The Archaeology of Palestine in the New Testament Period
The Archaeology of Palestine in the New Testament Period RELI 110
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RICHARD CHU 11712 Introduction to Archaeology Ancient Palestine modern Israel Jordan and the Palestinian territories 586 BC 640 AD BC before Christ BCE before Common Era or before Christian Era AD Anno Domini the year of our lord CE Common Era or Christian Era Ancient Near East Modern Middle East Called Near East instead of Middle East because in ancient times it was the perspective of the people studying this region in antiquity Greek and Romans Mesopotamia ancient Greek word meaning the land between the rivers now occupied by Iraq Mesopotamia is not a country it is a geographical location Area occupied by modern Turkey was a geographical region called Asia Minor What is the difference between history and prehistory Prehistory was the periods before written records History was the periods described by written records History in the Ancient Near East begins about 5000 years ago In other regions of the world history begins a millennia later Hieroglyphs system of writing invented in Egypt 5000 years ago Cuneiform system of writing invented in Mesopotamia before hieroglyphs Hieroglyphs is Greek and cuneiform is Latin Cuneiform is scripts used for different languages What is the difference between history and archaeology History is the study of written records and archaeology is the study of human material remains and culture Archeology is not the study of skeletal remains animals and humans History gives a certain perspective but not other perspectives Old World Archaeology Mediterranean and Ancient Near East New World Archaeology The Americas Prehistoric periods in the Old World Stone Age humans were using stone tools o Old Stone Paleolithic o Middle Stone Mesolithic o New Stone Neolithic Bronze Age began to manufacture bronze o Early Bronze Old Kingdom in Egypt o Middle Bronze Middle Kingdom in Egypt o Late Bronze New Kingdom in Egypt Iron Age began to manufacture iron o ends in 586 BC History begins at 586 BC even though there were written records before then because those written records were not written as historical Radiocarbondating was invented in 1950 after WWII Before radiocarbondating only Egypt had a calendar that went back thousands of years What is a tell Arabic or tel Hebrew An artificial mound formed by layers of civilization o Not found outside the Ancient Near East 0 A tell is the result of a specific defense system 0 Middle Bronze Age a new defense system was found Dig a moat around the civilization and pile the dirt around the city Steep hills were plastered smooth Glacis this type of defense system A new defense system is a result of a new offense system c Stop horses o Stop digging under city walls o Stop battering rams Glacis became a tel What is a stratigraphy o Stratum layer level o Layers of occupation in a tel How do archaeologists date the remains we dig up Radiocarbon dating C14 o Dating organic materials o Measures carbon14 0 Every living thing contains C14 0 When it dies it loses C14 at a steady rate Every approx 5700 years it loses half halflife o Radiocarbon dating in these time periods are not the best 0 Need organic thing usually not found in archaeological sites Pottery o No scientific way of dating pottery o Compare pottery to pottery found in different layers 0 Relative typology relative sequence of types 0 Look for artifacts associated with the pottery type Pottery types are localized 0 Pottery used in one area is different from others Coins Inscriptions Historical sources How do archaeologists dig and why do they dig that way Do not dig up an entire archaeological site o Archaeology is destruction Most important buildings are usually found at the highest point o Acropolis highest point Greek word Everything is recorded because once it is dug up it can t be dug up again All data is published Six 4m x 4m squares separated by baulk 1m thick Baulk is a record of stratigraphy Allows for error o If one square digs too far others are alerted before reaching that point 11712 Foundation trench a big hole to build the foundations then fill in the foundation o A vase can be put in in a foundation trench and then the trench can be filled The vase and filling are approx the same age Mikvah Jewish religious bath The Topography of Jerusalem Built on uneven grounds Old City of Jerusalem is surrounded by walls o Date to the OttomanTurkish period The Gihon Spring Hills City of David also known as Eastern Hill or the Lower City The Temple Mount The Western Hill also known as Upper City City of David was built on a low hill because it was close to the Gihon Spring o The spring was a source of water City of David had deep valleys on east and west for protection Valleys The Kidron Valley east of the City of David The Tyropoeon Valley west of City of David The BenHinnom Valley The Transverse Valley Temple Mount North of the City of David o The City of