Cultural Anthro Notes 10/19-10/21
Cultural Anthro Notes 10/19-10/21 ANTH2800
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ciara Peace on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH2800 at University of Toledo taught by Seamus Metress in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in Language at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
ANTH28OO Notes 10191021 1 How has human variation been explained historically a Divine creation b Diabolical intervention c Interaction of heredity and the environment 2 Why is human variation difficult to study Human families are small and the generations are long Human experimentation can t be performed to support theories Human mating is controlled by culture not genetics Many human physical characteristics are controlled by i Polygenes skin color ii Multifactorial processes 3 Differentiate the anthropological study of human variation a quotold school studied i What people looked like ii Racial classification iii Racial history b quotnew school studies i Why people vary ii Study individual variation iii Stress the evolutionary significance 4 What are the different types of human variation a Individual variation b Sexual variation c Age variation d Geographicalvariation i Clines 1 Going from the tip of Italy to Germany you would see variations in skin color and hair color It is a vertical change in location and the subsequent changes in the people ii Populations e Phenotypic variation i What we look like phenotype 5 What are the biological mechanisms for adaptation a Genetic those passed on from one generation to the next by the genes due to natural selection i Sickle cell lactose intolerance etc b Phenotypic plasticity the inherited ability to alter one s anatomy physiology and behavior in response to stress i Psychological accommodation modification of one s behavior in response to stress noise light etc ii Physiological acclimatization modification of one s body structure and physiology function on a short term basis 9969 iii Developmental acclimatization long term modification of body structure and function 1 Andean indians 2 Being nutritionally deprived c Most adaptations are biocultural i Biological and sociocultural factors interact to aid adaptation 6 High altitude adaptation example Stress Factor Adaptive Aids 0 Increase short wave radiation including o Relatively dark skin color ultraviolet 0 Use of wide brim hats by both sexes 0 Covered totally by clothing 0 Low vapor pressure or dry air 0 Long narrow noses o Swaddling system for infants 0 Low temperature 0 High rate of blood flow to extremities o Layered clothing no fire 0 Reduced oxygen can affect fertility and 0 Red blood cell differentiation 10 mil vs energy levels 35 mil 0 Greater vital capacity 0 Larger chest cavity 0 Large lungsheart 0 Food production is difficult at high 0 Reduced body size altitude 0 Trade with people down lower Biological Race myth becomes reality 1 What is a biorace a A population that is distinguished from other groups by real or imagined biological differences historically determined by class inequalities Even though its members vary individually An invalid biological concept That has been of sociocultural significance Population variation does exist for traits i Clines geographic gradients ii Discontinuous variation isolated pockets of increased frequency of physical traits 1 Type of dwarfism found in Amish 2 Red heads go back to Irish 2 If you took 2 random people a 02 difference in genetic material b So called racial traits make up 06 of 02 c Meaning of quotracial traits 012 difference in genetic material d 012 is not a great on which to be basing genetic difference in intelligence 3 We are 99 identical a The human species has a low genetic variability DP9939 b c d e Chimps are 23 times more genetically diverse More genetic variation in a tribe of chimps Orangutans are 10 times more variable Insects are thousands times more variable 4 What are the problems with racial classification a b h i j All individuals do not fit in a definite category Much human variation integrates from population to population clines thus classification oversimplifies Most of the characteristics used in classification are not inherited collectively as a quotracial package or cluster Physical similarities do not necessarily mean close relationship or common ancestry Phenotype expressions of most biological traits are the results of the complex interactions of heredity and the environment Differences between individuals in a race or population are often greater than the average differences between races or populations Racial traits are not absolutes but a matter of proportions No genes that are found in only one race Scientists cannot agree on the definitions or numbers of race Multivariate analysis rejects the subdivision of human species into discrete units Bioraces only exist in the mind of the classifier 5 What is the significance of the propensity for classification a b c d e f Is a fundamental human thought process One of the major organizing principles of language categorization communication Hunting and gathering survival Relied on rapid identification of i Poisonous plants ii Sources of water iii Areas of shelter v Discrimination of friend or foe Billions of objects must be analyzes quickly to plan appropriate action Grouping into appropriate classes was important for the survival of our species 6 Why do many scientists feel that races are biologically irrelevant a b c d Many people no longer live in the geographic areas their ancestors came from and possibly adapted to immigration and slavery Any time groups came into contact with each other individuals intermixed biologically Human adaptation has become largely cultural not biological Biocultural adaptation to environmental challenges has always been important 7 What are the biosocial myths about race a b C Myth of superiorinferior races i No race is superior or inferior to another race Myth of blood i Blood does not carry so called racial traits ii Humans have interchangeable blood providing types are compatible Myth of a Jewish race i Jews are a socioreligious groups ii Physically they share characteristics with the local populations among whom they reside d Myth of halfbreed inferiority i There is no biological disadvantage to mixture ii Prejudice and discrimination may lead to social disadvantages iii Outcome of contact iv Occurs whether local mores approve or not v Attitudes variable English SpanishPortuguese French vi Some groups have strong endogamies feelings 1 Religious ethnic pseudobiological 8 US law and miscegenation a 19 states had laws forbidding it b All i 19 Nego ii 13 mongoloid iii 6 American Indian too c 1967 loving vs VA finally declared the laws unconstitutional d Penalty fines up to 2000 and jail terms up to 10 years e Enforcement varied f Classification was vague i Often based on fraction of mixture or hypo descent 9 Myth of race and culture a Culture is not invented but the ability to learn is b All quotracesquot or people have the capacity for culture educability belongs to the species as a whole c Vast changes in culture have occurred that are not associated with prolonged changes not enough time d Further color tells us nothing about power relations i During the 1840s the white Irish starves while the white English landlords watched ii During the 1980s black Ethiopians got rich
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