GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 101
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This 65 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cecelia Erdman IV on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Elizabeth Jordan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see /class/228716/psyc-101-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Diagnosis is to etiology as Selected Answer description is to explanation One of the criteria of abnormal behavior is that the behavior is maladaptive What does maladaptive mean Selected Answer interfering with one39s ability to function in everyday life such as in relationships or at work Donna goes to see a doctor because she has been very confused and says someone else39s thoughts are being put in her head The doctor gets more information from Donna and then refers to the DSMIV What will the doctor use the DSMIV for Selected Answer making the appropriate diagnosis Which disorder involves a chronic high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific object or situation Selected Answer generalized anxiety disorder Obsession is to compulsion as Selected Answer thought is to behavior Which type of psychologists have found that people who misinterpret harmless situations as threatening and those who focus excessive attention on perceived threats are more likely to suffer from anxiety problems Selected Answer cognitive Which somatoform disorder is characterized by excessive preoccupation with one39s health and constantly worrying about developing physical illnesses Selected Answer hypochondriasis Compared to major depressive disorder how prevalent is bipolar disorder Selected Answer bipolar disorder is much less prevalent affecting 1 2 of adults Research on cognitive factors that contribute to depression shows that people who have are especially vulnerable to depression Selected Answer a pessimistic explanatory style The central feature of schizophrenic disorders is Selected Answer disturbed irrational thought Research has shown that neurotransmitter abnormalities are often found in individuals with schizophrenia Which neurotransmitter has most of this research been focused on Selected Answer dopamine Some of the research on environmental factors that may influence the course of schizophrenia has examined the role of expressed emotion which refers to Selected the degree to which a family member displays highly critical or overinvoved attitudes Answer toward the person with schizophrenia What are eating disorders Selected severe disturbances in eating behavior accompanied by extreme preoccupation with weight Answer and pathological efforts to control weight The diathesis stress model of psychological disorders is most consistent with which theme of psychology Selected Answer Behavior is determined by multiple causes Whatdo 39 39 39 andI 39 39 I 39 39 39 have incommon Selected both are therapies intended to enhance selfunderstanding in order to promote personal Answer change Jaime decides to see a counselor in Campus Health because she has been feeling down most of the semester and she is now failing one of her classes She thinks that maybe she is depressed In her second meeting with the counselor she talks about her struggles in school and in her social life The therapist asks why she has failed and then points out how Jaime39s explanations are unrealistically negative and full of self blame Then Jaime and the counselor work together to change Jaime39s thinking to be more realistic and balanced Which type of therapy is this Selected Answer cognitive therapy Systematic desensitization is a form a behavior therapy that is very effective for treating Selected Answer phobias As stated in the personal application section of the treatment chapter effective psychotherapy is both a science and an art What makes therapy a science Selected Interventions are based on extensive theory and empirical research to test their Answer effectiveness Imagine that a friend confides in you that he wants to go see a therapist but he is not sure what to look for Based on the info at the end of the treatment chapter what should you tell him is the most important factor to consider Selected How much your friend likes the therapist based on personal qualities such as warmth Answer empathy and selfconfidence Placebo effects occur when people39s x cause them to experience some change even when they received a bogus treatment such as a sugar pill instead of the real medication Selected Answer expectations Of the terms listed below which one is a cognitive process that is frequently automatic and that saves time and effort required to get a handle on people individually Selected Answer stereotyping Because a stereotype is an oversimplification it will save us cognitive time and effort However the price we pay is that our perception of individuals will be Selected Answer inaccurate What is the term for an error in thinking that occurs when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of a stereotype than they have actually seen Selected Answer illusory correlation Research on the ways in which stereotypes influence social perception shows that we see what we expect to see in others In this way stereotypes are like Selected Answer perceptual sets Stereotypes create biases in Correct Answer what we notice and what we remember Someone hears that a student got 11 correct answers out of 33 on the final exam and says IIThat student must be really stupid or lazyquot This is an example of Selected Answer internal attribution Another person hears about the 11 out of 33 and says quotMaybe something happened to that student and she couldn39t study like a family emergency or getting sick or having to work extra hours at herjobII This is an example of Selected Answer external attribution What is the term for observers39 bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining someone else39s behavior Selected Answer fundamental attribution error After breaking up a rowdy party in a residence hall and arresting several students for underage drinking a public safety officer is asked why students do these kinds of things If the officer does NOT make the fundamental attribution error then he would say Selected These students are exposed to too much advertising that shows young people drinking a Answer lot The tendency to attribute one39s own success to personal factors and one39s own failures to situational factors is called Selected Answer selfserving bias Who conducted research on obedience Selected Answer Stanley Milgram The main conclusion of studies on obedience is that Selected under strong pressure from an authority figure most people obey orders to harm Answer someone else What is the bystander effect Selected people are less likely to provide needed help when they are in groups than when they are Answer alone Imagine that you are a teacher and you are going to have students complete a project in groups What can you do to reduce social Ioafing Selected Answer tell students that you will evaluate individual contributions and assign individual grades Prejudice is to discrimination as Selected Answer attitude is to behavior Research on negative racial stereotypes indicates that they are highly resistant to change due to Selected Answer all of the above It is sad but true Prejudicial attitudes can be found in children as young as 4 years old What is the cause of prejudice in such young children Selected Answer it is learned from others especially parents Which of the following is used by social psychologists to refer to biased quotus versus themquot thinking Selected Answer ingroup and outgroup Research on factors that affect conformity found that the two key determinants of conformity are Selected Answer group size and group unanimity Research on conformity obedience social roles social Ioafing and the bystander effect reveals the power of the situation to transform behavior However it is not simply that the situation changes you Your behavior is always the result of an interaction of internal and external factors In all of these situations the social factors interact with which internal process Correct Answer the individual39s sense of personal responsibility As stated in the textbook quotfeeling stressed depends on what events one notices and how one appraises themquot This statement best fits which perspective in psychology Selected Answer cognitive What does the word appraise mean Selected Answer to evaluate Jeremiah is trying to decide if he will spend Saturday afternoon studying in the library or hanging out with his friends He enjoys both of these things but still feels torn between them What type of conflict is Jeremiah experiencing Selected Answer approachapproach As stated in the textbook quotEvents that are stressful for one person may be routine for anotherII and quotsome people are more prone than others to feel threatened by life39s difficultiesquot These statements are consistent with which theme of psychology Selected Answer People39s experience of the world is highly subjective What are the three levels of responses to stress Selected Answer motional physiological and behavioral According to the invertedU hypothesis a high level of emotional arousal like being really excited or really nervous will help your performance on Selected Answer simple tasks Research on emotional responses to stress has found that Selected Answer during times of stress people can have a mix of positive and negative emotional reactions The three phases of the are alarm resistance and exhaustion Selected Answer general adaptation syndrome Which division of the autonomic nervous system is activated by stress When activated it causes a number of changes in your body like increased heart rate increased respiration and more blood flow to your muscles These physiological reactions get you ready for action Hint Fight or flight Selected Answer sympathetic Which term refers to how you behave when you experience stress It involves the different things you do to deal with get rid of or put up with the demands created by stress Selected Answer coping The term for relatively healthful efforts that people make to deal with stress is Selected Answer constructive coping To understand an individual39s experience of stress we must consider several factors such as the event or situation that might trigger stress the person39s thoughts personality characteristics general physical state and social support The fact that someone39s reaction to stress is influenced by numerous factors is most consistent with the theme that Selected Answer behavior is determined by multiple causes Kendra says she is feeling stressed out by the pressure of studying for a cumulative final exam Which of the following is a maladaptive coping response Selected telling herself she does not need to study and then spending her time looking up people Answer on Facebook Research on Type A personality shows that Type A people have a greater risk of heart attack and heart disease Careful followup studies have determined that this risk is related to one specific part of Type A personality Which aspect of Type A personality is really bad for your heart Selected Answer anger and hostility Which of the following statements most accurately summarizes the findings of research on the link between stress and illness Selected Answer There is a modest correlation 20 to 30 between stress and illness Research on factors that moderate the impact of stress shows that people who have tend to stay healthier even when experiencing stress Selected Answer social support and optimism One reason why stress is linked to an increased likelihood of getting a physical illness is that stress suppresses Selected Answer the immune system Stress has the potential to promote personal growth because a stressful event like breaking up with your girlfriend or boyfriend can force you to Selected Answer all of the above Milo missed the deadline for a big assignment in a class and found out that he39ll get a zero on the paper He says quotI can39t believe I missed the deadline I39m going to fail this class My parents are going to kill me Everyone will think I am an idiot Man I am so stupid I39ll never amount to anything I might as well drop out of college right now Maybe if I am lucky I can get a job at the Waffle House But I39m probably not even good enough for thatquot This unrealistic and exaggerated negative selftalk is an example of Selected Answer catastrophic thinking As a stressmanagement technique relaxation is beneficial because it can reduce Selected Answer physiological arousal is the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation Selected Answer empiricism What makes psychology a scientific field Selected Answer reliance on objective systematic observation and data collection Imagine that someone tells a long story about an unusual habit her father has She asks why her father does that Which of the following is most consistent with the way a psychologist is trained to think Selected quotIt is not a simple answer and we need to gather more information about your father Answer before drawing any conclusions The textbook is full of references for research articles that have appeared in a variety of psychology journals Before an article is published it must undergo a rigorous process in which other experts evaluate the research to make sure the research meets high scientific standards and that the conclusions are supported by the evidence This process is known as Selected Answer peer review In a typical x the experimenter proposes that one variable has an effect on another variable Selected Answer hypothesis The variable that the experimenter proposes as the causal variable the one that if manipulated would cause a change in the other variable is labeled the x variable Selected Answer independent To do the 39 39g 39 39 a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result Selected Answer an experiment Imagine that a cognitive psychologist wants to study visualization among athletes She starts by stating the hypothesis IIVisualization will improve performance among pole vaultersII What is the dependent variable in this example Selected Answer performance among pole vaulters To test her hypothesis the cognitive psychologist will do an experiment She randomly selects 20 pole vaulters from all active NCAA pole vaulters and then randomly assigns 10 of them to receive visualization training and 10 to