David was the City of Jerusalem in the time of David When David died his father Solomen built the Temple Mount extending the city to the north o Temple Mount is the acropolis of Jerusalem Jerusalem spread to the west to the Western Hi Upper City BenHinnom Valley wraps around the west side of Upper City o Valley was notorious in the Hebrew Bible o Jeremiah condemned the Israelites for human sacrifice Ancient City of Jerusalem consisted of o City of David o Temple Mount o Western Hi o Protected on all sides by valleys but the north Modern Jerusalem in 2nd century AD shifted to the north Gihon Spring Giha in Hebrew means gush gushing of water Mount of Olives east of Kidron Valley o Outside the city o Necropolis cemetery Modern Quarters Muslim quarter Christian quarter Armenian quarter Jewish quarter Jerusalem in the Biblical Old Testament Period ca 3000586 BC The Biblical Period Bronze Age Canaanite period and Iron Age Israelite pe od Bronze age ca 30001200 BC Iron Age ca 1200586 BC The First Temple Period ca 960586 BC ca 3000 BC The Canaanites entered Palestine Canaan The Old Testament Hebrew Bible refers to Canaanites Country become to be known ad Canaan Canaanite civilization was an urban culture Canaan never had a single ruler o Had smaller independent citystates o Some towns became fortified cities Yerushalem foundation of the god Shalem Named in honor of patron deity Shalem ca 1200 BC The Israelite tribes and the Philistines came from the area of the Aegean Sea and entered Canaan Israelites settled in the interior hill country The Philistines established a kingdom on the southern coastal plain with five main cities including Gaza Ashkelon and Ashdod ca 1000 BC David took Jerusalem from the Jebusites According to the Hebrew Bible Jebusites unknown ethnic group owned Jerusalem Now all under control of one monarch David Because Jerusalem had never been taken before it was neutral until David took it 11912 Kingdom of David and Solomon the United Kingdom Solomon s death ca 930 BC The Kingdom of Israel north with capital at the city of Samaria The Kingdom of Judah south Assyria in the 9th and 8th century became a dominant power o in northern half of Mesopotamia o capital Nineveh o expand its control towards the Mediterranean in 722 BC the Assyrians conquered the Kingdom of Israel in 701 BC under King Hezekiah the Assyrians invaded Judah in 612 BC the Assyrian empire fell to the Babylonians in 586 BC the Babylonians conquered Jerusalem o Babylonian exile Judeans were exiled to Babylonia Solomon s Temple the first Jewish temple The house in which their deity dwelled A statue represented the deity Priests serviced the godgoddess only priests were in the temple Outsiders met at the alter to sacrifice various offerings Peculiarity 0 God of Israel forbade his appearance in physical form Jerusalem Temple 0 Common to have multiple temples for godgoddess but not god of Israel Temple Mount 1920 s Robert Macalister 1960 s Kathleen Kenyon 1970 s Yigal Shiloh Kenyon determined that the glacis was a buttress for the wall FALSE o Glacis and wall dated back the same time period In the 6day war Israel took old city Jerusalem o Large scale excavation projects Shiloh Area G o Continues digging down the glacis o Finds remains of ancient houses on top of glacis Date to 8th and 7th century BC to 586 BC Determines glacis dates even earlier The correct sequence of remains in Area G 1 Stepped tone glacis Jebusite or Davidic 2 Israelite houses 8th or 7th century BC 3 586 BC all destroyed by Babylonians 4 wall and towers built with no connection to glacis after 586 BC If the glacis was not built to support the fortification wall what was its purpose Remains of the monumental building Palace of David found recently CONTROVERSIAL The House of Ahiel found by Shiloh o Pot found with Ahiel inscribed named after o Fourroom house Pillar figurines o Small day figurines o Show woman cradling breasts Bulla o A clay sealing o Lump of clay used to seal documents o Shiloh found over 50 bullae in one of the three houses o Babylonians set the house on fire when they destroyed it 0 Documents were burned but bullae clay fired Normally bullae would turn back into mud o Gemaryahu Son of Shaphan inscribed on the bullae Biblical Hebrew script Phoenician script Aramaic script Canaanites after 1200 BC o Pushed to the north o North Phoenicians basically Canaanites established maritime colonies along the coast in 750 BC Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet o Greeks made changes to accommodate their language o Reversed direction of writing from rightleft to leftright 12412 The Jebusite Bronze Age wall of Jerusalem Wall found at the middle of the hill o Good defensive position o Allows for more room to live on the hill o Problem getting water from the Gihon Spring 0 If the city is besieged getting water outside the walls was hard o Solution water systems Warren s Shaft The Siloam Channel Hezekiah s Tunnel Warren s Shaft Named after British explorer Charles Warren Entered an