ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 245
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cecelia Erdman IV on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 245 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Anna Bardone-Cone in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/228718/psyc-245-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Autism Chapter 13 I DSM IVDSM S overview o DSMIV o pervasive developmental disorders 0 Separate from Asperger s disorder high functioning autism o DSMS o neurodevelopmental disorders I Focus on the brain and devopment o Autism spectrum disorder I Includes autism and Asperger s II Clinical description A Socialcommunication impairments 1 Social de cits i Most central feature ii Manifested by failure to develop relationships expected for ageino peer friends iii Adults as tools 1 Using adults to get what they want a EX getting adults hand to get cookie or something on shelf they can t reach iv Typically no joint attention in infancy 1 Toy between infant and adult a Normal infant will look at adult and they toy to know what to do b This is typically not done with autistic kidsithey will not look at adult but just toy 2 Impaired use of and interpretation of nonverbal in interactions a Poor or unusual eye contact b EX bad at reading body language that normal people automatically know c Temple impressive woman had to learn these sometimes using ashcards d Lack of interest in others social situations e Lack of empathy perspectivetaking i EX video kid unable to detect that others are hurt by hammer or scared by robot ii no feelings 2 Communication deficits i About 13 no speech ii Communication is peculiar l echolalia repeating parts of speech often with same intonation a eX Beauuutiful Day 2 Pronoun reversealidon t use pronouns you d expect especially when talking about themselves 3 Restricted repetitive patterns of behaviors interests or activities a Reptitivive behaviors hand apping body rocking spinning in circles walking on tiptoes b Selfinjurious behaviors i Ex banging head against the wall c maintenance of sameness intense preference for the status quo prefer for things to not change i If there is change 9 could be very upsetting tantrums d Repetitive nonsymbolic play i Ex taking toy truck and spin it 9 instead of rolling it like it was driving which is how it would normally be used symbolically e Exhibit restricted intense interests ex train schedule i Fixation with numbers facts 1 Memorize name of countries in world and number of populations 11 Epidemiological observations a Prevalence i Autism spectrum 1 out of 150 ii Much higher we used to think health care givers are better at diagnosingibetter at recognizing symptoms rather than attributing it to mental retardation b Age of onset i Develop symptoms before 36 months ii There are caess where thye begin to develop normally and then digress stop talking c Sex ratio i More boys ii At higher IQ tends to be more girls d Raceethnicity i universal e IQ i Mental retardation 50 f Course i Chronic 1 Best prognosis higher IQ better language abilities early intervention IV Causal theories A Historical a Precursor to schizophrenia b Poor parenting refridgerator mother moms are cold aloof unemotional c Transition from kids to developing as adults does not happen two reasons above are NOT true no evidence B Biological lGenetics i More monozygotic 6080 concordance rate 2Neurobiology ii Lower levels of oxytocin Important in social bonding developing trust connection iii Amygdala 1 Evidence larger in childhood in those with autism 2 This represents elevated anxiety and fear 3 High chronic anxiety feariand levels of cortisol which damages neurons iv Older parental age older parentsesp fathersimutated sperm Possible 3Vaccines 7 NOT a cause of autism misguided info 0 Theory autism linked to thimerosol in vaccines o Thimerosol mercury based preservative increased accumulation of mercury in brain 0 Substantial evidence NO causal linkage 0 Ex Denmarkidoesn t have the same vaccines but they still had same rates as other nations 0 Vaccines stopped putting thimerosol in vaccinesiwould expect to see decrease in autismithis DID NOT happen V Treatment A Behavioral therapy a Main goals reduce problem behavior and improve communication amp social skills b Teaching social skills toughest to teach i Sometimes we don t have to think about how to activery uid for us c Techniques modeling and operant conditioning i Operant cond positive reinforcement 1 Social reinforcementi good job 2 Pat on the head 3 High ves 4 Computer time Structured multifaceted intervention therapist school parents involved i Ex Applied Behavior Analysis ABA 1 Intensive behavioral therapy a Break down task into approximations that get closer to goal b 40 hours a weekialmost impossible c Effective though B Intensive and early intervention is key gt once it is identi ed important to start looking for some kind of behavioral therapy a 25 hours a week b Screening important to catch early so you can intervene missing languageinteractional milestones loss of language or social skills at any age i Ex babbling75 monthsishould keep an eye on him 77 ipraise 3 1
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