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BSC 1011 Lecture Notes - Week 1: January 12-16, 2015

by: Victoria Jean-Baptiste

BSC 1011 Lecture Notes - Week 1: January 12-16, 2015 BSC 1011

Marketplace > Florida International University > Biological Sciences > BSC 1011 > BSC 1011 Lecture Notes Week 1 January 12 16 2015
Victoria Jean-Baptiste
GPA 3.69
General Biology II
John Cozza

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About this Document

In these notes I have provided you with overview from week 1 in Biology 2 with John Cozza, as well as terms that you must know along with their proper definitions and examples.
General Biology II
John Cozza
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Jean-Baptiste on Friday January 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 1011 at Florida International University taught by John Cozza in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 282 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biological Sciences at Florida International University.

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Date Created: 01/16/15
BSC 1011 Lecture Week 1 Jan 1216 2015 Systemics Phylogenies and Comparative Biology Lesson 1 The scienti c method Hypothesis What s your best guess WNQP P NE Question Ask a question and then research your topic Procedure Write very speci c directions for your experiment Experiment Observe closely and record data Data Analysis Organize and evaluate your data Conclusion What did you nd Was your hypothesis correct Abstract Summarize your experiment Presentation Create a display and present to the judges Review the scienti c method gen bio 1 chapter 1 theory big picture diverse support I iii or rejected hypotheses supported 1 v 1 model 9 hypotheses predictions experimentsD correlations Purpose of lesson The study of structural similarities of organisms What is the tree of life It s a genetic connection between different species life forms organisms in past and present Origin Charles Darwin Evolution theory A Phylogenies history of branching within a group of species and how they relate to each other Splitting species through mutation example with bunnies as well as through natural disasters leading bunnies to new environments Also called Multiple speciation events and extinctions Different life forms on earth Bacteria 10 million species less than 2 million discovered All organisms are connected How are they related Cannot examine every possible tree too many species most of the tree of life will remain unknown Phylogenetic trees are Simpli cations Three largest domains of life 1 Bacteria 2 Archaea 3 Eukarya De ne a phylogenetic tree 1 History of branching within a group of species and how they relate to each other 2 Hypothesis 3 Simpli cation 4 Evolutionary History Evidence of a Phylogeny l Genetics sequences of DNA 2 Physical traits 3 Behavior 4 Feeding habits 5 Coevolution 6 Embryotic development Ancestral aka basal 9 An ancestral trait is a trait that you and your ancestors had Ex A vestigial structure is a structure that had some sort of use in your ancestor but none in your current body Derived 9 A derived trait is a trait that the current organism has but the previous one did not have Homology 9 A shared character for all organisms in one group on a synapomorphy and only some not all for the other group Homoplasy 9 A shared character state that has not been inherited from a common ancestor exhibiting that state may result from convergent evolution or evolutionary reversal EX The wings of a bird and of bats convergent structures Synapomorphy 9 Unique derived character of a clade Homoplasy 9 Shared character not inherited from a common ancestor Outgroup 9 Closely related taxon with ancestral traits Closely related but different characteristics gives polarity to a phylogeny Polarity 9 In cladistics to determine whether character states are ancestral or derived Ingroup 9 Closely related with same characteristics Parsimony 9 It s principle is basic to all science and tells us to choose the simplest scienti c explanation that ts the evidence In terms of treebuilding that means that all other things being equal the best hypothesis is the one that requires the fewest evolutionary changes Sister taxa 9 Two species or clades that are each other s closest relatives on a given tree To nd sister taxa on a phylogenic tree You put your nger on main organism slide your nger down it s line and move your nger up the tree all the organisms to the left are the sister taxa of that organism Monophyletic 9 In phylogenic classi cation a group that includes the most recent common ancestor of the group and all its descendants Paraphyletic 9 A group that includes the most recent common ancestor of the group but not all its descendants Polyphyletic 9 A group that does not include the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group Clade 9 Most recent common ancestor MRCA and all its descendants monophyletic group Lesson 2 Q Are organisms becoming more derived advanced On a phylogenetic tree the most derived most branches most changes Q Are derived taxa more advanced Not necessarily they are just different


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