underground passage leading to the spring What is the date of Warren s Shaft o Time of David and Soloman ca 1000 BC o The Middle Bronze Age ca 1800 BC tsinnor could mean underground tunnels Warren s Shaft o David used to conquer Jerusalem The Siloam Channel The Siloam Channel is outside the city Gihon Spring runs off into the Siloam Channel Pool was built to store water from the spring Excess water from the pool goes into the Siloam Middle Bronze Age ca 1800 BC Worked together with Warren s Shaft Hezekiah s Tunnel Winds for over 500 m and the gradient of the floor of the floor from the beginning to the end is only 30 cm 06 Hezekiah s Tunnel still has water in it today Named after King Hezekiah for preparation for Assyrian attack o Hezekiah closed the Siloam Channel o Replaces it with an underground system 0 New pool of Siloam to store excess water Inscription found in 1880 dedicated to the completion of the tunnel The Broad Wall Hezekiah refortifies the city with a new wall enclosing the Western Hill In 1867 British explorer Charles Warren surveyed Hezekiah s tunnel The Persian Period 532 332 BC Within a century of the rise of Babylonians Jerusalem it was replaced by another ancient power Persia When Persia conquers Jerusalem exiled Judeans in Babylonia came under control of Persia In 490 and 480 BC the Persians invaded Greece Persians were beaten back by some citystates lead by Athens o Greece remains independent from Persian rule o Rise of Athens follows rebuild of Persian invasion o Rise of Sparta The Peloponnesian War 431404 BC Athens vs Sparta Democracy vs Oligarchy Sparta nominally won basically both citystates sufferedweakened Greece remains as many citystates without a dominant one How does Persia govern such a large territory Satraphy pl satrapies Large pieces of territories Further subdivided into Medinah pl medinot Ebernar the land beyond the river o Beyond Tigris and Euphrates Yahud Judea 12612 Cyrus of Persia s edict allowing the Judeans to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the Temple 589 BC o Judean exile ends and Judeans return Erza and Nehemiah Second Temple consecrated in 516 BC Many Judeans decided to stay in Babylonia because they have established themselves o Prosperous homes established lives etc While Palestine was under Persian control there was very little Greek influence Coinage Invented in ca 600 BC in western Asia Minor Stamped with a seal of authority that guarantees its value Lumps of metal Electrum coins naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver Athenian coin Profile of Athena on front Owl wisdom on back Yahud Coins Tiny bronze coins fraction of size of penny Lily on front and eagle on back The Early Hellenistic Period in 338 BC after the victory at the Battle of Chaeronea Phillip II King of Macedon united Greece under his rule in 336 BC Phillip II was murdered Succeeded to the throne by Alexander his son Continues plan to invade Persian Empire in 334 BC Alexander invaded the Persian Empire Alexander fought 3 battles against the Persian king Darius III After the last battle in 331 BC Darius was murdered by his own men Alexander continued to take control of regions not controlled by Persia in 332 BC Alexander detoured south to Egypt Egypt was a wealthy country in antiquity Found a city and named it Alexandria Oracle of Zeus Ammon at the oasis of Siwa o Tells the future oracle o The oracle worshipped Alexander as a god o No Greek rulers were ever worshipped as a god Alexander s conquest marks the beginning of the Hellenistic Period Hellenistic Hellas Greece Hellenic Greek Ancient Near East adopted some Greek culture and mixed with their culture in 323 BC Alexander died Never returned to Greece Promoted intermingling of cultures Empire falls apart o Conflict arose over succession of the throne Empire was eventually divided among Alexander s generals Seleucus Seleucid Kingdom Mesopotamia through Syria and Asia Minor Ptolemy Ptolemic Kingdom Egypt 3rd century BC Palestine under rule of Ptolemies 2nd century BC Palestine under rule of Seleucids The two generals tried to be successors of Alexander by imitating him o Found new cities and named after themselves Polis a Greek or Greekstyle city The Seleucid king Antiodius IV Epiphanes 175164 BC refounded Jerusalem as a Greek polis named Antiochia 7th and 6th centuries BC development of Greek orders o Doric order southern part of Greek mainland Peloponnese o Ionic order east Greece and western Asia Minor Ionia Usually orders were applied to temples and sacred buildings Similarities of both orders Both sit on a raised stepped platform stylobate Between columns and capital entablature Lower part of entablature is architrave Upper part is frieze Pitched sloping roof Triangular space by sloping roofs pediment Differences between the two orders Columns o Doric column sits directly on stylobate o Ionic column has a carved base on the stylobate Capital o Doric capital shaped like inverted cushion o Ionic capital has curly sculptures F eze o