Week 10 Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emilie Vainer on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Chapter 10 Social and Personality Development in Preschool Erikson s Psychosocial Stage Autonomy vs Shame and Selfdoubt 1836 months 0 Need to exercise will develop ability to do things independently or doubt abilities 0 Child s favorite word is quotnoquot 0 Selfdoubt formed if do not let child do things on their own become super dependent on parents 0 Children give opportunities to have say in small decisions I Ex asking if the child would like to eat broccoli or green beans Initiative vs Guilt 36 years old 0 Need to initiate carry out tasks successfully or will feel guilty because of their dependence 0 Guilt comes from making mistakes and being dependent on parents 0 Key to success careful balance between giving independence and controlling behavior I Make sure kids do not completely fail so they do not give up SelfConcept Children begin to develop understanding of who they are as people Selfconcept a person s identity or set of beliefs about what one is like as an individual 0 Categorical Self classifying oneself into social categories when asked to describe who they are I Starts very simple boy or girl age good bad boy I Caregivers help it develop by talking about past Help them remember that their past is important I Becomes more complex by 35 years old but stays concrete Children describe themselves in mostly concrete ways Ex physical attributes possessions physical activities May include basic attitudes emotions I Rarely use psychological terms to describe selves or others May be due to lack of verbal skills 0 When asked forced choices questions capable of categorizing selves on psychological dimensions SelfEsteem our evaluation of ourselves o By age 4 typically have several selfjudgments I Usually overestimate ability underestimate task difficulty have very high selfesteem think they are the best at everything Partly because they are not yet good at social comparison I Good to have ability to bounce back from failure 0 High self esteem initiative to try new thins Gender Development Sex biological aspect of being male or female Gender behavioral psychological and social characteristics of males or females We begin labeling treating children differently according to gender at birth 0 Infant talked about treated differently 0 Girls spoken to more often overall also more often about emotion 0 Boys hear more direct speech I Ex got get the ball vs saying could you please go get the ball to a girl 0 Father interacts more with infant son and mother with infant daughter I Boys get rough and tumble play and girls get soft games with rules Gender Identity One s awareness of one s gender and implications of gender expectations 0 Even as infants start learning about gender I Learn there are categories and which category they belong to By age 1 can reliably distinguish between males and females usually able to tell because of length of hair By 2 years can label self to the categories showing able to pick up what said and repeat back Kohlberg s Cognitive Development Theory 0 Gender role development depends on cognitive development 0 Children actively socialize themselves 0 I am a boy I need to find out what it means to be a boyquot 0 Three Stages I 1 Basic Gender Identity Labeling children label their own gender Ages 2 to 3 At this point still think their gender can change 0 Ex girls can grow up to be a daddy I 2 Gender Stability understanding that gender is stable over time By age 4 Know that if boy now will be man when grown up if nothing else happens Think something could change that 0 Ex if they woke up tomorrow and put on a dress and lipstick then they would be a girl I 3 Gender Constancy understanding that gender is stable across situations eg stays same despite changes to outward appearance activities etc By age 57 Gender Typing Acquisition of information concerning sexbased characteristics that culture sets for males and females 0 Gender Stereotypes I Overgeneralizations or beliefs about differences between males and females Men instrumental acting upon the world Women expressive having characteristics associated with emotions or relationships By 2 12 to 3 years say boy or girl dolls prefer gendertyped activities Continue collecting stereotyping over preschool o By 4 stereotype about activities occupations toys 0 By 5 also stereotype about personality traits Become more rigid about gender 0 By 5 believe it morally wrong to break gender norms GenderTyped Behavior Preferring activities toys clothes and interests associated with your gender 0 1422 mo boys prefer cars and trucks girls prefer dolls and soft toys 0 1824 mo refuse opposite gender toys Gender Segregation tendency to play with one s own sex and think of the opposite sex as outgroup o By age 2 girls prefer girls 0 By age 3 boys prefer boys 0 6 yo 10 times as much time playing with children of same sex Why Maybe because of differences in play style 0 Girls use enabling style supportive and cooperative more equality 0 Boys use constrictingrestrictive style competitive and aggressive o By age 3 boys more likely to use demands imperative sentences 0 Girl use requests questions I Boys do not listen to the girls request so cannot play in a fun way 0 Kids who follow gender segregation most rigidly most popular considered more socially skilled 0 Kids who don t less popular less well adjusted I Hard for these kids to find a group to play with Boys often pushed harder conform to gendertyped behavior 0 Being a tomboy is okay for a girl but if a boy is called sissy 0 Boys quicker to have gendertyped toy preferences more rigid 0 Girls more likely to play with boy toys say they were tom boysquot 12 of college women wish they were boys more common than boys saying they wish they were girls I Masculinity is valued in our society so it makes sense that girls want to be boys because girls seen as lesser and weaker Perspectives on Gender Biological Biological differences between sexes lead to gender differences 0 Ex prenatal hormonal differences exposed to different hormones in the womb I Androgenized females more likely to be tomboys have male interests friends Perspectives on Gender Social Learning Gender roles develop through reinforcement punishment and observational learning imitation 0 Direct Tuition Direct Teaching reinforcing appropriate behaviors pushing inappropriate ones gender behavior I Even before 2 yo parents reinforce children for gender congruent behavior Ex boy picks up truck parent plays with the child I Parents who do this most kids who label own gender earlier have stronger genderrelated preferences have greater understanding of gender stereotypes I Fathers do this more than mothers I Starting in preschool parents reduce direct tuition and peers take over 2 yo critical of kids playing with opposite gender toys Kids also learn about gender by watching and imitating people 0 Observe models of both sexes to figure out genderrole stereotypes Evidence 0 Kids more likely to play with toy if same sex model played with it 0 Parents who are less traditional have kids that are less aware of stereotypes 0 Children with opposite sex siblings often less gender stereotypes o The media still very gender stereotypes I Children who watch more TV are more likely to have rigid gender ole ideas and prefer same activities and toys Perspectives on Gender Gender Schema Theory Gender role development occurs as children create gender schemas o Organized set of beliefs and expectations about males and females Gender schemas in uence what they pay attention to and remember Next form ingroupoutgroup schema based on their gender 0 Label some things as for own gender and some things as for other gender Things labeled as being for outgroup seen more negatively 0 Children shown unfamiliar gender neutral toys more likely to say they liked toys labeled as for their gender Last create own sex schema o More detailed knowledge about activities and behaviors of own sex that allow them to perform those behaviors