not receive visualization training The best label for the group of 10 pole vaulters who do not receive visualization training is Selected Answer control A middle school English teacher decides to use her students for an experiment to see if reading aloud affects how well her students understand poetry In her first class period in the morning at 820 AM she does not have students read aloud In her next to last class period in the afternoon at 145 PM she has students read aloud for half of the class She does this each day for a week and then gives all of the students a new poem to analyze and grades their work on a 0 100 scale In this example the confounding variable is x Selected Answer class time In studying the relationship between sleep and physical illness researchers have found that college students who get more sleep tend to get sick less often This correlation proves that Selected the correlation allows us to describe the link between sleep and illness but it cannot Answer prove causation One of the important advantages of descriptivecorrelational research is Selected it gives researchers a way to investigate things that they could not examine with an Answer experiment In a study of small business leaders completed a few years ago researchers wanted to know if having a better sense of humor gave business leaders more positive psychological qualities such as confidence resilience and optimism In this study the researchers were thinking of x as the independent variable Selected Answer sense of humor If you wish to make a definite statement about the effect of one variable on another then you must use which research method Selected Answer an experiment The III have a friend whoII syndrome is another term for the tendency to Selected Answer rely on anecdotal evidence Evidencebased decision making involves Selected considering the experiences of a large number of different people in order to determine Answer which decision is best supported A student once told me about an uncle who went through a very hard time in his life and soon after that all of his hair turned white She said this convinced her that stress causes your hair to turn white Why is it not possible to draw such a conclusion Selected Answer All of the above In an attempt to understand a psychological disorder in depth a clinical psychologist conducts a series of interviews with one person who has the disorder and with several friends and family members of this individual The research method being used here is x Selected Answer case study In reading about different research methods you learned that each method has advantages and disadvantages What is the common thread that cuts across all methods used in psychological science Selected they all involve systematic collection of information with the goal of improving our Answer understanding of behavior The study of classical conditioning and operant conditioning is most closely tied to which theoretical perspective from chapter 1 Selected Answer behavioral What aspect of individual experience is most likely to be shaped by classical conditioning Selected Answer involuntary reflexes such as salivation or blinking What type of association is necessary for classical conditioning to occur Selected Association of one thing that is neutral with another thing that Answer automatically evokes a response While she was smelling a rose Veronica was stung on the nose by a bee The sting was very painful and scary for Veronica Now Veronica feels anxious whenever she sees a rose This is an example of what type of learning Selected Answer classical conditioning Before this experience Veronica had no particular reaction to the sight of a rose The appropriate term for the rose before this experience is Selected Answer neutral stimulus In the example above the term for the bee sting is Selected Answer unconditioned stimulus Reinforcement and punishment are important operant conditioning concepts What is the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment Selected Negative reinforcement increases behavior and punishment decreases Answer behavior What is the difference between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement Selected Positive reinforcement involves receiving something and negative Answer reinforcement involves having something taken away Juliette asks her mother to take her to the mall Mom says she wants to stay home Juliette throws herself into a chair starts crying saying she hates her mother and that she wants to kill herself Mom says quotFine I39ll take you to the mallquot Juliette stops all of the bad things she is doing jumps up and runs to get her purse The next time Juliette asks her mother to take her to the mall she begins to cry and whine a little Her mother immediately says yes Focus on the mother39s behavior of saying she wants to stay home What consequence does the mother experience for that behaviorTP The key is to focus on the mother Her behavior is saying she wants to stay home What consequence follows that response What is the effect of that consequence Selected Answer punishment For the example above focus on Juliette39s behavior of crying and saying bad things What consequence does Juliette experience Selected Answer positive reinforcement For the example above focus on the mother39s behavior of saying she will take Juliette to the mall What consequence does the mother experience for saying that Selected Answer negative reinforcement What type of consequence tends to have a stronger effect on our behavior Selected Answer immediate What is the term for the gradual weakening and disappearance of a learned response Selected Answer extinction Imagine that someone had been receiving reinforcement for a behavior and then the reinforcement is interrupted Which pattern of reinforcement will lead to the greatest persistence and the most resistance to extinction Selected Answer intermittent Which type of reinforcement schedule tends to generate steady response rates and resistance to extinction Selected Answer variable Most gambling is reinforced according to a schedule of reinforcement while use of vending machines is reinforced according to a schedule of reinforcement Selected Answer variable xed Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement Selected Enrique39s roommates make fun of him for not drinking At a recent party Answer Enrique got a red cup and pretended to drink and his roommates stopped teasing him Now Enrique holds a red cup and pretends to drink at most parties Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement Selected The dentist has been lecturing Anita for years about flossing At every Answer appointment the dentist criticizes Anita for not ossing Anita begins flossing and then the dentist stops the lecturing and criticism Now Anita flosses every day Positive reinforcement is to negative reinforcement as Selected Answer add is to subtract In an attempt to get us to buy their products advertisers frequently pair their products with stimuli that seem likely to elicit positive emotional responses For example they pair a laundry detergent with a cute cuddly bear Or they pair a credit card with a warm loving family scene What type of conditioning are these advertisers using to get you to learn positive emotional responses to their products Selected Answer Classical Of the three memory processes which one involves keeping information in memory over time Selected Answer Storage Imagine that you are trying to memorize material for a class while you are doing something else at the same time such as facebook email doing something online watching TV talking on the phone hanging out with friends etc How will this affect your memory performance Selected Dividing your attention like this will have a large negative impact on your Answer memory because it reduces encoding and interferes with retrieval Elaboration such as thinking of examples of a concept is a type of semantic encoding because Selected Answer it makes you think about what the concept means What is the main point of dualcoding theory Selected Answer memory is enhanced ifyou form both semantic and visual codes Encoding is to retrieval as Selected Answer input is to output The concept of shortterm memory as quotworking memoryquot highlights what about shortterm memory Selected Answer that it is an area used for active thinking and problemsolving An organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event gathered from previous experience with the object or event is known as Selected Answer a schema How is knowledge represented and organized in longterm memory Selected Answer in complex networks of related concepts or pieces of knowledge In studying the process of retrieving information from longterm memory research finds that Selected getting information from longterm memory involves getting a few bits and Answer pieces of information lling in the missing information and reconstructing the past The misinformation effect and source monitoring error help to explain Selected how people can have memories of event that they never actually saw or Answer experienced What is pseudoforgetting Selected not remembering something because it was never actually encoded in the Answer first place Last night Guy studied for his psychology exam for a couple hours and then worked on a crossword puzzle This morning while taking his psychology exam he cannot remember some key psychology terms but the words from the crossword puzzle keep popping into his head This is an example of Selected Answer retroactive interference Amelia spent the afternoon talking with a friend Then she got a phone call from her mother and they talked for about an hour The next day Amelia39s sister calls to find out what she and her mother talked about However Amelia cannot remember everything from the conversation with her mother because she keeps recalling things from her earlier conversation with her friend This is an example of Selected Answer proactive interference The research generated by the repressed memories controversy most clearly shows that Selected memory is fragile and changeable and it often involves imperfect Answer reconstructions of the past The term for your understanding of your own memory how it works and the strategies that are best for you to use to improve it is Selected Answer metacognition Research on levels of processing suggests that students should spend less time on rote repetition and spend more time Selected Answer working on understanding the meaning of the material Research on deeper processing shows that retention is better when you Selected Answer All of the above Imagine that you are trying to memorize a list of words in order According to the serial position effect which words will you remember best Selected Answer the words at the beginning of the list and those at the end ofthe list Research on the effect of overlearning shows that Selected you should continue to go over the material even after you think you have Answer it memorized According to X you forget some things due to competition from other usually similar material Selected Answer interference theory What does it mean to say that emotion is a dynamic process Selected Emotion is not a fixed state it involves a series of reactions that change Answer over time In the systems model of emotion the essential cognitive process that occurs following an activating event or object is labeled Selected Answer appraisal The BroadenandBuild Theory was developed to describe the purpose and role of positive emotions Given this emphasis this theory is consistent with the way of thinking promoted by one of the two schools of thought that were important in the early history of psychology Which school of thought would emphasize studying the purpose and role of positive emotion Selected Answer functionalism What does the quotbroadenquot aspect of the BroadenandBuild Theory refer to Selected Positive emotions cause us to have a wide array of thoughtaction Answer tendencies In one experiment on the effects of positive emotion research participants were put in an anxietyproducing situation that caused physiological arousal Then the participants were shown a film that caused positive negative or neutral emotion Researchers measured how long it took for each participant39s physiological arousal to return to a baseline level What was the important finding of this experiment Selected Participant who viewed the positive emotion lm recovered more quickly Answer than those who viewed either a neutral or negative film According to the BroadenandBuild Theory one important characteristic that positive emotions might help us to build is psychological resilience What is psychological resilience Note Remember that this is an openbook and opennotes quiz And it is perfectly acceptable to look up the word quotresiliencequot in a dictionary if you cannot figure out what it means Selected Answer the ability to bounce back from a stressful experience relatively quickly Research on positive emotion shows that positive emotion leads to broadened thinking which triggers more positive emotion What is the term used in the BroadenandBuild Theory to describe this pattern of positive emotions and thoughts building upon one another Selected Answer upward spiral Negative emotion tends to activate the part of the autonomic nervous system known as the Hint Think of the fightorflight response Selected Answer sympathetic nervous system Research shows that positive emotions can undo lingering negative emotions What specifically does the term quotundoquot refer to in this research Selected Answer decrease physiological arousal True or false Research with infants shows that they must be taught to pay attention to faces Selected Answer False Imagine that you are holding your newborn son who is just one day old You bring his face close to yours and you stick your tongue out What is he likely to do Selected Answer stick his tongue out Why do we care so much about other people39s facial expressions Selected Answer All of the above Which line points to the amygdala a structure of the brain important for triggering emotional responses of fear and anger Selected Answer A Look at the drawing of the brain above again Which line points to the structure that contains clusters of neurons that regulate hunger Selected Answer B Drive is to incentive as Selected Answer internal is to external Mizuho lives in Japan while Mike lives in the US Which of the following emotions is Mizuho