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by: Dewayne Goodwin


Dewayne Goodwin
GPA 3.91

Scott Hunziker

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Scott Hunziker
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dewayne Goodwin on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 151 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Scott Hunziker in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/228820/hist-151-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in History at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
What factors brought on the crisis of the late Middle Ages 0 14th century How did the crisis and decline of medieval civilization create the conditions for the Renaissance O The crisis paved the way for something new From Zenith to Crisis The Return of Cyclical History A Comparison to Roman Empire B Transition to the Modern Period C The Multiple Causes of Crisis and Decline The Decline of Papal and Church Authority A Edward II 12721307 Phillip lV 12851313 and Resistance to the Church 1 Began taxing church property 2 Pursued the right to appoint the clergy 3 Pissed off the pope see below B Pope Boniface Vlll 12941303 and the End of Papal Supremacy Threatens to excommunicate Edward II and Phillip lV Neither king yields take even further steps to have control over the church Phillip sends mercenaries to arrest the pope after pope tries to excommunicate him Pope dies shortly thereafter Marsiglio of Padua 12901343 The Defender of the Peace C The Avignon Papacygor llBabylonian Captivity 13031377 1309 Phillip convinces the pope to move to Avignon in south of France Time when pope is in Avignon is known as the quotBabylonian Captivityquot During this time French popes were doing the bidding of French kings Avignon popes lived more like princes than clergy Gave the papacy a terrible reputation Church decadence 7 1377 Gregory Xl moved back to Italy even though he was French D The Great Schism and the Conciliar Movement 13771414 1 Urban persecutes the French cardinals that Gregory brought back to Rome with him 2 French go back to France and elect their own pope so now there are two 3 The Great Schism the time with two popes 4 Urban Vl vs Clement Vll Italian vs French 5 6 WPWN QWPP Nquot Undermines the church39s authority who do the people look to Councilor Movement a Trying to reform the church b Elect their own pope c Neither of the other two want to step down d Now there are three popes 7 The Council of Constance 14141418 a Elect Martin V b All other popes are pushed aside c Spreads authority out in the church E Critics of the Church condemned official doctrines 1 John Wycliffe 13201384 a English heretic b Anticipated many of Martin Luther39s ideas c By reading the Bible an individual could achieve a personal relationship with God d Implication was that the church was unnecessary e Criticized church39s materialism 2 Jan Hus 13691415 and The Hussite Wars a Czech religious reformer b Wanted to translate the Bible into the vernacular c Hussites followers d Declared a heretic at the Council of Constance and burned e Hussite War i Key role in Czech national identity ii Agents of the church were trying to stamp them out 3 Marsiglio of Padua a Defender of the Peace his book b State did not need guidance from the church c Provided and intellectual argument for kings who were trying to get out from under the tutelage of the church A New Kind of War The Hundred Years War 13371453 A 3 New kind of war undermined old feudal warrior elite whose military function translated into political power England vs France Edward lll Philip VI and Dynastic War 1 War over who had the right to the French throne 2 Initially England does well The Triumph of the Archer the lnfantryman and Gunpowder 1 English archers defeat French knights 2 Longbows crossbows 3 Cannons Living off the Land and the Civilian Population 1 Large armies living longer off the land exploiting local populations 2 Battles go on longer mass casualties 3 Expansion and brutilization of warfare English Victories my Poiters and Agincourt English infantry defeating French mounted knights French Triumph Joan of Arc 142131 and the Rise of National Identity Joan had a vision of angels that made her lead the French army Leads them to victory at Battle of Orleans Later turned over to the English and burned as a witch Becomes a symbol of French national identity Fosters a sense of belonging to a national community National identity rises up alongside other identities Christian town region order The Triumph of Centralized Monarchy over Feudal Lords mwewzwe Economic Decline Demographic Crisis and Social Upheaval A Overpopulation Soil Rain Famine 13171320s and Declining Trade 1 All the food grown in the agrarian Medieval economy caused too many mouths to feed 2 Soil stripped of its nutrients Food surplus is depleted gt prices of food rise 4 Little Ice Age 04 V B a In 1314 it began to rain nonstop b By 1317 there was total famine because of the rain The Black Plague 13471351 and its Impact 1 1 2 3 2 Originated in Mongolia carried by rats on boats 3 High fever swelling of lymph nodes black spots on skin could affect breathing 4 ln initial wave of plague chances of dying were 5070 those infected usually died within 35 days 5 Initial wave kills 1312 of population 2025 million dead in first year 6 Greatest human catastrophe in European history Several subsequent bouts of it each was less strong Peasant Rebellions and the Critique of Authority Scarce labor peasants have bargaining power wages go up a lot Feudal lords and kings try to freeze wages Revolts throughout Europe France 1358 England and John Ball 1381 a Drew on the religious teachings of John Wycliff b Articulated a vision of society not based on strict heirarchy WPWN Making Sense of the World in a Time of Upheaval A B D With the constant fear or death people needed something other than the church to believe in The New Mysticism The Flagellants 1 Flagellants first appeared after a smaller plague earlier 2 Marched through villages half naked beating themselves and calling on people to repent for their sins 3 People began claiming that the end of the world was near 4 Lots of people dropped everything and made pilgrimages to holy sites The Cult of Death Danse Macabre g 1 People were fascinated with death 2 Image of the grim reaper skeletons became common 3 Death was the great equalizer no one was immune 4 Optimism confidence gt pessimism insecurity Scapegoats Witches and Jews Jews a 1349 hundreds ofJews in Strasbourg were burned for supposedly causing the plague by poisoning wells b Ritual murder host desecrations were myths that were invented and believed by Christians c Jews didn39t seem to be susceptible to the plague historians believe that could be because of hygiene kashrut 2 Witches a Accusation of witchcraft increases b Emerges in 14th and 15th century


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