Doric frieze divided into alternating panels 0 Triglyph and medipeze o Ionic frieze is continuous carving or flat Samaria and the Samaritans Samaria was a district north of Judea Samarians who intermarried with Greeks were not allowed to worship the god of Israel Ancient Shechem modern Noblus foot of Mt Gerizim Samaritans and Judeans both worshipping same god o Mount Gerizim vs Jerusalem o Bitter enemies o Judeans destroyed the temple on Mount Gerizim 13112 Samaritans revolted against Alexander o Burned down appointed governor o Alexander sent troops to stop revolt WadiDeliyeh riverbed A cave where families took refuge during the revolt Alexander s troops found them and built a large fire at the entrance o Suffocated the families Families brought values that were found in the cave o Documents in Aramaic o Sign that people stopped using Hebrew and used Aramaic After the Samaritan revolt Alexander banished the Samaritans form the city of Samaria and settled Macedonian veterans there o Greek military city Samaritans settled in ancient biblical Shechem at the foot of Mount Gerizim The round towers at Samaria Why round towers instead of rectangular towers o New defensive system in response to new offensive system 0 Protected against warfare using cannon shots balistas o A round tower is much better against balistas Stretcher a wall with long side of bricks facing out Header a wall with short side of bricks facing out Straton s Tower Caesarea Maritima Phoenician king Straton 4th century BC Persians did not have a navy but Greeks had a navy o Phoenicians had a navy o In exchange for naval assistance Persians gave control of Palestine Herod s plan for Caeserea has 2 round towers Archaelogists have found round towers in Caesarea o Alternating headers and stretchers o Stones had rough protruding sides bosses and cut back margins Jerusalem in the Early Hellenistic Period The Book of Maccabees and Josephus record the erection of a fortress called the Akra by Antiochus IV The seam or straight joint at the southeast corner of the Temple Mount Herrod added Antiochus IV built first fortress Iraq elAmir District of Tobiads east of river Pre586 BC ruled by Aminites Amin RobothAmmon became modern city Ammon In the Persian period the medinah of Ammon was governed by Tobias In the early Hellenistic period the city of Ammon Philadelphia modern Ammon was independent of Tobiad rule o Someone refound Ammon and named it Philidelphia The rest of the lands of Tobiads were governed from a new capital at ancient tyros Iraq elAmir Hyracanus committed suicide when Antichus IV Epiphanes became king 175 BC Baris Qasr elAbd at Iraq elAmir Animal sculptures fountains on walls Caves in the cliffs around Iraq elAmir What was the Qasr elAbd o A fortress Baris o A temple 0 Similar buildings were used as temples o If built by Jews only physical remain of Jewish architecture o Pleasure Palace 0 Described as surrounded by water 2212 Marisa o Edomites o Idumaeans descendants of Edomites o Lachish o Marisa o Hellenized Sidonians Phoenicians from Sidon Marisa Greek Maresha Hebrew Tell Sandahannah Arabic Bliss and Macalister 1900 excavators During 1900 s Palestine was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire Permission from the Ottoman Empire was granted but they had to leave the site like the found something When they excavated they dug up 3 walls and piled the dirt on the 4th wall o Filled in the excavation site after they were done Why no new excavators o All the artifacts were taken out before filling back in Marisa had streets running NS and EW o Showed city planning o Showed zoning residential commercial industrial Hippodamian town plan Hippodamus of Miletos ca 500 BC Agora marketplace Greek Roman equivalent forum Tripartite temple o Divided into three parts maybe worship 3 deities Extramural houses in Marisa o Houses outside the city walls o Large and wellbuilt suggesting prosperous town Caves cut into the chalk hills were used as o Storage areas cellars for food and cisterns for water o Industrial installations mainly olive presses o Columbaria dove coves o Tombs Olive presses Indicated growing olive trees and making olive oil 2 steps o crush olives o press crushed olives 20 olive presses at Marisa produced 270 tons of olive oil per year c indicated production for sale There are over 60 columbaria caves at Marisa with a total of 5000060000 niches Largest one is called esSuk Arabic for the marketplace Use of columbarias were largely debated o Catacomb bodies cremated and put into urns in niches 0 False no urns were found and cremation was not practiced o Raising pigeons and doves o The economy of Hellenistic Marisa was based largely on pigeon raising and the production of olive oil Pigeons could be used as carriers Pigeons were also a delicacy Elevated niches protected from predators O O O A burial cave was discovered in 1902 Called Tomb A Accidently discovered by local villagers o Villagers found the paintings offensive and destroyed them o Scholars heard and