GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 101
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cecelia Erdman IV on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by David Penn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/228717/psyc-101-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Chapter 1 1 NP FnPFpN FINAL PSYCHOLOGY 101 SPRINGI 2011 REVIEW SHEET 3 Psychological Disorders 30 items Know the different approaches for understanding abnormal behavior eg medical model a Medical b Behavorial some sort of learning or maladaptive learning contributes to the mental illness Sociocultural i Cultural general certain disorders seem to appear in all cultures ii Cultural specific disorder unique to a cultural C d Cognitive mental illness is the result of incorrect interpretations ofthe world e Diathesis stress Genetic vs environmental causation of a disorder Stress plays a role Know these terms Etiology prognosis ego syntonic ego dystonic Know what the DSMIV is what it is used for and what information is coded on all five Axes Axis I Clinical Disorders including major mental disorders and LDs Axis II Personality Disorders and mental retardation Axis III Physicalmedical problems directly related to psychiatric condition like brain damage Axis IV Psychosocialenvironmental factors contributing to the disorder e Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning You should be familiar with all the disorders discussed in this chapter and be able to identify key symptoms associated with each one eg obsessions are associated with OCD and to identify the disorder from a short vignette Le a description of someone with the symptoms You should pay particular attention to the 00quot Q a A Mood disorders which include major depression and bipolar disorder i Depression overexcitement bipolar ii b B Anxiety disorders phobias panic attacks feelings of dread OCD behavior i Caused by traumatic events usually C Somatoform disorders i hypochondriasis d D Eating disorders I E Dissociative disorders i loss of memory development of more than one identity F Psychotic disorders particularly schizophrenia i Abnormalities in thinking perception emotion motivation ii False beliefs about things about being in love with high status person paranoia etc Therefore you should know all the disorders within each ofthese broader categories Know all the causal factors that have been implicated in mood disorders anxiety disorders eating disorders and schizophrenia which neurotransmitters have been implicated in these disorders 15 16 17 m Mood disorders i Genetic vulnerability ii Norepinephrine iii Serotonin low levels iv Redeuced hippocampus v Learned helplnessnessnegative thinking vi Lack social nesse to gain reinforcers like friends Anxiety disorders i GABA Eating disorders i Personality obsessive low self esteem ii Cultural values iii Family issues iv Thinking about stuff all wrong Schizophrenia i Genetic vulnerability ii Excess dopamine iii Large brain ventricles iv Damagemalnurtritiondisease to brain during prenatal period 039 O 0 v Know the difference between hallucinations and delusions and between positive symptoms and negative symptoms a Hallucinations you see something that isn t there b Positive symptoms are things that schiz s have but normal ppl dont Know the different schizophrenia subtypes a Paranoid b Catatonic muscle spasms and stuff c Disorganized d Undifferentiated type mix of symptoms Know Beck and Seligman s theories of depression a Beck i Negative triad 1 Self world future ii Negative schema 1 Pan situational view ofthe world that underlie automatic thoughts iii Automatic thoughts 1 lnsituations appraisals that lead to feeing depressed b Seligman s theory of depression i Theory of learned helplessness ii Produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events Know the learning approaches to anxiety disorders eg Mowrer s two factor theory a An originally neutral stimulus is now paird with a frightening event Avoidance response is also negatively reinforced bc theres less anxiety when the stimulus goes away In class we talked about different types of specific phobias eg animal blood injection How does bloodinjection phobia differ from the others a lnstead ofjust an increase in heart rate theres increase and then decrease What are the physical consequences of eating disorders How common are psychological disorders Chapter 14 Treatment 20 items 1 Know the different types of mental health professionals who provide therapy a Social Workers b c 2 a b c d 3 a b 4 a b c 5 a b 6 a b c d 7 a b c Psychiatrists cognitive behavorial therapy Psychologist evidence based treatments Know the psychodynamic techniques eg free association discussed in the book Free Association clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings with as little censorship as possible talk about anything that comes to mind Dream analysis therapist interpret the symbolic meaning ofthe client s dreams Interpreting resistance client resists reveal certain painful things Transference clients transfers feelings they have about someone else onto the therapist Encouraged so the problems can be dealt with What are the assumptions underlying clientcentered therapyproviding a supportive emotional climate for clients Know the techniques associated with this approach eg unconditional positive regard Have to provide the conditions for someone to improve therapeutic climate and process Techniques i Theraputic alliance empathy warm active listening ii Unconditional positive regard accept client for who they are iii Congruence being consistent in your behavior or feelings towards the client What are the assumptions underlying behavior therapy Thought process can be changed Therapist is a teacher of skills that can be used to