likely to be more comfortable expressing than Mike Selected Answer sympathy Eating habits and food preferences are influenced mostly by Selected Answer environmental factors such as observational learning and exposure An adult39s sexual orientation is influenced mostly by Selected Answer biological factors including prenatal neurodevelopmental processes While walking down the street at night you are approached by a sketchylooking man who asks you for money According to the Schachter twofactor theory of emotion you are most likely to conclude that Selected since your heart is pounding in this dangerous situation you must be Answer afraid Michelle Bachman opposes legislation that would protect gay people from harassment and discrimination in the workplace Her argument is that if we do this then the next thing to happen is quotOur children will be forced to learn that homosexuality is normal and natural and that perhaps they should try it and that ll be very soon in our public schools beginning in kindergartenquot What fallacy is Bachman illustrating in her argument Selected Answer slippery slope A personality trait is a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations What does durable mean Selected Answer longlasting Betsy has trouble controlling her impulses If she wants to do something the she just does it even if it gets her into trouble Freud would say that Betsy39s personality is dominated by her Selected Answer id Joey is an argumentative jerk However instead of seeing himself is an argumentative jerk he says that everyone around him is an argumentative jerk Freud would say that Joey is using the defense mechanism of Selected Answer projection Freud believed that most personality disturbances were caused by Selected Answer sexual con icts from early childhood Do you bite your nails chew the ends of your pens smoke or overeat If you do then Freud would say you have an oral fixation What does this mean in Freud39s theory Selected your psychological development stalled during the first year of life you are still Answer stuck in that stage because of some issue related to breast feeding or weaning What is the most appropriate conclusion about genetics and personality Selected All personality trait are the result of the interaction ofgenetics and Answer experience Projective tests like the Thematic Apperception Test and the Rorschach inkblot test are used by many clinical psychologists because Selected Answer they provide a useful way to get some subjective information from client in therapy Carl Rogers39s approach to personality emphasizes the selfconcept which is your own conscious mental picture of yourself Because of this focus on one39s own subjective beliefs about oneself Rogers called his approach Selected Answer personcentered theory According to Carl Rogers we will have less disparity between the selfconcept and our actual experiences if we Selected Answer receive unconditional love Abraham Maslow39s approach to personality is called selfactualization theory What does Maslow mean by the need for selfactualization Selected Answer this is the highest human need the need to fulfill one39s potential Which of the following is NOT a weakness of selfreport inventories Selected Answer They are difficult to score objectively What is the main idea of Abraham Maslow39s concept of the hierarchy of needs Selected we must satisfy our basic needs such as hunger safety love before we can Answer be motivated by higher needs such as personal growth needs According to behavioral theory personality characteristics are behavioral tendencies that have been shaped by Selected Answer classical and operant conditioning Carlita is a nervous emotionally reactive person She has a high score on the neuroticism scale of the Big 5 Why is she neurotic Skinner would be most likely to say that she Selected has experienced consequences that reinforce her neurotic pattern of Answer reaction What does the letter B stand for in the A gt B gt C model Selected Answer belief According to the evolutionary approach to personality humans have evolved special sensitivity to variations in the ability to cooperate and collaborate with others which is closely associated with the Big Five personality trait of Selected Answer agreeableness According to Carl Rogers39 theory the degree of disparity between one39s selfconcept and one39s actual experiences is known as Selected Answer incongruence At a crowded party one person feels excited energized and outgoing while another person feels reserved and shy Why do people have different reactions to the same situation According to the social cognitive approach how we react to our environment depends on Selected Answer how we think Which of the following is NOT a criticism of psychodynamic personality theories Selected Answer they overlook early childhood experience Some individuals feel confident that they can successfully perform the responses necessary to earn reinforcers In other words they believe they have the ability to reach their goals These people are said to have a high level of Selected Answer selfef cacy On my honor Ihave neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this assignment By including this Honor Pledge you are affirming that you wrote your own paper and did not collaborate with any other student to write it You also af rm that your words and ideas are your own and you did not take them from any other source Pledge Matthew Dibble Questions from Lecture Notes on Memory 1 Which of the following is NOT a metacognitive strategy a Flaming b Making Concept Maps c Selfevaluation d SelfMonitoring Answer Making ConceptMaps 2 Which type of memory is de ned as having a large capacity for a very short duration of time a Sensory Memory b Working Memory c ShortTerm Memory d LongTerm Memory Answer Sensory Memory 3 Which of the following is NOT a reason we forget due to encoding failure a Substance Abuse b Sleep Deprivation c Illness or Injury d Divided Attention Answer Illness or Injury Storage Failure 4 Which of the following is NOT a study technique used to improve encoding a Distributed Rehearsal b Visual Imagery c Mnemonic Devices d Mass Studying Answer Mass Studying Better to split up study sessions 5 Proactive Interference is de ned as a Newer information blocks retrieval of older information b Forgetting that occurs because memory traces fade with time c Forgetting something you never actually learned d Older information blocks the retrieval of newer information Answer Older information blocks the retrieval of newer information Psych TEST 3 Study Questions for Exam 3 Fall 2013 Exam 3 will be on personality psychological disorders treatment of disorders and social psychology These topics are covered in chapters ll l3 l4 and 15 of the textbook and in the lectures since Exam 2 1 De ne personality Elaborate on each key word in the de nition 0 De nition 1 quot J is the J39 quot quot set of 39 traits D Distinctive individual differences D Consistent across time and situations 2 Describe the traits in the Big 5 model of personality I Neuroticism calmrelaxed neurotic II Conscientiousness disorganized 7conscientious III Extraversion introverted 7 extroverted IV Agreeableness disagreeable 7 agreeable V Openness to experience close minded 7 open minded 3 Compare and contrast selfreport inventories and projective tests of personality traits 0 Self report inventories are where the a person lls out a quiz or a survey themselves 0 Proj ective tests are responses to ambiguous stimuli o Ink blots 0 Look at this picture and tell a story 4 What are the advantages and disadvantages of the popular tests that claim to measure personality 0 Self report inventories D J quick39 r 39 easy to J 39 39 objective scoring empirical data on reliability and validity D Disadvantages response biases social desirability bias response sets deliberate deception o Proj ective tests 0 Advantages can promote self re ection may be used to obtain subjective info 0 Disadvantages response biases deliberate deception and social desirability bias difficulty to score affected by the scorer s biases low validity low reliability 5 Personality emerges from the interaction internal and external factors a Describe in detail research on speci c internal factors that can contribute to personality traits I Genetically in uenced 0 Infant temperament Emotional and behavioral tendencies present at birth a b The inborn foundations of personality 0 Inbom does not mean unchangeable d May set a range ofpossible responses to situations I Children are not born as blank slates they are born with personality traits o Autonomic Activity I Heart Rate Variability HRV is a conservation measure of autonomic reactions HRV is correlated with personality traits especially neuroticism and extraversion I Your heart has a regular pattern but not the same exact time between beats a Biology doesn t determine personality completely but it creates a base line Can effect core affect a 0 Brain activity 0 Cognitive Patterns I ABC Model A activating event Stimulus B beliefs C Consequences emotional andor behavioral A gt B gt C Example A Ken asks Barbie to go out and she says no B Ken thinks its NBD he will just ask someone else CKen feels ok and foes out with friends Get different behaviors because of different beliefs Describe in detail several perspectives on personality Include specific concepts not vague descriptions D Myer Briggs Type Indicator take a test then get a 4 letter code for your type either introvert I or extrovert E etcetera D The Barnum EffectO results atre always broad so that anyone thinks they could fit in it example horoscopes are never too detailed or fully negative How does the social cognitive perspective serve as a model of interaction of factors affecting personality Include specific concepts not just a vague answer D Bandura s social external cognitive internal perspective emphasizes the interaction of factors o B ha vi r 39 39 I quot39ve factors behavior environmental circle 0 What is abnormal Describe in detail criteria of abnormal behavior Provide examples to illustrate the criteria I Abnormal is a questionable or iffy behavior on an extreme end of a continuum a very high or a very low Three D s of abnormal behavior 0 Deviant o Violation od social norm 0 Statistically extreme I Often in terms of numbers very few others have the same experience 0 Distressing 0 Personal suffering how you are experiencing this abnormal behavior 0 Is it troubling or upsetting to you 0 Dysfunctional o Maladaptive behavior behavior interrupting or disrupting your life gt1 9 What is important to know about each of the following concepts related to psychological disorders Diagnosis Identifying speci c symptoms amp problems D Match observed symptoms amp problems with diagnostic criteria in the DSM Symptom Abnormalities in behavior emotion andor thought Problem Difficulties caused by symptoms DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual criteria for over 200 disorders Prevalence 74 of people are normal and only 6 are severe disorders even though we may thing something is wrong the vast majority do not have problems 1 anxiety disorders such as OCD PTSD phobias panic 2 mood disorders such as depression or bipolar 3 substance related disorders Etiology Causal factors and developmental history of a disorder Describe the diathesisstress model Then use it for each of the following Both diathesis vulnerability internal risk factors and stress external risk factors contribute to a person s behavior or symptoms You matched observed symptoms with the diagnostic criteria Explain how this model is related to this theme of our course Behavior is determined by multiple causes The diathesisstress model is a psychological theory that explains behavior as both a result of biological and genetic factors quotnaturequot and life experiences quotnurturequot Internal risk factors which increase likelihood such as genetics brain structure neurotransmitters and cognitive patterns diathesis External risk factors such as loss failure con ict stress pressure and change stress Explain why the following statement is NOT correct Some disorders are caused by biology and others are caused by the environment All disorders are caused by a combination of both internal and external factors biological and environmental factors Explain why the following statement is NOT correct If an environment is stressful enough then everyone in it will develop psychological symptoms Stress and environmental factors may precipitate symptoms if someone has a diathesis The effect of the environment on our behavior depends on how we think and process information Use the diathesisstress model to organize information about the numerous known risk factors for schizophrenia and for the most common psychological disorders Diathesis pessimism tendency to over think and ruminate Stress got a f on a test broke up with girlfriend Symptoms sad feels worthless doesn t want to do things he usually enjoys 9 Mood disorders 0 Organize the information you have from lectures and the textbook Symptoms hopelessness low energy insomnia poor appetite and low selfesteem Risk factors genetics neurochemical cognitive personality and life events Comorbidity anxiety PTSD eating disorders ADHD o What general ideas do you need to know about mood disorders 0 Mood disorders are disturbances in the mood of an individual 0 Major types I Major depressive disorder I Dysthymia I Bipolar disorder 0 Risk factors genetics neurochemical cognitive personality life events 0 Organize all the speci c details about these disorders around those general concepts 0 Compare and contrast bipolar disorder and major depression 0 Bipolar disorder has extreme highs and extreme lows maniac vs depressive episodes 0 Major depressive disorder is persistent disabling sadness 0 Depression is extremely common whereas the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder is l025 0 Both types of mood disorders are associated with greatly elevated rated of suicide 10 Schizophrenia o What are the primary symptoms of schizophrenia o Delusions hallucinations disorganized speech and deterioration of adaptive behavior o How is schizophrenia different from bipolar disorder 0 People with bipolar disorder usually can lead fairly norma lives hold down a regular job and have a happy relationship and family even be very successful in a career People with bipolar disorder do not hear voices that aren t there 0 Many people with schizophrenia