity I They may remain virtually motionless and seem oblivious to the environment around them for long periods of time o Disorganized Type a particularly severe deterioration of adaptive behavior is seen I Emotional indifference frequent incoherence and virtually complete social withdrawal 0 Undifferentiated Type marked by idiosyncratic mixtures of schizophrenic symptoms 0 Symptoms I Negative involve behavioral deficits such as attened emotions social withdrawal apathy impaired attention and poverty of speech I Positive involve behavioral excesses or peculiarities such as hallucinogens delusions bizarre behavior and wild ights of ideas 0 Course and Outcome I Once the disorder emerges clearly its course is variable but patients tend to fall into three broad groups 0 Some are treated successfully and have a full recovery 0 Some have a partial recovery and can live on their own for a while 0 Some endure chronic illness and have relentless deterioration and extensive hospitalization Chapter 13 Notes Disorders 0 Neurochemical Factors I Dopamine hypothesis asserts that excessive dopamine activity is the neurochemical basis for schizophrenia o This makes sense because most of the drugs that are useful in the treatment of schizophrenia are known to dampen dopamine activity in the brain Recent research has also shown that abnormalities in neural circuits using glutamate as a neurotransmitter may play a role in schizophrenic disturbance o Neurodevelopmental Hypothesis asserts that schizophrenia is caused in part by various disruptions in the normal maturational process of the brain before or after birth 0 Expressed Emotion the degree to which a relative of schizophrenic patient displays highly critical or emotionally overinvolved attitudes towards the patient I After release from a hospital schizophrenic patients who return to a family high in expressed emotion show relapse rates three times that of patients who return to families in low expressed emotion I High stress can trigger relapses 0 Culture and Pathology 0 Cultural views I Realistic argue that the criterion of mental illnesses vary greatly across cultures and that there are no universal standards of normality and abnormality I Pancultural argue that the criteria of mental illnesses are much the same around the world and that basic standards of normality and abnormality are universal across cultures 0 Eating Disorders severe disturbances in eating behavior characterized by preoccupation with weight concerns and unhealthy efforts to control weight 0 Anorexia nervosa involves intense fear of gaining weight disturbed body image refusal to maintain normal weight and use of dangers measures to lose weight I Restricting type people drastically reduce their intake or starve themselves Bing eatingpurging individuals vomit after meals or misuse laxatives or diuretics by engaging in excessive exercise People in treatment for anorexia are usually 2530 under their normal weight Chapter 13 Notes Disorders 0 Bulimia Nervosa involves habitually engaging in out of control overeating followed by unhealthy compensatory efforts such as self induced vomiting fasting abuse of laxatives and excessive exercise I People with bulimia are much more likely to recognize that their eating behavior is pathological and are more likely to cooperate with treatment About 9095 of individuals with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are female Chapter 12 Notes Stress o Biophysical Model holds that physical illnesses caused by a complex interaction of quotquot plrquotquotan 39 39factors 0 Asserts that these factors operate in a psychological and social context that is also in uential 0 Health psychology concerned with how psychological factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation prevention and treatment of illness 0 Nature of Stress 0 Stress any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one s well being and tax one s coping abilities 0 Major types of stress I Frustration an experience whenever the pursuit of a goal is thwarted you experience frustration when you want something and can t have it I Con ict occurs when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression 0 Approach approach a choice must be maid between two attractive goals 0 Avoidance avoidance a choice between two unattractive goals most unpleasant and highly stressful 0 Approach avoidance a choice about whether or not to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive qualities 0 Vacillation going back and forth by indecision I Change 0 Life changes any noticeable alterations in one s living circumstances that require readjustment 0 Social Readjustment Rating Scale the scale assigns numerical values to 43 major life events and these values are supposed to re ect that magnitude of the readjustment required by each change 0 The SRRS and other scales have been used in many studies all over the world and they have shown that people with higher scores are more vulnerable to many kinds of physical illness and to many psychological problems as well I Pressure involves expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way 0 You are under pressure to perform when you re expected to execute tasks and responsibilities quickly efficiently and successfully Pressure to conform to others expectations are also common Pressure is often self imposed and people often put pressure on themselves self imposed stress is not unique to pressure and one implication is that people may have more control over a substantial portion of the stress in their lives than they realize o Responding to Stress 0 Three responses to stress Chapter 12 Notes Stress I Emotional 0 Common emotional responses are anger annoyance rage apprehension anxiety fear dejection sadness and grief Barbara Fredrickson s broaden and build theory of positive emotions positive emotions alter people s mindsets broadening their scope of attention and increasing their creativity to problem solving Second positive emotions can undo the lingering effects of negative emotions and thus short circuit the potentially damaging physiological responses to stress Third positive emotions can promote rewarding social interactions that help to build valuable social support enhanced coping strategies and other enduring personal resources I Emotional arousal effects 0 Inverted U hypothesis predicts that task performance should improve with increased emotional arousal up to a point after which further increases become disruptive and performance deteriorates o The conventional wisdom is that as a task becomes more complex the optimal level of arousal for