rushed and made watercolor paintings Burial chambers had long rectangular niches loculus o Contained the burials o First appearance of loculi in Palestine 0 Reflects Greek influence Incense was burned in burial tombs to mask the odor A continuous painted frieze runs above the loculi Tombs had Greek writing Alexandria had a zoo o Tried to collect all animals Library of Alexandria o Had a copy of all written literature Tel Dor A Hellenized Phoenician city on the coast north of Caesarea Hellenistic houses at Dor with Phoenicianstyle pier and ruble masonry Pier and rubble masonry at Carthage Tunisia which was founded as a Phoenician colony in 814 BC Herm Hermes Mercury the messenger of god and god of boundaries protected entrances Marble head found in Dor Marble must be imported from Greece or Turkey o Not found in Palestine Herms statures were set up at entrances to marketplaces Herm shows Greek influence A Greekstyle close moldmade oil lamp of the Early Hellenistic Period Relief decorations indicative of a mold Molds used to make oil lamps in large masses Coins of Alexander First time showing images of a mortal on a coin Alexander s successors had themselves depicted similar to Alexander on coins o Propaganda people would draw conclusions that they are godly RICHARD CHU 2912 The Late Hellenistic Hasmonean Period 167 40 BC 753 BC foundation of Rome Carthage a Phoenician colony As Rome starts to expand it comes into contact with Carthage Punic Wars started o Hannibal Carthaginian general o Hannibal was eventually defeated 0 Rome imposed harsh laws on Carthage 146 BC Rome destroyed Carthage Egypt o Rome destroyed Corinth Greece 0 An important trading city Antiochus IV Epiphanes 175 164 BC Seleucid King of Palestine Refounded Jerusalem and named it Antiochia Built the Akra Fortress Took the temple in Jerusalem and rededicated it to Olympian Zeus Outlawed the practice of Jews Antiochus edict led to a Jewish revolt o Maccabean Revolt 167 164 BC in Modiin 0 Led by priest Mattathias and his sons 0 Judah Maccabee takes the lead of the revolt 164 BC Jerusalem Temple rededicated to the God of Israel o commemorated by Hanukkah o Antiochus IV died succeeded by 5 year old son 160 BC Judah was killed in battle succeeded by his brother Jonathan o After Jonathan died he was succeeded by his brother Simeon By 140 BC the Maccabees had established an independent Jewish kingdom o Hasmoneans the Maccabees and their descendants o Hasmonean Kingdom o Zadokites Zadok o Zadok was the 1St high priest in Solomon s 1St Temple 0 High priests can trace ancestry back to Zadok Simeon s successors John Hyrcanus I 134 104 BC Alexander Jannaeus 103 76 BC Salome Alexandra 76 67 BC Queen Idumeans Antipas grandfather of Herod Galilee and the Ituraeans 67 BC Salome Alexandra died and civil war broke out o two sons are fighting for the throne 63 BC Pompey annexed the Hasmonean kingdom to Rome Decapolis included Pella Scythopolis Beth Shean and Gerasa Jewish Antipater the son of Antipas Phasael and Herod Antipater s sons 40 BC the Parthians invaded SyriaPalestine and reestablished Hasmonean rule under MattathiasAntigonus Masada mountain overlooking the Dead Sea Nabateans Jerusalem in the Hasmonean Period Jerusalem expands west including the Western Hill o A wall enclosing the newly expanded city is called the First Wall o A wall runs along the Transverse and Benhinome Valleys The citadel next to Jaffa Gate o Contains remains of the First Wall o A wall has alternating rows of stretchers and headers o A wall has smooth margins and protruding bosses Jason s Tomb in Jerusalem o Located outside the walls of Jerusalem west side 0 Jews did not bury dead in the city o Tomb is cut into the slope o A Hasmonean period tomb o Called Jason s Tomb because an inscription in the tomb asks to lament Jason s Death o The porch provides access to two underground burial chambers A and B A Doric column inantis between the antae the thickened porch ends of the porch Nefesh in modern Hebrew soul ie soul of the dead Doric style indicates Hellenization Jason s Tomb o Chamber B has loculi 1St Jewish tomb with loculi o Hellenistic influence o Chamber B is a charnel room Graffiti on the walls of Jason s Tomb o Lamp stand 7 branch menorahs o Ship pursuing two other ships 21412 The Nabataeans o Inhabited Nabatea o Spoke Arabic o Originally nomads who traveled the deserts o Controlled trading routes to the east 0 Fairly prosperous o 106 AD taken over by Romans o Capital Petra in Jordan 0 Had colonnaded streets streets lined with columns temples and houses The Great Temple at Petra The theater at Petra o Greekstyle seats cut into the hill Tombs cut into the red sandstone cliffs o Tombs showed Greek influence and native Near Eastern culture The Siq at Petra o Winding canyon used to enter Petra The Khazneh treasury o Rock cut tomb at the end of the Siq Aretas IV Nabataean king around time of Jesus Avdat Oboda in the Negev Desert o Developed desert agriculture o Came up with advanced water technology 0 Took advantage