often have a more difficult time functioning in normal society Because of the nature of the disorder people with schizophrenia often have a hard time staying in treatment and an even harder time with social relationships family friends and work 0 Bipolar disorder focuses on the extreme highs and lows in emotion while schizophrenics have more delusions and hallucinations o How is schizophrenia different from DID o Dissociative Identity Disorder is characterized by a severely dissociative or separated identity Schizophrenia is characterized by the splitting or breaking of the mind s capacity to function They are not even remotely the same thing 0 People with schizophrenia hear or see things that aren t there and believe things that aren t true often tied into a complex irrational belief system They do not have multiple identities or personalities People with DID do not have delusion beliefs outside of their multiple personalities or identities The only voices they hear or talk to are these identities 11 There were two lectures on psychological disorders What were the most important ideas in the rst lecture Nov 11 Elaborate on each of them What is abnormal 0 General criteria 0 Speci c criteria Diagnosis Prevalence of Psychological Disorders 0 12month prevalence 0 Most common psych disorders Causes of Psychological Disorders 0 Etiology o Diathesisstress model 0 What were the most important ideas in the second lecture Nov 18 Elaborate o What is an anxiety disorder 0 Where does anxiety come from 0 Anxiety Disorders I Generalized Anxiety Disorder I Phobic Disorder I Panic Disorder I Obsessive Compulsive Disorder I Post Traumatic Stress Disorder 0 Mood Disorders I Symptoms I Prevalence I Maj or Depressive Disorder MDD I Dysthymic Disorder I Bipolar Disorder I Suicidal Ideation How can you connect these two lectures How are concepts similar and what was distinctive 12 Treatment What are the most important things to know about treatment of psychological disorders List 3 or 4 main ideas Then organize details from the lecture and textbook under each of these ideas How are speci c details relevant to them 0 Biomedical Treatment something that will change you biologically 0 Medication drug therapy 0 Psychological treatment not focused directly on biology focused on something in your mind Cognition behavior emotion o Psychological treatment 0 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CBT Therapists must show empathy genuineness and unconditional positive regard if psychological disorders clear up on their own it is a spontaneous remission 13 Describe how understanding the diathesisstress model helps us to think about different 4 treatments for psychological disorders This model shows how behavior is determined by multiple causes That helps us in understanding treatment in knowing that it can be addressed from multiple angles Describe the four categories of psychotherapeutic drugs presented in the textbook What are the advantages and disadvantages of drug therapies AntianXiety drugs reduce tension apprehension and nervousness Antipsychotic drugs used to gradually reduce psychotic symptoms including hyperactivity mental confusion hallucinations and delusions Antidepressant drugs gradually elevate mood and help bring people out of depression Mood stabilizers drugs used to control mood swings in patients with bipolar mood disorders Advantages of drug therapy D Effectiveness D Ease of access D Ease of use 0 Disadvantages Side effects Adherence problems trouble sticking with treatment because of side effects Tolerance need to increase dose Dependence Withdrawal symptoms 0 O O O O O Relapse when stop taking medication things start to get worse What is ECT When where and how is it used What are the advantages and disadvantages of ECT Electroconvulsive therapy biomedical treatment in which electric shock is used to produce a cortical seizure accompanied by convulsions Used in the 1930s when a Hungarian psychiatrist believed that schizophrenia and epilepsy could not coexist in the same body turned out to be a false theory This psychiatrist would induce epilepticlike seizures in schizophrenic patients ECT has been long controversial and its use has declined in the 1960s and 1970s Now used as a biomedical treatment in which electro shock is used to produce cortical seizures accompanies by convulsions Used on patients whose anti depressant meds do not work ECT is administered in a carefully monitored medical environment with a nurse and multiple doctors present to care for the patient High relapse rates and short term side effects such as memory loss impaired attention other cognitive defects Why is it not accurate to describe psychotherapy as just talking about yourself It involves verbal interactions intended to enhance a client s self knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behavior Compare and contrast psychotherapy and medication in terms of their effectiveness as treatments for psychological disorders Medicine has a much higher chance of relapse compared to psychotherapy D Equivalent effectiveness in the short term Psychotherapy prevents relapse and is effective in both the short and long term D Differs from medicine in that once you get better you stay better miXing the two does not make it any more effective 18 CBT What is CBT Cognitive Behavioral Therapy very structured approach to what happening to individuals and changing individuals What are the goals of CBT Help clients change maladaptive patterns of thinking and behaving Describe the strategies used in CBT I Cognitive interventions examine your thinking challenge negative thinking replace incorrect beliefs with more realistic ones I Behavior modification technique self monitoring identify desired behavior homework assignments to practice recognize reward improvement a Problem focused effect or outcomes of the symptoms addressing difficulties in the moment I Present focused not going back to check what has happened in the past I Evidence based Explain the ABC model and the cognitive triad as they relate to CBT D Triangle of thoughts D The cognitive triad is the interaction of thoughts behaviors and emotions o CBT helps you be aware of these things and their interactions ABC is when our beliefs connect activating event and consequences 0 Why is CBT better than medication in terms of longterm effectiveness D CBT changes your behavior replacing incorrect beliefs with more realistic ones 19 What is social psychology Describe its basic principles within the areas of social cognition social motivation and social in uence 0 Social psychology is the study of the individual in social context study of how people think about relate to and in uence one another 0 Basic principles D Social motivations 0 We want to feel good about ourselves 0 We want to belong D Social cognition o How you think about yourself and others affects your reaction to situations D Social in uence 0 Situations have a powerful effect on us 0 We tend to underestimate the impact of the situation on our behavior 20 Describe important aspects of social cognition including subjectivity attributions person perception cognitive dissonance attitudes stereotypes and prejudice Attributions inferences about cause intemalpersonal extemalsituational o l Fundamental attribution error when explaining another person s behavior we tend to o Overestimate personal factors 0 Underestimate situational causes ex Right place right time o 2 Defensive Attributions 0 Self serving bias I Success is personal I Failure is situational 0 Blame victims for their own misfortune o Belief in a just world we tend to think the world is fait and people get what they deserve Subjectivity we are sensemaking creatures constantly interpreting things behavior in a given situation is not determined solely by the objective reality of a situation but rather how we perceive it Cognitive Dissonance Related attitudes or beliefs are inconsistent that is when they contradict each other You would predict greatest cognitive dissonance in a person who is led to lie by a simple request to do so no payment 21 Describe the three predictable phenomena that occur when people are in groups Conformity N deindividuation and diffusion of responsibility Conformity we adjust our behavior to fit the norm role and or example set by others De individuation sense of anonymity Diffusion of responsibility no one person is responsible for a group situation if no one is in charge Describe research on these phenomena Describe examples in detail to illustrate these concepts For example use them to explain behavior of people at a football game on Franklin Street in a large lecture class in a small work group etc What are the important conclusions that can be drawn from research on the following phenomena Obedience bystander effect groupthink group polarization social loafrng Obedience a form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands usually from someone in a position of authority D Milgram studied this tendency to obey authority figures 0 Measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts that con icted with their personal conscience The experiments were also controversial and considered by some scientists to be unethical and physically or psychologically abusive o The level of shock that the participant was willing to deliver was used as the measure of obedience Many people delivered the maximum shock even after hearing the subjects cries of pain because the authority gure told them to do so Bystander effect people are less likely to provide needed help when they are in groups than when they are alone 0 Your probability of getting help decreases as group size increases 0 John Darley and Bibb Latante 1968 students in individual cubicles connected by an intercom participated in discussion groups of three sixes D Early in the discussion a student who was an experimental accomplice hesitantly mentioned that he was prone to seizures Later in the discussion the same accomplice fakes a severe seizure and cried out for help D Although a majority of participants sought assistance for the student the tendency to seek help declined with increasing group size Groupthink occurs when members of a cohesive group emphasize concurrence at the expense of critical thinking in arriving at a decision 0 Irving Janis 1972 rst described groupthink in his effort to explain how President Kennedy and his advisors could have miscalculated so badly in deciding to invade the Bay of Pigs in 1961 0 When groups get caught up in group think members suspend their critical judgment and the group starts censoring dissent as the pressure to conform increases Soon everyone starts to think alike Group polarization occurs when the group discussion strengthens a group s dominant point of view and produces a shift to a more extreme decision in that direction 0 Group polarization does not involve widening the gap between factions in a group rather it can contribute to consensus in a group group think Social loa ng a reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups as compared to when they work by themselves 0 Latante 1979 measured the sound output produced by subjects who were asked to cheer or clap as loudly as they could 0 When subjects thought they were working in larger groups their individual output declined 0 As group size increases the responsibility for getting a job done is divided among more people and many group members ease up because their individual contribution is less recognizable Thus social loafing occurs where individuals can hide in the crowd 23 Compare and contrast Stereotype prejudice discrimination o Stereotypes widely held belief that people have certain characteristics due to their membership in a particular group 0 Prejudice a negative attitude held towards members of a group 0 Discrimination behaving differently usually unfairly towards the members of a group 24 Discuss key factors in interpersonal attraction Compare and contrast these factors with those that are related to attitude change and persuasion o Interpersonal attraction refers to positive feelings towards another person 0 Key factors in attraction 0 Physical attractiveness I The matching hypothesis proposes that males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners 0 Similarity effects I Married and dating couples tend to be similar in age race religion social class education intelligence physical attractiveness and attitudes o Reciprocity effects I Reciprocity involves liking those who show that they like you 0 Romantic ideals I These ideals are the personal qualities that one hopes to find in a partner such as warmth good looks loyalty high status a sense of humor and so forth 25 Provide your own examples of the following strategies Footinthedoor lowball and reciprocity norm 0 Foot in the door technique is a compliance tactic that involves getting a person to agree to a large request by first setting them up by having that person agree to a modest request D Example groups seeking a donation will ask people to sign a petition first Lowball technique involves getting someone to commit a seemingly attractive position before its hidden costs are revealed 0 Very deceptive the name for this technique comes from a common practice in automobile sales in which a customer is offered a terrific bargain on a car The bargain price gets the customer to commit to buying a car Soon after this commitment is made the dealer starts revealing some hidden costs Once they have committed to buying a car most customers are unlikely to cancel the deal 0 Reciprocity mean the rule that we should pay back in kind what we receive from others 0 O O The reciprocity norm is used in social in uence efforts Groups seeking donations send address labels key rings and other small gifts with their pleas Salespeople using the reciprocity principle distribute free samples to prospective customers When people manipulate the reciprocity norm they usually give something of minimal value in the hopes of receiving far more in return According to Mowrer phobic responses are acquired through x conditioning and maintained through 2 conditioning Selected Answer Classical Operant The cartoon character Charlie Brown with his extreme dread pessimism worrying and brooding could be diagnosed as having x Selected Answer a generalized anxiety disorder The concept that abnormal behavior is the result ofa disease goes with the x Selected Answer medical model When one experiences a loss of use of some