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by: Trinity Koch


Trinity Koch
GPA 3.79


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Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Trinity Koch on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 245 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/228721/psyc-245-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.




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Date Created: 10/25/15
Abnormal Psych 82312 8232012 73000 PM Chapter 2 Contemporary Theories of Abnormality Nature vs Nurture o Recognized now that it s an accumulation of biological and psychological factors also socialsociocultural approaches o Modern Theory Biopsychosocial approach A A Certain theories recognize certain factors that can lead to Vulnerability genes poor upbringing maladaptive cognitions etc To become a disorder these vulnerabilities need to be in conjunction with a Trigger that makes it into a legitimate disorder Social Biological and Psychological theories are tied together through feedback loops Biological Theories o Structural theories 0 Brain structure abnormalities cause disorders o Biochemical Theories o Neurotransmitters or hormones or receptors having problems cause mental disorders o Genetic Theories o Disordered genes cause disorders Phineas Gage first person to have brain damage that permanently changed his personality o Cerebral cortex advanced thought process o Hypothalamus eating drinking temp control sex behavior o Limbic system collection of structures that regulates instinctspleasuremotivation Damages in these parts can result from injuries or diseases that cause deterioration Too much or too little of a neurotransmitter can contribute to disorders o Researchers found associations not casual relationships o However difficult to accurately measure neurotransmitter levels The amount of a neurotransmitter available in the synapse can be affected by c Reuptake neuron reabsorbs the transmitter o Degradation breaks down the neurotransmitter Serotonin o Regulates emotionsimpulses o Ex decreased levels associated with dysphoria Dopamine o Regulates reward system learning o Too much causes schizo too little parkinsons Norepinephrine o Affects attention responsive actions o Ex decreased levels associated with dysphoria GABA gammaaminobutyric acid o Inhibits action of other neurotransmitters More biological causes of disorders Endocrine System o Hormones mood level of energy reactions to stress Anxiety and depression may result from dysregulation of the HPA axis o Hypothalamus basic bio pituitary gland master adrenal gland active in arousal and sleep Abnormalities in the genes that make up chromosomes are more common than major abnormalities in structures of biological processes Genetic factors in abnormality o Chromosomesgtalterationsgtpolygenic process o Needs to be combination just bad genes do not doom you to a disorder Thought to relieve psychological symptoms by improving functioning of neurotransmitter systems Antipsychotics Antidepressants Lithium Antianxiety Medications work as o Antagonists o Decrease neurotransmitter activity Schizo too much dopamine o Agonists 0 Increase neurotransmitter activity Antipsychotic Drugs o Psychosis loss of touch with reality delusions o Examples thorazine clozaril Haldol o Thought to decrease dopamine activity o Effectiveness vs side effects 0 Severe sedation tardive dyskinesia face muscles too relaxed o Atypical antipsychotics o Newer less serious side effects Antidepressant Drugs o Enhance neurotransmitter activity o Three classes 0 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors MAOIs Decrease MO enzyme increase norepinephrine o Trycyclics Very common til 80 s seemed more effective Inhibit reuptake of various neurotransmitters o Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors SSRIs Prozac 1986 zero in with amazing precision Sleep problems sex function inhibited Mood Stabilizers o Bipolar disorders o Effective treatments for mania were scarce o Lithium o Anticonvulsants o Lamictal Antianxiety drugs o Two symptoms for which drugs are most commonly prescribed 0 Anxiety and insomnia o Barbituates decrease neuron activity 0 Relaxing but addictive 0 Sedatives o Benzodiazepines increase GABA o Valium klonopin 0 Also addictive many report feeling more functional Problems with drug therapies o Side effects o Not always specific o Drug companies corruption possibilities due to money Brain Stimulation Techniques 0 0 Electric shocks to the brain o Induce brain seizures 0 scary o Used largely for severe depression 0 Can cause memory loss o Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation rTMS 0 Like ECT but small and continuous o Deep brain stimulation o Research supports using this Psychosurgery o Prefrontal lobotomies o Frontal lobe severed from brain 0 Eventually criticized as a cruel and ineffective means of treating psychosis o Psychosurgery declined after the 1950 s rarely used today and only with the most severe cases with patients who do not respond to any treatment 8232012 73000 PM 8232012 73000 PM


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