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Human Evolution and Adaptation

by: Minerva Schinner PhD

Human Evolution and Adaptation ANTH 143

Minerva Schinner PhD
GPA 3.94


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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Minerva Schinner PhD on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 143 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/228743/anth-143-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.

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Date Created: 10/25/15
Anth 143 Test 2 Study Guide PART I READ CHAPTERS 6 7 11amp 12 PART II TERMS AND CONCEPTS alphaglobin chain polypeptide chain found in the Hemoglobin molecule Located on short arm of chromosome 16 and two copies per chromosome or four per individual Related to alphathalassemia which is caused by unequal crossing over which leads to a deletions of one or more alphaglobin chain aaaa normal aaa mild thalassemia a a aa severe thalassemia a HbH disease Hydropsfetalis AAA Statement on Race Human races are not separated divisions More physical variation lie within a racial groups than in between two races No distinct population boundaries Socalled racial traits are distributed as a gradient called a cline across space Race is a socialdefined category with no biological basis ABO Blood Group System Consist ofa protein with an attached sugar molecules A and B have different terminal sugar 0 has no sugar Based on antigens or quotglycoproteinsquot on red blood surface A and B codominant A and B dominant to O Acclimatization is the process of an individual organism adjusting to a gradual change in its environment such as a change in temperature humidity photoperiod or pH allowing it to maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions Acclimatization occurs in a short period of time days to weeks and within the organism39s lifetime Adaptation as Process In the evolutionary time sense of a time line that shows how a species has changed over time process by which organisms respond to the environmental conditions in which they live Adaptation as Product Is the actual feature that has taken on the adaptation to better survive in an environment features that allow an organism to respond to local environmental conditions and which increases their chances of survival and reproduction Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues Symptoms Possible symptoms include Chest pain Dizziness or lightheadedness Anthropometry is the measurement of physical characteristics of humans Also related to Craniometry measurement of skulls and Phrenology study of skull shape Has a connection with eugenics Antibody react to antigens and are created by a person s body to protect itself Antigen glycoproteins terminal sugars triggers the production of antibodies by body39s immune system because they are seen as foreign to a person s body unless their body also produces the same antigen Antigendrift This means a virus is highly mutable changing its characteristic from year to year thus it evades any imunity build up from a previous strain Influenza is an example of a virus that has antigendrift Antigenshift A sudden shift in the antigenicity of a virus resulting from the recombination of the genomes of two viral strains Occurs with influenza virus this makes it highly resistant to the human body s defense system Adaptive response a change of the body due to environmental change A suntan is an adaptive response to intense sunlight that allows lighterskinned people to build up protective pigmentation Aerobic capacity the highest rate by which an organism can use oxygen to drive metabolism differs among people based on age sex physical fitness and health lactate is a product ofanaerobic metabolism that accumulates in muscles and leads to fatigue ex elite endurance runners from East Africa have the highest rates of aerobic capacity Anth 143 Test 2 Study Guide Allen s rule The idea that the length of extremities is related to environment Extremities are reduced in size on average in populations residing in cold climates Large body size with short extremities maximizes the volume to surface area ratios On the other hand in hot climates people with linear body builds and long extremities have higher ratio of surface area to volume which helps them transfer the heat ascaris a genus of parasitic worm living in the small intestines that causes disease in humans throughout the world 25 percent of the world s population infected per year usually gotten by eating raw fruit or vegetables that have been contaminated by the worm eggs which causes people to lose nutrients that leads to slowed growth rates in infected children Bchain beta a pair of polypeptide chains Located on short arm of chromosome 11 Normally one copy per chromosome or two per individual Associated with betathalassemia which results from the reduction or elimination of beta chains Balanced polymorphism a set of alleles at a locus for which the heterozygote is selected thus establishing equilibrium in allele frequency 1HbAan increased risk of dying from malaria 2HbS has sicklecell anemia Behavioral adaptations These adaptations are well suited for rapidly changing conditions this is because one of the characteristics of behavioral adaptations is that they are employed relatively quickly and can be stopped relatively quickly as well This type of adaptation is also reversible Some examples include tropism from plants because they bend toward the light Another example are chimps who use sticks to dig up food Humans have the most complex behavioral adaptations although not all are necessarily beneficial An example of a behavioral adaptations are humans that live in high altitudes