part of the body with no accompanying organic problems the diagnosis is a 2 Selected Answer conversion disorder Cognitive therapy uses specific strategies to correct Selected Answer errors in thinking such as exaggerated negative thinking and selfdefeating beliefs Although insight therapies can be difficult to evaluate empirically the research on their effectiveness shows that Selected Answer most people who receive insight therapy report that it was beneficial for them As presented in the chapter on treatment the three major categories of treatments for psychological disorders are Selected Answer insight therapy behavioral therapy and biomedical treatment x is only seen in affluent Western cultures Selected Answer Anorexia Nervosa A person who maintains bizarre false beliefs that have no basis in reality is said to have x Selected Answer delusions The subtype of schizophrenia marked by delusions of persecution and grandeur is x Selected Answer paranoid According to Festinger39s cognitive dissonance research you would predict greatest attitudinal change in a person who is led to lie by x Selected Answer a simple request to do so In Milgram39s 1963 study x of the subjects fully obeyed the experimenter Selected Answer 65 According to evolutionary psychologists x would be the LEAST important consideration for a woman seeking a mate Selected Answer physical attractiveness Replications of the Asch experiment have found higher levels of conformity in individualistic cultures than in collectivistic cultures Selected Answer False Individuals from Western societies are more likely to show x in their causal attributions relative to individuals from nonWestern societies Selected Answer a selfserving bias You39ve just been awarded a full scholarship for the next year which you perceive as confirmation of your superior intellectual ability According to Weiner39s model you are making an x attribution about your success Selected Answer internalstable A father suggests that his son39s low grades in school are due to the child39s laziness The father has made x Selected Answer an internal attribution fyou tend to overemphasize internal characteristics in explaining the behavior of others you are evidencing the X Selected Answer fundamental attribution error You believe that short men have a tendency to be insecure The concept of illusory correlation implies that you will X Selected Answer overestimate the frequency of insecure short men Bonnie is uncomfortable being close to others She finds it difficult to trust people and she feels as if she has never really experienced true intimacy in any of her adult relationships According to the theory developed by Hazan and Shaver during infancy Bonnie39s parents were most likely x Selected Answer cold and rejecting WEEK 1 MASTERY QUIZ Who is widely characterized as the founder of psychology Correct Answer J Wilhelm Wundt Structuralism is to functionalism as Correct Answer J analysis of basic elements is to investigation of purpose 0fthe six contemporary theoretical perspectives in psychology which one seems to be most optimistic about human nature Correct Answer J humanistic What branch of psychology is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders Correct Answer J clinical Approximately what percentage of psychologist work in hospitals and clinics Correct Answer J about 20 Dr Green is a psychologist She works at a university where she teaches courses on the brain and nervous system Her research investigates the role of the brain in impulsive behavior What type of psychologist is Dr Green CorrectAnswer J physiological Psychology39s intellectual pa rents are Correct Answer J physiology and philosophy n founding the school ofthought known as behaviorism LB Watson proposed that psychologist Correct Answer J abandon the study of consciousness because it cannot be observed directly Both psychoanalytic theory and behaviorism share the beliefthat Correct Answer J people do not have much control over the things that affect their behavior According to the cognitive perspective human behavior cannot be fully understood without examining how people acquire store and process information Correct According to the J cognitive perspective human behavior cannot be fully understood without Answer examining how people acquire store and process information Imagine that another student says quot My professor said we should spend about 10 hours a week studying ifwe want to get a good grade I don39t know what is wrong with me but I just cannot make myself study that much What should I doquot fsomeone applies the behavioral perspective to this student then what suggestion would be made Correct J Behavior is affected by our environments What kind of environment do you create for yourself to study Answer in Does it help you to focus and concentrate or is it full of distractions Also do you find ways to reward yourself for studying If studying is rewarded then you will study more Psychology is empirical relying on systematic observation to gain knowledge about human behavior Two qualities that are important for this approach are objectivity and CorrectAnswer J skepticism Numerous studies have shown that people tend to see what they expect to see This nding is most consistent with which theoretical perspective CorrectAnswer J cognitive Studies of students39 lecture notes have found that Correct Answer J the average student often writes down less than 40 of the crucial ideas in the lecture Which of the following is NOT a tip for doing better on test and multiplechoice exams Correct Answer J Never go back to reread questions or check your answers The very last pages of each chapter will be a Critical Thinking Application This section of chapter 1 introduces critical thinking concepts In the process of critical thinking the term critical means Correct Answer J being analytical and evaluating ideas Imagine that someone says that depression is caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain Which quote best represents how someone who is using critical thinking would respond to this Correct Answer J quotWhat evidence is there to support this Is there evidence that contradicts thisquot Psychology is both 1 the science that studies behavior and the processes that underlie it and 2 the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge to practical problems Correct Psychology is both 1 the science that studies behavior and the processes that underlie it and 2 the Answer profession that applies the accumulated knowledge to practical problems WEEK 2 MASTERY QUIZ Which part ofthe neuron receives molecules of neurotransmitters from adjacent neurons Correct Answer I A Janetta is having a problem with muscle spasms and her doctor gives her a pill to reduce them She asks her doctor how the pill works and he says it affect a neurotransmitter that controls muscles Which neurotransmitter is the drug affecting Selected Answer J ACh While studying late at night Mindy hears a loud bang outside her door Her heart starts to race she feels her face flush and her palms start to sweat These reactions are part ofthe ghtorflight response and they are caused by activation of the x Selected Answer J sympathetic nervous system Ferdinand was in a minor car accident in which he hit the back of his head against a hard surface This injury caused a little damage to his cortex Given the location of the injury what problem would you predict that Ferdinand would have Selected Answer J blurred vision After a stroke Bill is having some language problems He can understand verbal instructions but he is having trouble speaking in complete coherent sentences Given this problem what is the probable location of brain damage caused by the stroke Selected Answer J Broca39s area Fiona puts her hands into a sinkful of lukewarm water Luke puts his hands into a sinkful of icecold water Based on what is known about neural transmission you could predict that the action potentials will x Selected Answer J be the same in both individuals due to the allornone principle When describing the brain what does the term plasticity refer to Selected Answer J the flexibility and changeability of the brain39s structure and organization The neurons in Michael39s arm just sent a neural impulse It will be 12 milliseconds before another neural impulse can be generated This brief time period when another neural impulse cannot occur is called the x Selected Answer J absolute refractory period Opiate drugs bind onto the same receptor sites as the body39s own endorphins Therefore opiate drugs tend to x Selected Answer J relieve pain Brenda was startled when a large shadow unexpectedly passed across her living room window When she realized that it was just a cloud passing in front of the full moon her racing heart began to slow down and her blood pressure started to return to normal These calming physical reactions were triggered by Brenda39s x Selected Answer J parasympathetic nervous system Which part of the cortex monitors and directs thought processes and is therefore involved in planning paying attention and getting organized Selected Answer J prefrontal cortex How does a signal travel from one neuron to the next Correct Answer J one neuron releases neurotransmitters that travel across the synaptic cleft to bind with another neuron People having difficulty with language and speech following an accident that resulted in injury to the brain are most likely to have sustained damage in the x Correct Answer J left cerebral hemisphere The rewarding effects ofelectrical stimulation of the brain seem to be mediated by x Selected Answer J activation of dopaminereleasing neurons Theodore suffered a stroke recently and now he nds he constantly hears a buzzing sound in his ears In this case it is likely that the stroke occurred in Theodore39s x Selected Answer J temporal lobe Vivian has been experiencing unexplained flashes of light and color even when her eyes are closed She recently saw a neurologist who located a small brain tumor In this case it is likely that the tumor is located in Vivian39s x Selected Answer J occipital lobes Elizabeth just caught sight ofa red hummingbird The neural impulses from her eye will eventually travel to her occipital lobe but rst they must pass through x Selected Answer J the thalamus an has been in a coma since he was in a serious car accident He is still on medical life support because he is unable to breathe and his heart will not beat without assistance It is likely that the accident caused damage to Ian39s x Selected Answer J medulla The drunken driving suspect was unable to hold his hand out to the side and bring his finger to a stop on his noise because one of the brain structures depressed first by alcohol is x Selected Answer J cerebellum A small tumor has damaged some neurons and now the person is having dif culty with his left hand He says the hand feels numb and when he touches something with his left hand he cannot feel its texture or temperature Where is the tumor located Selected Answer J A When you want to see a faint object in the dark like a dim star in the night sky you should not look directly at it Instead you should look slightly above or below it because Selected Answer J rods are most plentiful just outside the fovea Cells in the visual cortex can be characterized as feature detectors because Selected J each cell is highly specialized and responds only to very speci c aspects Answer of complex stimuli Researchers have found that the eye has three different types of cones each most sensitive to a particular color red green or blue This nding supports Selected Answer J the trichromatic theory of color Vision A readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way is called a Selected Answer J perceptual set Feature analysis assumes that form perception involves a progression from individual elements to the whole such as from individual letters to whole words This type of processing is known as Selected Answer J bottomup People often group elements to create a sense of completeness For example if a drawing of a familiar form has some small gaps in it the mind will automatically ll in the missing bits to perceive a whole form The name of the Gestalt principle at work here is Selected Answer J closure Which of the following is a binocular depth cue Selected Answer J retinal disparity In honor of a big win Mike threw party and put blue food coloring in all the food to make it look Carolina blue blue cookies blue cake blue ranch dip etc The food coloring had no odor or avor itself It just made everything blue At the party his friends were not eating very much so he asked one of them what was wrong and the friend said quotAll this blue food tastes funny I can39t eat itquot What concept best explains why changing a food39s color can change the perception of its avor Selected Answer J interrnodal perception The concept of perceptual set is most related to which theme of psychology Selected Answer J People s experience of the world is highly subjective A tendency to experience a stable perception in the face of continually changing sensory input is known as Selected Answer J perceptual constancy Joel entered a room with a strong peculiar odor At first it was very pungent but after about 30 minutes Joel did not even smell it any more His friend entered the room and said quotDude what stinksquot and Joel said quotReally it smelled bad when I rst got here but I thought it was gonequot Why did Joel no longer smell the odor Selected Answer J he experienced sensory adaptation Which sense or senses can be referred to as a molecular or chemical sense because the stimuli for this sense consists of tiny bits of substances Selected Answer J both taste and smell Which perceptual concept is most useful for understanding why someone who expects to see sex in advertisements will see some sort of sexual message in just about any ad Selected Answer J perceptual set Compared to the low notes on a piano the high notes always produce sound waves that have a x Selected Compared to the low notes on a piano the high notes always produce sound Answer waves that have a J higher frequency The fact that the corner of a building thrust toward the viewer looks shorter than an inside corner thrust away from the viewer can be accounted for by the x Selected Answer J MullerLyer illusion The ability to rapidly process words in reading depends most on x Selected Answer J topdown processing Imagine the basilar membrane in the