change that behavior Continuous monitoring How can we understand phobias from a classical conditioning perspective The behavior of fear has become associated with the stimulus Have to change this using conditioning Know the techniques associated with behavior therapy such as aversion therapy shock a pedophile every time they have sexual thoughts systematic desensitization baby steps exporse exp social skills training describe skill demonstrate role play repeat role play osure practice in real world Know the assumptions underlying cognitive or cognitive behavioral therapy and the people who helped to develop this area eg Albert Ellis What are the three components of Ellis ABC model Operates under assumption that disordes arise bc of errors in thinking Thinking affects how we act and fell Aaron Beck Albert Ellis indignation motivation d 8 Know about the general effectiveness of behavioral therapies ie for what disorders does it work Obesessive disorders phobias sexual dysfunction schizophrenia drug related problems autism and mental disorders 9 What are the SSRls For which disorder are they used to treat a depression 10 What is Electroconvulsive therapy ECT and what is it used to treat today a Severe depression 11 What are the assumptions underlying the community mental health movement a Treat ppl in their home communities and promote change that would prevent psychological disorders 12 What are the steps that go into social skills training Review rationale for skill Review specific steps for skill Model steps and ask for feedback Engage person in role play Provide feedback starting with positive lf indicated provide a suggestion for improvement and ask person to do another role play Provide additional feedback 1 l 9139 nm39wii rthpom a 14 What is a selfschema a Beliefs and ideas ppl have about themselves Chapter 15 pp 48048239 485493 1 0 items 1 What do social psychologists investigate a The way individuals thoughts feelings and behaviors are influenced by others 2 What is an attitude a A good or bad evaluation 3 What is the difference between controlled and automatic processes a Controlled analysze the issues weight the options b Automatic may not be aware 4 What is a social schema a Organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and people 5 What is the difference between conformity and obedience a Conformity when ppl yield to real or imagined social pressure b Obedience ppl from direct commands from someone in authority 6 Know these individuals and their important research studies Asch Milgram and Zimbardo 7 Know the definition of a group according to social psychologists a Two or more individuals who interact and are interdependent 8 What is social loa ng a Being a bum CHAPTER 7 MEMORY 1 Encoding involves forming a memory code requires attention Storage involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time Retrieval involves recovering information from memory stores 2 Structural encoding visualrelatively shallow processing that emphasizes the physical structure of a stimulus Exs the word in capital letters Length of a word Phonemic encoding acoustic intermediate processing that emphasizes what a word sounds like ExDoes the word rhyme with weight Semantic encoding deep emphasizes the meaning of verbal input ExWouId the word fit in the sentence Levelsof processing theory proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longerlasting memory codes 3 Shortterm memory STM is a limitedcapacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds Capacity 7 items plus or minus 2 learned from experiments with word and digit lists Alan Baddeley characterized STM as llworking memory model of STM contained 4 components 1 Phonological loop represented all of STM in earlier models at work when you use recitation to temporarily hold onto a phone number etc evolved to facilitate the acquisition of language 2 Visuospacial sketchpad permits people to temporarily hold and manipulate visual images at work when you try to mentally rearrange furniture in your room 3 Central executive system controls the deployment of attention switching the focus of attention and dividing attention as needed 4 Episodic Buffer a temporary limited capacity store that allows the various components of working memory to integrate information and serves as an interface between working memory and longterm memory variations in working memory capacity correlate positively with measures of highlevel cognitive abilities such as reading comprehension complex reasoning and even intelligence 4 Misinformation effect occurs when participants recall of an even they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading post event information Tipof thetongue phenomenon the temporary inability to remember something you know accompanied by a feeling that it s just out of reach failure in retrieval Retrieval cures stimuli that help gain access to memories such as hints related information or partial recollections context cues Memories are sketchy reconstructions of the past that may be distorted and may include details that did not actually occur Imagination inflation the surprising impact of imagining an experience on a memory Asking people to vividly imagine childhood experiences that they previously indicated had not happened Increases belief that they actually experienced it 5 Source monitoring making inferences about the origins of memories memories are not tagged with labels that specify their sources people must make decisions at the time of retrieval about where memories came from Sourcemonitoring error occurs when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source eye witness suggestibility remember seeing something that was only verbally suggested 6 Sensory memory preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time