BIOPSYCHOLOGY PSYC 220
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Trinity Koch on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 220 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Jeannie Loeb in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 142 views. For similar materials see /class/228719/psyc-220-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
NOTE this outline is not to be distributed or posted on other internet sites that is a copyright infringement It is important to take very detailed notes to augment this outline Terms for anatomical directions 0 When referring to human neuroanatomy be sure to quotstraighten out the neuraxis o transverse plane perpendicular to neuraxis o frontal section 0 lateral o dorsal back 0 medial quotmiddlequot 0 saggital plane you can think of this as the side view 0 anterior towards nose 0 posterior towards tail or towards back end 0 ventral belly 0 horizontal quotparallel to the horizon or earth looking from top to down 0 notice that names of brain structures tell you also where they are andor what they look like 0 eg lateral geniculate nucleus thalamus so this means the LGN is towards the side of the thalamus O eg hypothalamus hypo means under so this is under the thalamus O eg ventral medial hypothalamus so this is towards the underside or belly and middle of the hypothalamus ll Divisions of the Nervous System l l l l I Somatic Spinal cord vertebral column vs spinal cord 23 length ofvertebral column 0 dura mater arachnoid membrane amp arachnoid space pia mater gray matter inside vs white matter outside af39ferent nerves sensow nerves dorsal horn ef39ferent nerves motor nerves ventral horn QorsalAf ferent entralEf39ferent DAVE39s spine 0 sensow nerves cell bodies outside dorsal root ganglia motor nerves cell bodies inside of spinal cord af ferent ef39ferent nerves spinal nerve leaving spinal cord 31 pairs of spinal nerves outside spinal cord missing arachnoid membrane 0 o 0 IV Autonomic Nervous System ANS 0 Sympathetic Nervous System 0 origin thoracic amp lumbar regions 0 paired sympathetic ganglion chain 0 preganglionic acetylcholine O postganglionic norepinephrine except for sweat glands Parasympathetic Nervous System 0 origin cranial amp sacral regions V Brain 0 ganglions closer to targets 0 preganglionicacetylcholine o postganglionicacetylcholine Gray matter outside vs white matter inside Hindbrain aka rhombencephalon o medulla myelencephalon vita functions 0 pons metencephalon ipsilateral vs contralateral connections medulla pons midbrain some forebrain structures brainstem from medulla pons Cranial nerves V Xll Cranial nerves l olfactory ll Optic lll Oculomotor lV trochlear V trigeminal Vl Abducens Vll Facial Bell s palsy Vlll vestibulocochlear IX glossopharyngeal X Vagus medulla quotwandering nerve Xl spinal accessory Xll hypoglossal On old Olympic towering tops afinn and german viewed some hops medulla pons raphe nucleus 5HT focus on stimulus medulla pons midbrain reticular formation actually begins from the bottom of the medulla amp goes to the very tip of the midbrain o cerebellum metencephalon coordination eg movement Midbrain mesencephalon o tectum dorsal superior colliculi vision inferior colliculi auditory o tegmentum intermediate level of midbrain substantia nigra movement periaqueductal gray pain modulation red nucleus movement 3 amp 4 h cranial nerves see above where the cranial nerves are listed reticular formation see above Forebrain prosencephalon o cerebral hemispheres I corpus callosum I anterior commissure I massa intermedia o cerebral cortex bark o basal ganglia caudate nucleus putamen globus pallidus see textbook figure I sequences of motor movements 0 limbic system olfactory bulb hypothalamus hippocampus amygdala cingulate gyrus part of cerebral cortex I emotions amp motivations o diencephalon vs telencephalon assume all other structures are part of the telencephalon I thalamus I hypothalamus o pituitary o basal forebrain aka nucleus basalis o hippocampus o Ventricles o CSF amp choroid plexus o CSF circulation I lateral ventricles gt 3rd ventricle gt cerebral aqueduct gt 4 h ventricle gt subarachnoid space around the brain as well as to the spinal cord eventually CSF moves to arachnoid granulation where the CSF diffuses into the circulatory system gt urine 0 Meninges o dura mater o arachnoid mater o subarachnoid space 0 pia mater o hydrocephalus o More detailed look at the cerebral cortex part of forebrain as above 0 six laminae except oldest parts of brain 0 columnar organization 0 4 lobes I occipital lobe primary visual cortex 0 aka striate cortex aka V1 0 cortical blindness I parietal lobe posterior to central sulcus primary somatosensory cortex 0 4 bands of a quotbody map I temporal lobe inferior to lateral sulcus primary auditory cortex 0 left language 0 complex visual processing eg hallucinations o emotional amp motivational behaviors eg KlL39iverBucy syndrome I frontal lobe primary motor cortex precentral gyrus 0 prefrontal cortex working memory thinking integration of info Vl Binding problem 0 No grandmother cell 0 so how do different sensations come together 0 Origin location amp timing of sensations may be key Vll Research Methods 0 Brain imaging 0 CT scan contrast amp Xrays 0 MRI scans I large magnet I H atoms release energy absorbed from radio frequency I different tissues have different amounts of H atoms I best resolution 0 Recording brain activity 0 EEG unit recording or multiple unit recording I evoked potential measuring neural activity in response to a stimulus o magnetoencephalographMEG I measuring magnetic field of electrical activity I great temporal resolution 0 PET scan detecting collision of positron amp electron I radioactive synthetic glucose eg 2DG measuring glucose usage I creating in cyclotron is expensive I measures changes in oxygen content of blood I oxygenated blood responds differently to magnetic field than deoxygenated blood I not as good resolution as MRI 0 Brain damage 0 accident damage is not quotprecisequot o purposeful stereotaxic surgery keeps head still I atlas I bregma I lesions 0 ablation take out tissue 0 electrolytic burn tissue 0 knife cuts cut tissue o sham lesions as control group 0 chemical lesions usually stimulates to death 0 kainic acid 0 6HD I DA I NE I geneknockoutapproach 0 Brain inactivation o transcranial magnetic stimulation high dose 0 Brain stimulation 0 electrical current lower dose 0 kainic acid lower dose 0 transcranial magnetic stimulation lower dose 0 agonists or antagonists o Microscopictechniques o stains I golgi visualization of individual neurons I nissl selectively stains cell bodies eg methyl blue or cresyl violet 0 transmission electron microscopy I provides info about the inner structures of neuron
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