human ear were longer Based on place theory you might expect that humans would be able to x Selected Answer J hear a wider range of sounds especially high frequency sounds Pitch perception can be best explained by x for very low pitched sounds y for very high pitched sounds and z for pitches in the middle range Selected Answer J frequency theory J place theory J both theories The fact that many Americans may be reluctant to try the Japanese delicacy of raw fish illustrates which of your text39s unifying themes Selected Answer J Behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage A teacher who was used to seeing her students dressed casually in the classroom ran into one of her students at an upscale restaurant where the student works as a hostess At rst the teacher did not even recognize the student because the setting was different and the student was wearing a suit This experience provides a good example of which principle of perception Selected Answer J Perception is affected by context Topic What is Psychology Disclaimer All questions were written by PSYC 101 students and they have not been edited in any way They are in the original wording submitted by students Some items may have typos misspellings or incorrect information Ifyou are using these questions to study for the final exam then be looking for these potential problems They will present some quotdesirable difficulties for you What does it mean to say that psychology is empirical a It was created by an emperor in Ancient Greece l b It takes into account many factors c It relies on research observation and actual knowledge d It is subjective and can be interpreted many ways Answer C It relies on research observation and actual knowledge 2 What is the goal of psychology research a To gain an accurate knowledge base b To see how much researchers can manipulate patients c To publish excellent scientific papers d To use questionable methods of treatment on research participants AnswerA To gain an accurate knowledge base 3 How would the a psychologist using the psychoanalytic perspective explain why a first year college student is homesick a She unconsciously feels her parents will not love her anymore since she doesn t live with them anymore or see them often b Her roommate is homesick too and always talks about wanting to be at home c Her evolutionary ancestors did not leave home until a much older age so her leaving home prematurely caused these feelings d She thinks about her mom often and remembers the fun times they had when she was at home which in turn makes her think about and miss those times AnswerA She unconsciouslyfeels herparents will not love her anymore since she doesn t live with them anymore or see them often 4 Annie is very scared of mice Her mom is also very scared of mice A mouse was in her room for an entire week when she was little and it would jump out at her and keep her up at night contributing to her current fear Which of the following explains why Annie is now afraid of mice after a weeklong encounter a Classical conditioning is the only way to explain her behavior Operant conditioning is the only way to explain her behavior Her mother s fear of mice is the main reason Annie is now afraid of mice A combination of factors have caused Annie to be afraid of mice 09 Answer D A combination offactors have causedAnnie to be afraid ofmice 5 How would the behavioral perspective explain why a college student is irresponsible and drinks too much alcohol at a party a Many of his friends are drinking excessively at this party and in the past when he has been drunk many girls have come and talked to him and his friends have told him how fun he is b He thinks that he will look cooler if he drinks c He subconsciously thinks his father will love him more if he drinks in excess because his father is an alcoholic d His evolutionary ancestors perceived drinking in excess to be a desirable trait thereby causing him to think it is a desirable trait AnswerA Many ofhisfriends are drinking excessively at this party and in the past when he has been drunk many girls have come and talked to him and hisfriends have told him howfun he is 1 What is the definition of psychology a The science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie behavior b The profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of the science to practical problems c The science which seeks to completely explain the human mind d Answers A amp C Answer d the science that studies behavior and the profession that applies knowledge to practical problems 2 Developmental Psychology is a The study of the development of psychology as a science b The study of human development across the life span c The study of how people learn and the best ways to teach them d The study of higher mental processes such as memory reasoning and information processing Answer b the study ofhuman development across the ID e span 3 Clinical neuropsychologists a Are involved in the assessment and treatment of people who suffer from central nervous system dysfunctions due to injury or other causes b Apply psychological principles to issues arising in the legal system c Perform a wide variety of tasks in the world of business and industry d Provide assistance to people struggling with everyday problems of moderate severity Answer a are involved in the assessment and treatment of people who su er from central nervous system dysfunctions due to injury or other causes 4 What does it mean when we say that psychology is empirical a Psychology is superior to any other science b Psychology is not truly a science c Psychology is based on knowledge that is acquired through observation d Psychology is based solely on assumptions we make about our own behavior Answer c psychology is based on knowledge that is acquired through observation 5 Which of the following is not one of the seven unifying themes of psychology a Psychology is theoretically diverse b Behavior is not shaped by cultural heritage c Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context d Heredity and Environmentjointly influence behavior Answer b behavior is notshaped by cultural heritage l Freud is to unconscious as A Watson is to behaviorism B Skinner is to behaviorism C Wundt is to humanism D Rogers is to cognitive Correct answer A Watson is to behaviorism 2 Peyton was adopted by wealthy musicians At an early age she was exposed to a quotposhquot lifestyle and was surrounded by individuals who never worried about money Peyton observed her parents purchase anything they wanted without contemplation Because Peyton was exposed to this type of lifestyle she developed a careless mentality with her money Which perspective least applies A Evolutionary B Behavioral C Humanistic D Psychoanalytical Correct answer C Humanistic 3 Using the question above which perspective most applies A Evolutionary B Behavioral C Humanistic D Psychoanalytical Correct answer B Behavioral 4 Who is characterized as the quotFather of Psychology A William James B Wilhelm Wundt C B F Skinner D van Pavlov Correct answer B Wilhelm Wundt 5 Which perspective says human behavior cannot be fully understood without examining how people acquire store and process information A Psychoanalytic B Humanistic C Biological D Cognitive Correct answer D Cognitive 1 Who is known for being the chiefarchitect of functionalism a Wilhelm Wundt b WilliamJames c Edward Titchener d Charles Darwin CorrectAnswer BWilliam James 2 theory focuses on unconscious determinants of behavior a Introspection b Behavior c Cognition d Psychoanalytic Correct Answer 0 Psychoanalytic 3 Which perspectives studied is not matched correctly with it s principal contributer a Cognitive amp Carl Jung b Behavioral amp John P Watson c Humanistic amp Carl Rogers d Biological amp Roger Sperry CorrectAnswer A Cognitive amp CarJung 4 The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge is a Thinking Uquot 12 Answer Lquot Answer UJ Answer 4 Answer Lquot b Analysis c Cognition d Psychology CorrectAnswer C Cognition Which of the following is not an area of interest of positive psychology a Positive cultural influences b Positive subjective experiences c Positive individual traits d Positive institutions and communities CorrectAnswer Apositive cultural influences Jeff believes that the human body developed hair to stop others from reading his mind This theory is based off of which psychological perspective A B Evolutionary Educational psychology C Cognitive D Behavioral B Evolutionary Since early childhood Mike would do pushups every time he watched Sports Center 10 years later Mike unconsciously does pushups every time Sports Center comes on What Psychological perspective involves this scenario A Evolutionary B Psychoanalytic C Humanistic D Cognitive B Psychoanalytic The definition of psych is A Breath Soul and Spirit B The ability to understand one s mind C Reading one s mind D How the brain functions A Breath Soul and Spirit Once Alex leaves his house and walks through the park he begins to hum and emotions change to calm Looking at this scenario in a Behavioral Perspective this change in emotion is due to A Lack of Sleep B Walking C the color green D Environment D environment Meditation allows an individual to increase personal growth and freedom This effects which psychological perspective A Evolutionary B Psychoanalytic C Humanistic D Cognitive Answer C Humanistic 2 Which of the following is not one of the themes of psychology a Psychoanalytic d Multifactorial Correct Answer d multifactorial 3 What is psychology the study of a The study of the stars b The study of the body c The study of the mind d The study of human behavior CorrectAnswer c the study of the mind 4 Which theme emphasizes body structures and body processes a H u ma n istic b Biological c Cognitive d Evolutionary CorrectAnswer b biological 5 Psychology a Has no simple explanations b Is not a real science c Only uses one theory d Is not subjective to individual studies CorrectAnswer a has no simple explanations 1 Who is considered the founder of psychology a Sigmund Freud b Wilhelm Wundt c John B Watson d BFSkinner Answer Wilhelm Wundt 2 Behavior is influenced by a A combination of genetics and environmental factors b Mostly genetics c Someone s upbringing d Biological factors Answer A combination of genetics and environmental factors 3 Which of the following is false a Psychology is empirical b Behavior is multifactorial c People s experience of the world is objective d Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context Answer People s experience of the world is objective 4 BF Skinner is to as Carl Rogers is to Answer Uquot Answer i N l a r humanistic b Evolutionary perspective psychoanalytic perspective c Evolutionary perspective humanistic perspective d Behavioral perspective humanistic perspective Behavioral perspective humanistic perspective Clinical psychology grew rapidly because of a The Vietnam War b World War II c An Increase in crime d An increase in funding by the federal government World War II The empirical definition of psychology means that it relies on behavior personal opinions systematic observation instinctual theories unconscious drives to answer questions and test claims about pow Correct Answer B systema tic observation Which of the following does NOT apply to the field of psychology A Psychology is determined by multiple theories B Psychology is the science that studies behavior and the processes underlying it C Psychology can always be applied using one explanation D Psychology is the profession that applies knowledge to practical problems to improve lives CorrectAnswer C Psychology can always be applied using one explanation Which of the following is one of the six major approaches to psychology Structuralism Psychiatry Functionalism Psychoanalysis pow CorrectAnswer D Psychoanalysis Of the six major theoretical approaches to psychology which is most concerned with environmental influences of observable actions A Humanistic B Behavioral C Cognitive D Evolutionary CorrectAnswer B Behavioral Jessica has a serious problem with procrastination on assignments How would an evolutionary psychologist explain this behavior Jessica is focusing on the necessary needs for survival like eating sleeping and acting on sexual urges The whole class procrastinates and Jessica is simply following everybody around her Jessica is having a battle with her mind between wanting to finish and wanting to rest Due dates turn Jessica off from work because she doesn t feel as if she has the freedom to make her own choices and to achieve personal growth CorrectAnswer A Jessica is focusing on the necessary needs for survival like eating sleeping and acting on sexual urges l l 2 3 4 S Whichr 39 39 c39 A B c D What are the intellectual parents of psychology A Sociology and Philosophy B Physiology and Philosophy C Biology and Sociology D Physiology and Biology Correct answer B Physiology and Philosophy What is the careful systematic selfobservation of one s own conscious thought A Functionalism Structuralism Natural Selection 00 Introspection Correct answer D Introspection Which of the following psychologists studied humanism A Carl Rogers B BF Skinner C Sigmund Freud D John B Watson Correct answer A Carl Rogers Which theoretical perspective of psychology believes that unconscious motives and experiences in early childhood govern personality A Evolutionary B Behavioral C Psychoanalytic D Cognitive Correct answer C Psychoanalytic The praying mantis has the ability to often blend in with its environment to hide from its predators and pray This is a characteristic that has been adapted over time and helps the praying mantis survive This is an example of what theoretical perspective A Behavioral B Biological C Evolutionary D Cognitive Correct answer C Evolutionary I Ithat I I 39 theorist r c stop studying consciousness and focus on observable behaviors Sigmund Freud John B Watson Wilhelm Wundt Jean Piaget CorrectAnswer B John B Watson 2 What would a person with a behavioral perspective on psychology say about a fear of spiders A All humans are afraid of spiders B Humans have an unconscious fear of spiders C The cognitive process of fear is associated with spiders D A spider bite earlier in life will can cause a fear of spiders CorrectAnswer D A spider bite earlier in life will can cause afear ofspiders 3 What psychological theory is defined by the textbook as quotfocusing on unconscious determinants of behaviorquot A Psychoanalytic