of all scarce water in desert A Nabataean relief showing the Greek goddess Demeter A column capital with elephant heads from the Great Temple at Petra Nabataean Bowls pottery o High quality pottery Other pottery of the Hasmonean period ca 125 BC a new type of fine ware from Phoenicia eastern terra sigillata o custom of potter to stamp his name at the base Late Hellenistic oil lamps o Made in mold o Long nozzle Judean oil lamps of the Hasmonean period c Cornucopia lamps o Sunburst lamps Hasmonean coins o The Second Commandment said they could not use figured images o Aniconic art no images on their art living figured images Coins of MattathiasAntigonus 40 37 BC o Had images of a Menorah The Archaeology of Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls First dead sea scrolls were discovered by accident in 194647 A nomad wandered into a cave and found pottery jars covered with lids containing scrolls called Cave 1 o 7 nearly complete scrolls were found sold in the antiquities market o eventually gained by Israel in early 1950s an archaeology expedition was sent to Qumran o led by Roland de Vaux 195156 o to systematically explore all caves o to excavate the site of Qumran Scrolls were found in 11 caves around Qumran o Found remains of over 900 different scrolls Cave 4 had remains of over 500 scrolls o Not in jars laid out disintegrated on the floor The Chronology of Qumran De Vaux Magness Period 1a ca 130 100 BC DNE Period 1b ca 100 31 BC 1 preearthquake phase from ca 100 31 BC 2 postearthquake phase from ca 31 98 BC Period 2 ca 41 BC 68 AD Same as De Vaux no private houses in Qumran Where did people sleep Some houses had remains of 2nd story Outside the settlement caves tents huts possible Furniture and inkwells from the scriptorium Long tables of plastered mud brick Inkwells are rare finds Scribes wrote while squatting down and on their laps o Challenged De Vaux s theory of a scriptorium Tables used to lay the scrolls to dry Possible that the dead sea scrolls could have been written here 0 Some scrolls date before Qumran 21612 De Vaux found over 1000 pottery dishes in the pantry o Sign of earthquake in 31 BC o Earthquake broke dishes and people walled off part of the pantry Quantity of dining dishes indicated adjacent room must have been a dining hall Animal Bone Deposits Belonged to kosher species of animals o Animals permitted to eat according to biblical law Indicated animals have been slaughtered butchered o Meat cut into chunks and boiled or roasted o Meat was eaten off the bones Bones were taken and placed outside in the open air in pots Animal sacrifices o Probably not but not farfetched o Jewish seat at Qumran did not reject the basic principle that Jerusalem temple was the only place of sacrifice Jewish Sect that lived at Qumran was started by Zadokite priests o Participation in communal meals made up for temple sacrifices Potter s kiln and pottery o Cylindrical jars o Made own pottery some unique to Qumran A miqveh ritual bath o Stairs characterize a miqveh o Stairs are partitioned 0 Go down one side impure and go up the other pure Wadi Qumran Riverbed Flash flood in a dry riverbed wadi Aqueduct water channel at Qumran One flashflood would replenish all miqvehs 0 Once a year Cemetery at Qumran o Approximately 1100 graves Most located on plateau De Vaux excavated 46 graves 0 Found graves lined in rows in same orientation Feet north head south 6 foot trenches dug space hollowed out for body sealed off then filled in trench All but 3 graves excavated were adult men 0 Graves to the south of Bedwin graves Dead Sea Scrolls Hebrew Bible o Earliest copies of the Hebrew Bible 2nd and 1St century BC Septuagint Targums o Translation of Hebrew Bible to Armaic Pesharim o Biblical commentaries Apocrypha o Books in Catholic Scripture but not in Hebrew Pseudepigrapha Sectarian works Essenes o Flavius Josephus o Philo Judaeus o Pliny the Elder The word Essenes does not show up in the Dead Sea Scrolls Pit found by De Vaux o Identified by dirty smelly soil o Claimed to be a toilet Roman luxury latrine in Scholastica Baths at Ephasus o Romans built aqueducts that channel through c No privacy If people did not have anywhere to go they use the bathroom anywhere Some houses used chamber pots and emptied it into the streets o Streets at Pompeii had high curbs with stepping stones Iron Age toilet in the City of David o Dug a cess pit and placed a stone or wood seat over the pit o A manure merchant would empty cess pits and sell as manure Toilet facilities must be roofed and enclosed and placed to the northwest of Qumran 3000 cubits from the city o beyond permitted walking distance on the Sabbath Essenes dug a 1foot pit with an iron pick to use the bathroom and then filled the pit o Practiced bathroom modesty o Considered defecation as ritual impurity o Sabbath is holy and must be kept pure 22312 The Early Roman Herodian Period 40 BC 70 AD 63 BC Pompey annexed the Hasmonean kingdom to Rome 48 BC Julias Caesar defeated Pompey in battle 44 BC