reduce their physical activity levels to deal with hypoxia Bergmann s Rule States that there is a relationship between body mass and temperature In a cold climate low surface area to volume is beneficial and the surface area to volume ratio is lower in large people Thus in cold environments mammals tend to have larger body sizes Beriberi A disease caused by the deficiency of vitamin b1 or thiamine This deficiency is mostly found in people that rely on rice crops The disease involves the inability to metabolize carbohydrates to produce simple sugars and has serious effects on neurological and cardiovascular systems Casefatality ratio The percentage of those infected that die One of the three measures of infection The others are infectivity and virulence Catchup growth If the period of malnutrition is not too prolonged growth will temporarily speed up once diet improved which could allow the child to reach normal height Cephalic index Index of head shape breadth versus head length that was used in the 19 h century to differentiate between races Head form was discovered to be a plastic rather than fixed trait as children raised in different environments than their parents would have a different head shape The study was done with Eastern European children that had longer heads after being raised in America compared to their parents Indicating nutrition was a factor in head shape Cerumen is an example ofa simple variation trait that deals with ear wax comes in two forms wet and stick yellow to brown color or dry and flaky grey to tan The difference between the two types is caused by a SNP on the gene that is also linked to cell membrane transport and DNARNA repair Wet ear wax is associated with hot moist environments Cholera is an infection of the small intestine that causes a large amount of watery diarrhea Symptoms Abdominal cramps Dry mucus membranes or mouth Dry skin Cline consist of ecotypes or forms of species that exhibit gradual phenotypic andor genetic differences over a geographical area typically as a result of environmental heterogeneity Ring Species are a distinct type of cline where Anth 143 Test 2 Study Guide the geographical distribution in question is circular in shape so that the two ends of the cline overlap with one another giving two adjacent populations that rarely interbreed due to the cumulative effect of the many changes in phenotype along the cline The populations elsewhere along the cline interbreed with their geographically adjacent populations as in a standard cline Ring species present an interesting problem for those who seek to divide the living world into discrete species as chain species are closely related to speciation Cold Adaptations Cold adaptation is of three types adaptation to extreme cold moderate cold and night cold Extreme cold favours short round persons with short arms and legs flat faces with fat pads over the sinuses narrow noses and a heavierthanaverage layer of body fat These adaptations provide minimum surface area in relation to body mass for minimum heat loss minimum heat loss in the extremities Constraint on Adaptations 1 Natural selection may be a slow process and time lags sometimes cause a species to be less than perfectly adapted 2 The dynamics of the developmental mechanisms serve to constrain which phenotypes are biologically realizable 3 adaptation occur when the heterozygote at a locus has a higher fitness than either homozygote Because homozygotes will always exist the population will never be perfectly adapted This is a genetic constraint on adaptation A famous example of this in humans is sickle cell hemoglobin 4 Some natural populations may now be imperfectly adapted because accidents of history pointed their ancestors in what would later become the wrong direction Coon s View on Race argued that humans arose from H erectus throughout Africa and Eurasia He said that populations are ancient and geographically separate there is not enough gene flow to break down the differences if humans did come from one single population and lleach race had reached its own levelquot9 Multiregional Hypothesis holds that humans first arose near the beginning of the Pleistocene two million years ago and subsequent human evolution has been within a single continuous human species This species encompasses archaic human forms such as Home erectus and Neanderthals as well as modern forms Core and Shell Cori cycle a chemical process in which energy from fat is used to synthesize sugars from lactate in the liver and the sugars are then used as an energy source in muscles through their breakdown into lactate Counter current heat exchange transfer of heat between arteries and veins that warms venous blood that has cooled in peripheral areas Cultural adaptations the way we live our lives serving as an adaptation ie learned techniques for finding food and water making clothing and shelter organized labor to produce what one person could not Not innate but it still increases survivability Darwin s view on race racial differences not due to natural selection but to sexual selection Racial characteristics did not aid survival but did aid in attracting mates De Maupertui39s view on race random variation leads to individuals different from the rest of the population These individuals are shunned from their society and go on to inhabit other areas of the world Demographythe study of human population size distribution and structure and how these change over time Density Dependence lindependence Density dependence and independence is like limiting factors page 202 in the book Density dependent factors are factors that have to do with how many people or organisms are living in a given


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