B Behaviorism C Humanism D Cognitive CorrectAnswerA Psychoanalytic 4 Fill in the blank quot refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge Behavior B Brain activity C Cognition D Neurotransmitters CorrectAnswer C Cognition 5 What is the difference between applied and clinical psychology A Applied deals with hypothetical scenarios and clinical deals with real life issues B Applied deals with practical problems and clinical deals with diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders C Applied deals with application of psychology and clinical deals with clinics D Applied deals with doctors and psychiatrists and clinical deals with counselors and therapists CorrectAnswer B Applied deals with practical problems and clinical deals with diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders 1 Psychology can be defined as a A Science b A Profession c A Theory d Both a Science and a Profession Answer D Both a Science and a Profession 2 Alice was informed of her final exam 3 months in advance Instead of studying proactively she chose to wait until 3 days before the exam to begin studying A Cognitive Psychologist would explain Alice s behavior by saying a Alice observed people around her procrastinating which therefore encouraged her to do the same b Alice made the conscious decision to procrastinate c Alice 39 39an 39 drive tor d Alice s internal body processes led her to procrastinate Answer B Alice made the conscious decision to procrastinate 3 According to the most recent studies of Psychology which of the following is true a Psychology can be defined by a simple precise theory b Individual experiences cannot be explained subjectively c Psychology can be explained by multiple theories d Psychological illnesses should not be taken seriously Answer C Psychology can be explained by multiple theories 4 Each of the following contributed to Cognitive Psychology except a Piaget b Wilson c Chomsky d Simon Answer B Wilson Joey considers himself unattractive According to an Evolutionary Psychologist Joey would consider his unattractiveness a downfall because a It could lower his self esteem b It could negatively influence those around him c It could lessen his chance of reproduction d He may never be able to acquire a good job Answer C It could lessen his chance of reproduction 1 Who is widely credited as the founder of modern psychology A Wilhem Wundt B Torsten Wiesel C Carl Jung D John B Watson Correct answerA Wilhem Wundt 2 Wayne is angry all the time so he decides to see a psychologist If the psychologist says that his angriness is due to genes he inherited from his parents which theoretical perspective does this explanation resemble A Behavioral B Cognitive C Humanistic D Biological Correct answer D Biological 3 Wayne decides he is not satisfied with the explanation he received from the previous psychologist so he goes and sees a different one The other psychologist tells him his anger is due to unfulfilled sexual urges Which theoretical perspective is this congruent with Correct answer C Biological Behavioral Psychoanalytic 0093 Evolutionary Correct answer C Psychoanalytic 4 Which theoretical perspective studies the unique aspects of human experience and sees psychology in a more positive light stating that humans are free beings with the potential for growth Positive Psychology A B Humanistic Psychology C Clinical Psychology D Cognitive Psychology Correct answer B Humanistic Psychology 5 Which Psychology giant was criticized for his statement quot free will is an illusionquot stating that behavior is governed by animal urges determined by the environment A Sigmund Freud B van Pavlov C B F Skinner D Abraham Maslow Correct answer C B F Skinner 1 Who is widely characterized today as the founder of psychology A Watson B Skinner C Wundt D Pavlov CorrectAnswer C Wundt 2 What is based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related A Introspection B Structuralism C Functionalism D Psychoanalytic Theory CorrectAnswer B Structuralism 3 Which of the following is not one of the six contemporary theoretical perspectives in psychology A Behavioral B Humanisitc C Biological D Nurtural CorrectAnswer D Nurtural 4 Brooks believes that his yearning to get married is something that he was born with a yearning that humans must have adapted over time This thinking follows the Perspective most closely A Cognitive B Biological C Evolutionary D Psychoanalytic Correct answer C Evolutionary 5 Psychology studies how people learn and the best ways to teach them A Developmental B Social C Cognitive D Educational Correct answer D Educational 1 While psychology is not only the science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie behavior it is also A The study of mental development from birth to early adulthood B Membership in the American Psychological Association APA C The fifth most popular undergraduate major in the United States E P Uquot l D The profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems CorrectAnswer D The profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems What research area of psychology involves focusing on interpersonal behavior and the role of social forces in governing behavior A Educational psychology B Social psychology C Developmental psychology D Cognitive psychology CorrectAnswer B Social psychology According to contemporary psychology what two factorsjointly affect an individual s intelligence temperament personality and susceptibility to many psychological disorders A Heredity and education B Gender and education C Heredity and environment D Operant and classical conditioning Correct answer C Heredity and environment Representing about 721 of the total psychological professional field what psychology profession specialty involves evaluation diagnosis and treatment of individuals with psychological disorders as well as treatment of less severe behavioral and emotional problems A School psychology B Clinical neuropsychology C Forensic psychology D Clinical psychology CorrectAnswer D Clinical psychology According to the seven unifying themes of psychology what is the term that refers to the fact that modern psychology contains varied ideas and competing points ofview A Theoretical diversity B Selfserving bias C Sociohistorical Context D Subjectivism CorrectAnswerA Theoretical diversity Which of the following is not one of the principles of testwiseness A B C Set up a mental schedule for progressing through the test Don t overthink questions often simplelooking questions are just what they appear to be Don t go back and change your answers your first hunch is your best hunch D Don t waste time pondering difficult questions CorrectAnswer B Don t go back and change your answers 2 Which area of psychologists other than clinical psychologists focuses on interviewing testing and providing therapy A Forensic Psychologists B School Psychologists C Industrial and Organizational Psychologists D Counseling Psychologists CorrectAnswer D Counseling Psychologists E If somebody says that he is a very outgoing person because his parents are both outgoing then he is most likely basing this assumption on which theme of psychology A Psychology is empirical B Behavior is determined by multiple causes C Heredity and Environmentjointly influence behavior 1 Psychology is the the D People s experience of the world is highly subjective CorrectAnswer C Heredity and environmentjointly influence behavior Which of the following is not one of the seven major research areas in modern psychology A Sports Psychology B Experimental Psychology C Psychometrics D Health Psychology CorrectAnswer A Sports Psychology Which is not an effective way to develop sound study habits A Set up a schedule for studying B Listen to your favorite music while studying C Reward your studying D Find a place to study where you can concentrate CorrectAnswer B listen to your favorite music while studying that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie behavior and it is that applies this accumulated knowledge to practical problems A science profession B C D discipline profession science discipline field science Correct answer A science profession 2 Which of the following is not a key theme related to the study of psychology A B C D Behavior is determined by multiple causes Psychology is empirical Theories of behavior are surprisingly simple and uniform People s experience of the world is subjective Correct Answer C Theories of behavior are surprisingly simple and uniform 3 Heredity and environment influence behavior in which of the following ways A B C D Heredity influences behavior almost exclusively Environment influences behavior almost exclusively Heredity is responsible for some aspects of behavior while environment is responsible for other unrelated aspects of behavior Heredity and environmentjointly influence behavior Correct answer D Heredity and environmentjointly influence behavior 4 Social psychologists focus their research on all of the following aspects of behavior except A B C D Human development Interpersonal behavior Conformity Group dynamics Correct answer A Human development 5 About 72 of psychologists that deliver professional services are Jgt Counseling psychologists B Clinical psychologists C Forensic psychologists D Psychoanalytic psychologists Correct answer B Clinical psychologists 1 What theoretical perspective in psychology states that the unconscious motives and experiences of one s early childhood governs their personality and mental disorders A Cognitive B Psychoanalytic C Behavioral D Evolutionary Correct Answer B Psychoanalytic 2 What major school of thought depended on the method of introspection the systematic selfobservation of one s own conscious experience A Functionalism B Natural Selection C Structuralism D Psychoanalysis Correct Answer Structuralism 3 Freud concluded that Psychological disturbances are largely caused by A Personal conflicts existing at an unconscious level B Reactions to one s environment C Heredity D How people cope with their sexual urges Correct Answer A Personal conflicts existing at an unconscious level 4 Which Psychologist stated that your behavior is determined in predictable ways by lawful principles similar to the flight of an arrow being governed by the law of physics A John B Watson B van Pavlov C Sigmund Freud D BF Skinner Correct Answer D BF Skinner 5 Which branch of psychology is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders A Clinical Psychology B Applied Psychology C Experimental Psychology D Psychometrics Correct Answer A Clinical Psychology William Wundt made contributions to psychology by Using classical conditioning in order to make dogs salivate at the sound ofa Bell B Introducing the psychoanalytical approach to psychology C Establishing the first formal laboratory for psychology research D Concluding that humans were free beings with room for personal growth Correct answer C Establishing the first formal laboratory for psychology research John walked into a crowded room of people where everyone was sitting down in a chair He then sits down in a chair A behavioral psychologist would focus on to explain John s sitting A His unconscious mind compelling him to sit B John s thoughts that he should sit C ThatJohn was tired D His observable actions Correct answer D His observable actions In what way is psychology scientific A It is empirical it relies on systematic observation and research B It is used in specific situations C It is used in therapy D Certain aspects of psychology examine the biological aspects of the mind such as the brain Correct answer A It is empirical it relies on systematic observation and research The branch of psychology that is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders refers to A The biological perspective of psychology B Cinica psychology C Evolutionary psychology D Applied psychology Correct answer B Clinical psychology is based on analyzing the individual elements of consciousness and how they are related A Functionalism B Structuralism C Psychoanalytical theory D Symantic Processing Correct answer B Structuralism 1 A clinical neuropsychologist would deal with and treat which patients Ayoung student having difficulties with social development in elementary school b A human resource manager struggling to maintain a high level of workplace morale c A newly divorced family in the midst of a custody batte d A recent car crash victim with dementia due to nervous system dysfunctions CorrectAnswer d A recent car crash victim with dementia due to nervous system dysfunctions 2 Two psychologists spend two weeks observing a patient is who is believed to have a generalized anxiety disorder After these two weeks the two psychologists carefully study the data while asking very skeptical questions about the obtained information before coming to a conclusion on the diagnosis of their patient These behaviors fit which of the seven unifying themes of psychology a Behavior is determined by Multiple Causes b Psychology is Empirical c People s Experience of the World is Highly Subjective d Psychology is Theoretically Diverse CorrectAnswer b Psychology is Empirical 3 Which type of psychology deals with the development of personality tests in order to determine and objectify many personality traits a Pyschometrics b Personality c Social Psychology d Health Psychology Correct Answer a Psych ometrics 4 A major part of the theme Behavior is Determined by Multiple Causes is the multifactoria causation ofbehavior Which answer best represents this idea a Behavior is governed by a complex network of interacting factors b Behavior is governed by multiple independent causes c Behavior can be determined by the exact same specific set of interrelated factors d Behavior is governed by a simple set of concrete factors CorrectAnswer a Behavior is governed a complex network ofinteractingfactors 5 Which is NOT a good piece of advice for taking multiple choice exams a Answers representing broad sweeping generalizations are usually incorrect b quotNone of the Abovequot answers are generally not correct c Some information in early questions could hint at questions found later in the test d Read all answers before choosing because one answer may be more correct than another CorrectAnswer b l None of theAbove answers are generally not correct 2 3 4 S is the science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processed that underlie behavior and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems a Culture b Theory c Psychology d Empiricism The Correct answer is C Psychology There are many different types of professions in the field of Psychology Which category has the largest population of psychology members a Clinical Psychology b Counseling c School d Forensic The Correct answer is A Clinical Psychology Empiricism would be related closest to which of the Seven Unifying Themes of Psychology a Theme 1 b Theme 3 c Theme 5 d Theme 7 The Correct answer is A Theme 1 John describes that psychology develops in a sociohistorical context This would be closest related with which of the Seven Themes a Theme 1 b Theme 2 c Theme 3 d Theme 4 The Correct answer is C Theme 3 Carl Rogers has a what type of perspective in psychology a Behavioral b Humanistic c Biological d Evolutionary The Correct answer is B Humanistic 1 What is the principle professional specialty in contemporary psychology A ndustrialOrganizational B Clinical C Counseling D School Correct answer B Clinical 2 One major theme in Psychology is that it is empirical This means that its conclusions are based on A Reasoning B Common sense C Speculation D Direct observation Correct Answer D Direct observation 3 Which of the following statements about Psychology s subject matter is false A Behavior is not determined by multiple causes B Behavior is shaped by cultural heritage C Heredity and environmentjointly influence behavior D People s experience of the world is highly subjective Correct answer A Behavior is not determined by multiple causes J Between which two professional psychological specialties is there the most similarity in activities in which the psychologist engages A School and Forensic B ndustrialOrganizational and Clinical Neuropsychology C Clinical and Counseling D Clinical and Forensic Correct answer C Clinical and Counseling 5 Which is NOT a skill exhibited by a critical thinker A They assume that information is true because it is from a reliable source B They understand and use the principles of scientific investigation C They apply the rules of formal and informal logic D They analyze arguments for the soundness of the conclusions Correct answer A They assume that information is true because it is from a reliable source 1 Approximately what percentage of psychologists work in colleges and universities a o b 20 c 5 d 28 Correct AnswerD 28 2 Many universities psychology departments have a quantitative psychology program Faculty in this program study research methods and work to develop better ways to analyze research data Quantitative psychology fits within which research area of psychology a Psychometrics b Cognitive Psychology c Educational Psychology d Social Psychology Correct Answer A Psychometrics 5 There are currently several different researchers who study the psychological impact of cell phone use However no one did any research on this 20 years ago This research trend fits which of the seven unifying themes a Psychology is Empirical b Psychology is Theoretically Diverse c Psychology Evolves in a Sociohistorical Context d Behavior is Shaped by Cultural Heritage CorrectAnswer C psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context 4 Learning can be exciting but studying is not something that comes naturally Therefore it is necessary to develop a study plan or program The first step in creating a study plan is to set up a schedule for studying Which of the following is an important second step in this program a Play soothing music while you study b Find a place to study where you can concentrate c Reward your studying d Eat throughout studying CorrectAnswer B Find a place to study Where you can concentrate 5 Which of the following themes does not suggest every behavior has complex multiple causes a Heredity and EnvironmentJointly Influence Behavior b People s Experience of the World is Highly Subjective c Behavior is Determined by Multiple Causes d Behavior is Shaped by Cultural Heritage CorrectAnswer B People s Experience of the World is Highly Subjective l The book states that applied psychology consists of four wellestablished areas of specialization what are they A Clinical counseling school and industrialorganization B Clinical counseling health and psychometric C Clinical health industrialorganization and psychometric D Health psychometric positive and clinical Correct answerA Clinical counseling school and industrialorganization 2 Dr Hellum s research focuses on quothigherquot mental processes such as memory reasoning information processing language problem solving decision making and creativity What area of psychology does his research specifically deal with A Developmental psychology B Cognitive psychology C Health psychology D Educational psychology Correct answer B Cognitive psychology 3 There are seven unifying themes of psychology Which one is based on the idea that knowledge should be acquired through observation A Psychology is theoretically diverse B Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context C People s experience of the world is highly subjective D Psychology is empirical Correct answer D Psychology is empirical 4 Jason is a student majoring in psychology He is particularly interested in studying the adaptive value of people s behavior What type of psychology is this A Positive psychology B Developmental psychology C Evolutionary psychology D Behavioral psychology Correct answer C Evolutionary psychology 5 Hannah is psychologist that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders What branch of psychology does she practice A Clinical psychology B Applied psychology C Positive psychology D Cognitive psychology Correct answer A Clinical psychology Which of the following is not one of the established professional specialties in psychology Clinical School Cerebral Counseling Answer C Which major area of psychological research examines the influence of genetic factors on behavior and the role of the brain nervous system endocrine system and bodily chemicals in the regulation of behavior Health Physiological Personality Psychometrics Answer B Which psychologist started the first psychology research laboratory in Leipzig Germany Wilhelm Wundt Sigmund Freud Ivan Pavlov BF Skinner AnswerA What is the first of the seven unifying themes in psychology Behavior is shaped by cultural heritage Psychology is theoretically diverse People s experience of the world is highly subjective Psychology is Empirical Answer D Answer changing on tests generally did what to students test scores Increased Decreased Stayed the same No effect AnswerA 1 Which of the following attitudes is required in order to successfully utilize an empiricist approach A Certainty B Skepticism C Positivity D Indifference Correct answer is B Skepticism 2 Psychologists use a system of interrelated ideas to explain a set of observation What is this system called A Common Sense B Law C Theory D Proposal Correct answer is C Theory 3 Tommy suffers from severe anger management He visits multiple psychologists with hopes of finding the cause of his anger issues The psychologists provide him with different reasons for his anger Which psychological theme explains why the psychologist provided different reasons A Behavior is determined by multiple causes B People s experience of the world is highly subjective C Behavior is shaped by cultural heritage D Heredity and environmentjointly influence behavior Correct answer is A Behavior is determined by multiple causes 4 Which method to improve your study habits involves principles of behavior modification described by B F Skinner A Set up a schedule B Find a place to study where you can concentrate C Making charts and taking tests D Reward your studying Correct answer is D Reward your studying 5 Developmental Experimental Cognitive and Social are all what types ofareas in psychology A Professions B Research areas C Psychological Perspectives D Psychological themes Correct answer is B Research areas 1 Which statement is not compliant with the seven themes of psychology a Psychology is empirical b Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context c Heredity has a bigger influence than environment over behavior d People s experience of the world is highly subjective Correct answer C Heredity has a bigger influence than environment over behavior 2 What could not be considered a relevant personal factor cause of behavior that would influence one s performance in an academic course a Overall intelligence b Study skills 3 4 c Readingability d Ae Correct answer D Age In which setting do the greatest percentage of psychologists work a Hospitals and clinics b Private practices c Colleges and universities d Other Correct answer A Hospitals and universities Jane and Matt are having an intense discussion about the themes of psychology one day Matt insists that quotpsychology is empiricalquot but he does not know how to explain this You Jorge know exactly how to help Matt How do you explain empiricism a Knowledge is acquired from assumptions and educated guesses Knowledge is gained from observation Knowledge is based on a number of different and diverse observations Knowledge is gained but can change over time Correct answer B Knowledge is gained from observation Jenna is struggling in her cognitive psychology class because she has no sense of proper study habits As her best friend who wants to see her succeed what advice should you probably not give her a Set up a consistent schedule for studying b Find a place to study where she can concentrate c Reward her studying with immediate tangible rewards for studying d Don t break major tasks into small pieces Do the biggest tasks all at once Correct answer Don t break major tasks into small pieces 09 The term psychology refers to multiple fields Psychology is both A A science and a research field B A science and a profession C A profession and a research field D A branch of medical science and a branch of social science CorrectAnswer B A science and a profession The word quotpsychquot is the root word of psychology This term referring to breath soul spirit or mind comes from ancient A Roman B Latin C Hebrew D Greek CorrectAnswer D Greek The goal of the profession of psychology is to A Improve people s lives B Help people understand what is wrong with them C Show people other cases that are similar to their own D Learn more about why people act the way that they do CorrectAnswer A Improve people s lives Which branch of psychology focuses on conscious thoughts beliefs and expectations A Psychoanalytic B Behavioral C Cognitive D Evolutionary CorrectAnswer C Cognitive l Equot E 5 Which branch of psychology focuses on the environmental influences on observable behaviors A Evolutionary B Biological C Humanistic D Behavioral Correct Answer D Beha vioral Psychology is both a A profession science B theory explanation C science profession D profession theory CorrectAnswer C science profession that uses systematic observation and a that applies ideas to every day lives quotPsychquot is a Greek root word meaning A Brain B Life and love C Soul spirit and mind D Sick CorrectAnswer C Soul spirit and mind Which theoretical perspective in psychology focuses on conscious thoughts and beliefs A Cognitive B Understood C Humanistic D Behavioral Correct Answer A Cognitive A student begins to see a decline in his grades so he goes to see a counselor The counselor asks if the student has had any new troubles problems or changes at home and outside of school What theoretical perspective is this counselor taking A Psychoa naytica B Behavioral C Biological D Evolutionary CorrectAnswer B Behavioral Which statement is tri about Psychology A There are simple explanations to psychology B Observation is rarely used in psychology C Psychologists mostly use one theory to explain thoughts actions or emotions D Individual experience is highly subjective CorrectAnswer D Individual experience is highly subjective 1 Which of the following does not support the idea that psychology is a science A Psychology is empirical B Psychology is based on systematic observations C During a profession the knowledge psychology provides is applied to specific situation D Psychology can be replicated CorrectAnswer C During a profession the knowledge psychology provides is applied to a specific situation 2 Which theoretical perspective in psychology best describes the idea that behavior is not only controlled by the conscious the unconscious motives influence behavior as well A Behavioral B Psychoanalytic C Evolutionary D Humanistic CorrectAnswer B Psychoanalytic 3 quotOne of the reasons women have children is because ofenvironmental factors such as society influence them This reason as to why women have children can best be explained by which theoretical perspective A Behavioral B Psychoanalytic C Biological D Humanistic CorrectAnswerA Behavioral 4 So far psychology has proved us with lots of knowledge that can be applied to our daily lifestyles Which of the following is not true about the knowledge learned in psychology A Psychology always uses multiple theories when explaining behavior B There is no simple explanation in psychology behavior is determined by multiple factors C Individual experience is subjective D Majority of behavior can usually be explained by one reason CorrectAnswer D Majority of behavior can usually be explained by one reason 5 The only reason why women decide to have children is due to a biological desire to reproduce The reason why this statement is invalid is best described by which of the following A Behavior is determined by multiple factors B The statement above is not invalid C Psychology is based on systematic observations D The biological perspective is not used to understand behavior CorrectAnswerA Behavior is determined by multiplefactors l The cognitive approach attributes behavior to A Unconscious motives B Conscious thoughts beliefs expectations C Body structures and processes D Observable behavior CorrectAnswer B Conscious though ts beliefs expectations 2 Which psychologist would attribute a student s procrastination on a paper to their peers also procrastinating A Skinner B Adler C Piaget D Darwin CorrectAnswer A Skinner 3 Science is not only a science but a profession as well As a profession what is psychology s goal Establish an accurate knowledge base Use systematic observations A B C Solve the world s problems D Improve peoples lives CorrectAnswer D Improve peoples lives
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