Julius Caesar was assassinated o succeeded by Octavian Augustus Caesar o Second Triumvirate Octavian Mark Antony M Aemilius Lepidus Cleopatra VII a descendant of the Ptolemies Octavia Antony s wife and Octavian s sister o Abandoned for Cleopatra 31 BC Battle of Actium off the coast of Greece 27 BC Roman Senate awarded Octavian the title of Augustus 14 AD Augustus died The JulioClaudian Dynasty o Augustus o Tiberius o Gais Caligula o Claudius o Nero 64 AD Nero died and civil war erupted 69 AD Vespasian proclaimed emperor The FlavianDinasty o Vespasian o Titus o Domitan 40 BC Parthian invasion Herod fled to Rome The Roman Senate appointed Herod King ofJudea 37 BC Herod defeated MattathiasAntigonus Straton s Tower Caesarea Maritima Samaria Samaria Sebaste Sebastos Greek for Augustus Mariamne o Hasmonean Princess o One of Herod s many wives 4 BC Herod died 37 44 AD Herod Aggripa I the grandson of Herod and Mariamne ruled Palestine prefectsprocurators governors that Romans bring into rule between kings o Pontius Pilate prefect of Judea from 26 36 AD Sicarii Latin sica o Dagger men assassis 66 70 AD First Jewish Revolt against the Romans o 2nd Temple is destroyed 70 AD fall of Jerusalem and destruction of the 2nd Jewish Temple o 9th day of the month of Av August 70 Herodian Jerusalem Three towers in area of modern Citadel Herod s palace in modern Armenian Garden Three towers built into the first wall o Jerusalem was not protected by a deep valley on the north side Transverse Valley o Built to protect Herod s Palace Names of the three towers o Phasael Herod s older brother o Hippicus a friend o Mariamne his Hasmonean wife Only one of the three towers survived David s Tower in the Citadel o Phasael or Hippicus o Archaeologists think its either but not sure Herod s Palace Caesareum and Agrippaeum o 2 parts separated by gardens and fountains Urban villas in the Jewish Quarter o Western Hill is higher than City of David 0 Cooler in summer 0 Spectacular view NahmanAvigad o Excavated the Jewish Quarter Roman decorations in Jerusalem Roman influence o Frescoes wallpaintings o Stucco molded wall plaster o Mosaics o NO figured images of worship 22812 Herod s reconstruction of the 2nd Temple and the Temple Mount o Complex because Temple Mount also needed to be rebuilt o Herod rebuilds 2nd Temple and expands the Temple Mount 0 Had to build leveled platform over sloping terrain o Enclosed platform in a wall Temenos Wall Greek for wall that surrounds a sacred enclosure Solomon s Sta bles o supports the expansion of Temple Mount o arches and hollow area fill the space o called Solomon s Stables because the Knights crusaders knew about Solomon and stored their horse here The Royal Stoa or Royal Basilica o In the Roman world a basilica was a building with multiple rooms for public events with no religious connection 0 Basilica refers to form of building not purpose Temple Mount was functioning like a forum Wailing Wall or Western Wall temenos wall o One part of Herod s temenos wall o Not part of the temple building Pilasters o Decorative no architectural function Wilson s Arch o A road on a bridge that led into the Temple Mount from Western Hill o Led to Royal StoaBasilica Ba rclay s Gate o Gate from the Tyropian Valley into the Temple Mount o Led to Solomon s Stables Robinson s Arch o Series of steps on arches that led to the Tyropean Valley below o Herodian street lined by shops on the southwest side of the Temple Mount The Hulda Gates o Pilgrims entered through Hulda Gates o 2 gates left exit and right entrance o Broad sets of steps for resting or meeting people o Today blocked up and covered by crusader tower o Passage into the Temple Mount through the Hulda Gates Under the Royal Stoa 2nd Temple o no physical remains of the temple o based on literary depictions and comparisons to similar temples o fortified in the middle of the Temple Mount by a wall Nicanor s Gate Soreg o Low stone fence around the temple o Inscriptions in GreekLatin prohibiting nonJews from entering Antonia Fortress o Northwest corner of Temple Mount o Built on natural high point overlooking Temple Mount c To oversee and control the Jews on Temple Mount o Named after Mark Antony 0 Must have been built before the battle of Actium o Via Delorosa road way of sorrow bisects the Antonia Fortress 0 Walked by modern pilgrims o Sisters of Zion church 0 North side of Via Delorosa Remains in the church of the sisters of zion o Strutnion pools only remains that are Herodian 0 Covered by the lithostratos pavement o Arch of Ecce Homo 3112 First Wall constructed by the Hasmoneans Second Wall Third Wall begun by Herod Agrippa I and completed on the eve of the First Revolt Maximalists Israelis thought the area was a longer area Minimalists everybody else thought the area a smaller area No remains that are believed to be the 2nd wall There are remains of the 3rd wall o Maximalists thought the wall ran farther north o Minimalists thought otherwise but cannot explain the wall that maximalists think is the 3rd