usually only a fraction of a second allows the sensation of a visual pattern sound or touch to linger for a brief moment after the sensory stimulation is over Vision people see an afterimage rather than an actual stimulus gives you additional time to try to recognize stimuli Iconic very brief visual images Echoic brief auditory information 7 A chunk is a group of unfamiliar stimuli stored as a single unit rehearsal can keep items in STM Maintenance rehearsal repeatedly verbalizing or thinking about a piece of information Elaborative rehearsal thinking about the meaning of the term to be remembered as opposed to simply repeating the word to yourself over and over 8 Semantic network consists of nodes representing concepts joined together by pathways that link related concepts Thinking of one word butter can make a closely related word bread easier to remember ovals nodes lines connecting nodes pathways length of each pathway represents degree of association between two concepts shorter pathways imply stronger associations Spreading activation within a semantic network when people think about a word their thoughts naturally go to related words strength of activation decreases as it travels outward Schema an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from a previous experience with the object or event students have schemas for what professors of ces look like more likely to remember things that are consistent with their schemas than things that aren t people sometimes exhibit better recall of things that violate their schemabased expectations Scripts organized knowledge structure about social situations certain situations call for certain behaviors Exif you go to a restaurant and they hand you bill first violation of script certain steps 9 Anterograde amnesia lack the ability to form new memories 50 First Dates Retrograde amnesia the loss of memory for a period of before injury or from the past don t know who I am Hippocampus related to anterograde amnesia inability to convert short term memory to long term also affected by Hippocampal region and parahippocampul region gtthis region is now referred to as medial temporal lobe memory system plays a key role in the consolidation of memories Consolidation hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of information into durable memory codes stored in longterm memory hippocampal region one of the first areas of the brain to sustain significant damage in Alzheimer s 10 Serial position effect subjects show better recall for items at the beginning and end of a list than for items in the middle Primacy effects the part of memory that is enhanced at the beginning of a list affects more long term Recency effects enhanced at the end of a list more short term because you heard it last Proactive interference disruptive effects of prior information on the recall of new information Exnew phone number mix it up with old number Retroactive interference new information that you learn interferes with something that you learned previously 11 Encoding Specificity the value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code cues most effective when match or are similar to information present at the time of learning Extold exam would be MC but is essay Upset bc would have studied differently 12 2 types of long term memory semantic and episodic Semantic memory contains general knowledge that is not tied to the time when information was learned facts language general knowledge of the world if someone asks you where Japan is Or what a house is you know due to semantic Episodic memory made up of 39 39 39 39 or quot dated quot 39 of personal experiences autobiographical memory Ex What did you do over spring break Declarative memory handles factual information words definitions names dates faces events concepts ideas Procedural memory memory for skills or how to do certain tasks tends to become somewhat automatic Exriding a bike tying shoes driving a car 13 Recovered repressed memories sudden reversions of memories that were dormant for many years controversy therapists are using leading questions to make people remember things that didn t actually occur source monitoring errors making inferences about the origin of a memory 14 Recognition tasks involves asking participants to select previously learned information from an array of options have to decide what information is useless and remember what is important Exmultiple choice exam suspect lineup Recall requires individuals to reproduce information without any cues Exessay exam Environment reinstatement effect remember information best if we return ideally physically to the physical context in which we first learned it Exstudies with a can of beans beside you have the can beside you during exam could help Extry to sit in the same seat during exams State dependent memory tendency to remember information best when you are in the same emotional or physiological state as you were when you learned it Exlaughing and having a good time while studying laugh and have a good time during exam Mood congruent memory the match between your mood when trying to remember something and the emotional tone of the material itself Exif something bad happens to you and you become sad start to remember all of the bad things that have happened to you before Ex Mom is in a bad mood and yelling at you she starts to remember everything she has gotten mad at you for in the past 15 Retrospective memory memory from past events personal events Ex Where were you watching the last basketball game people who lack this are often characterized as llabsent mindedquot Perspective memory memory to do something in the future Ex Signing up for a research study and remembering to go
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