peak performance tends to decrease The inverted u hypothesis provides a plausible model of how emotional arousal could have either beneficial or disruptive effects on coping depending on the nature of the stressful demands one encounters I Physiological 0 Stress reactions are nonspecific which means that the reactions do not vary according to the specific type of stress encountered 0 General adaptation syndrome amodel of the body s stress response consisting of three stages alarm resistance and exhaustion 0 First stage an alarm reaction occurs when an organism first recognizes the existence of a threat Physiological arousal occurs as the body musters its resources to combat the challenge Second stage the stage of resistance the physiological changes stabilize as coping efforts get underway Arousal continues to be higher than normal although it may level off somewhat as the organism becomes accustomed to the threat Third stage the stage of exhaustion the body s resources for fighting stress are limited and if stress can t be overcome then the body s resources may be depleted I Brain Body Pathways O O O Chapter 12 Notes Stress 0 First pathway routed through the autonomic nervous system and your hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system 0 The adrenal glands release large amounts of catecholamines which radiate through the body and produce a number of physiological changes 0 Second pathway more direct the hypothalamus sends signals to the so called master gland of the endocrine system the pituitary gland o The pituitary gland secretes the hormone ACTH which stimulates the outer adrenal cortex and releases corticosteroids which increase energy and reduce inhibit tissue in ammation 0 Neurogenesis the formation of new neurons primarily in key areas of the hippocampus o The capacity of stress to hinder neurogenesis may have important rami cations I Behavioral o Coping refers to efforts to master reduce or tolerate the demands created by stress 0 Learned helplessness a passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events I Seems to occur when individuals come to believe that events are beyond their control Catastrophic thinking the tendency to becom highly self critical in response to stress and causes aggravates and perpetuates emotional reactions to stress 0 Aggression any behavior that is intended to hurt someone either verbally or physically o Frustration aggression hypothesis aggression is always caused by frustration o Catharsis the release of emotional tension 0 Most studies find that behaving in an aggressive manner tends to fuel more anger and aggression 0 Self indulgence stress sometimes leads to reduced impulse control and when troubled by stress many people engage in excessive or unwise patterns of eating drinking smoking using drugs spending money etc 0 Internet addiction spending an inordinate amount of time on the intemet and being unable to control online use 0 Defensive coping 0 Defense mechanisms largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions sucha s anxiety and guilt Chapter 12 Notes Stress Constructive coping relatively healthful efforts that people make to deal with stressful events 0 Involves confronting problems directly 0 Based on reasonably realistic appraisals of stress and coping resources Involves learning to recognize and in some cases inhibit potentially disruptive emotional reactions to stress 0 Makes efforts to ensure that your body is not especially vulnerable to the potentially damaging effects of stress 0 0 Physical Health and Stress o Personalities I Type A includes three elements 0 Strong competitive orientation 0 Impatience and time urgency o Anger and hostility I Type B marked by relatively relaxed patient easy going and amicable behavior More often than not studies found a correlation between Type A personalities o and elevated incidences of heart disease but the findings were not as strong nor as consistent as expected 0 One line of research has supported the hypothesis that transient mental stress and the resulting emotions that people experience can tax the heart I Overall the evidence suggests that mental stress can elicit cardiac symptoms in about 3070 of patients with stable coronary disease Elevated rates of depression have been found among patients suffering from heart disease in many studies but most theorists explained this correlation by asserting that being diagnosed with heart disease makes people depressed o The emotional dysfunction of depression may cause heart disease 0 Immune response the body s defensive reaction to invasion by bacteria viral agents or other foreign substances I Some studies have also related stress to suppressed immune activity in humans Recent finding suggest that exposure to long term stress can sometimes foster persistent overproduction of pro in ammatory proteins which can promote chronic in ammation Chronic in ammation resulting from immune system dysregulation may be another key mechanism underlying the association between stress and a wide variety of diseases 0 Social support refer to various types of aid and emotional sustenance provided by members of one s social networks 0 Optimism a general tendency to expect good outcomes I There is a correlation between optimism and relatively good health I The potential importance of optimism is illustrated by research which suggests that optimism fosters reduced mortality and greater longevity Chapter 12 Notes Stress 0 Positive Effects of Stress 0 Research on resilience suggests that stress can promote personal growth or self improvement I The predominant view has been that a substantial majority of people who are exposed to traumatic stress tend to suffer severe effects whereas resilience is unusual and even rare 0 Health Impairing Behavior 0 Smoking 0 Poor nutritional habits I Heavy consumption of foods that elevate cholesterol Vulnerability to cardiovascular diseases may be in uenced by other factors High salt intake I High caffeine consumption I High fat diets 0 Lack of exercise 0 BehaviorAIDS I Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome a disorder in which the immune system is gradually weakened and eventually disabled by the human immunode ciency virus HIV 0 Stress Management 0 People use a variety of coping strategies and some are better than others I Ellis recommends reappraising stressful events to detect and dispute catastrophic thinking Using humor to deal with stress may be bene cial in a variety of ways It may help to release pent up aggression and emotions by expressing them
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