wall Church of the Holy Suppleker o Earliest churches go back to the Constantine because Christianity was not allowed before he legalized it Jerusalem on the eve of its destruction by the Romans in 70 CE map The Burnt House o Floors were covered with burnt soot Avigad discovered the basement top stories burnt down Evidence of Roman destruction Stone weight found inscribed Bar Kathros son of Kathros Skeletal forearm found 20 year old woman 0 Only human remain found in connection with Roman destruction Judea Capta coins o Judea has been conquered Caesarea Maritima Straton s Tower o Herod established a harbor o Became the most important city in Palestine o All commerce on sea passes through here o After Herod dies Caesarea became the Roman seat of Palestine Sebastos Caesarea s harbor o Herod created an artificial harbor o Greatest feat in antiquity o 2 harbors 1 small protected harbor 1 large harbor o since antiquity much of the harbor sunk underwater 0 due to natural causes o underwater excavations revealed how Herod built the harbor 0 building up breakwaters 0 large wooden boxes were floated out into the sea 0 imported concrete from Italy poured concrete into the wooden frames and they sunk Outer and Inner Harbor Pharos of Alexandria lighthouse modeled after this o One of the 7 wonders of the Ancient World Horren singular horreum warehouses Temple to Rome and Augustus The Temple Platform at Caesarea o Supported by underground arches ca 500 AD Byzantine Period a large octagonal church was erected on the Temple Platform Crusader kingdom in Palestine 1099 1187 Continuity of Cult if a site becomes sacred the site will remain sacred even if the religions change 13th century Caesarea was destroyed and abandoned Crusader walls and moat Herod s promontory palace at Caesarea The theater at Caesarea o Herod built a Roman style theatre adjacent to the palace Hippodrome o Course for horse and chariot races Herod built aqueducts to supply the city with water 2nd cent AD the highlevel aqueduct was constructed 4th cent AD the lowlevel aqueduct was constructed A Byzantine Sm6th century street with Roman Statues Roman governors stayed in Caesarea rather than Jerusalem o Caesarea was a more developed city and wealthier SamariaSabaste o Herod gave Samaria the name Sabaste after Sabasto o Herod built a temple to Rome and Augustus o Orientation of the temple is NorthSouth 0 Most ancient Greek temples are eastwest 0 Roman temples were NorthSouth Herodian Jericho o Herod s winter palace on the banks of WadiQelt o Palace was protected by a mountain named after his mother Cypros o Palace on both banks 0 Main rooms on north bank 0 Garden and swimming pool on south bank Opus reticulatum o Mud bricks are laid in a diagonal way with short end showing 0 Characteristically Roman Interior decoration from Herod s palace at Jericho Herodium o Located close to Bethlehem o Named after herod himself 0 The only site he intended would be a lasting memorial of himself and his burial site o Artificial mountain created by Herod 0 Inside the walls was a place Lower Herodium o Artificial pool 0 Supplied by an aqueduct o Surrounded by gardens o Another palace built o Hippodrome Herod s tomb was not found until 2008 o Located halfway up the mountain o Finest cut stones of everywhere in Jerusalem o No inscriptions anywhere Pottery of the Early Roman Herodian Period o Eastern Terra Sigillata o Western Terra Sigillata 0 Higher in quality 0 Deeper red color even color not blotchy o No western in Palestine because expensive Early Roman Oil Lamps o Roman moldmade discus lamps o Decorated with figures of animals gods etc 0 Not used in Palestine because figures o Herodian wheelmade lamps 0 Completely plain Ennion name of famous glassmaker in Phoenicia o Blown glass invented o Palestine has oldest remains of blown glass Herod s Coins o Bronze low denomination o No figured images Jewish coins of the 1St Revolt o Sheqel ancient biblical name o Declaration of indepencance from Romans o Also act of war rebellion o Minted in silver higher than bronze o Images associated with the Jewish Temple o Dated by year of revolt new calendar starting with independence from Romans 31512 Masada o Mountain located by the Dead Sea southwest shore o Wellsuited for a fortification by Herod Isolated from other mountains Herod built a fortified palace on top Masad means fort Served as a winter palace o Herod was paranoid built many palaces Cleopatra was picking away at Herod s territory 0 Masada was fortified to protect from Cleopatra A fortress was built before Herod s time o No remains were found Herod built a fortification wall around Masada 0 Two parallel walls not one single wall Contains rooms casemate wall Northern palace complex and western palace complex 0 Northern palace rooms spill over the edge Northern palace was on 3 different terraces a top bedrooms a mid patio a bottom dining roomreception hall Cisterns were fed by an aqueduct that brought flashflood waters from nearby wadis O O O 0 Last fortress of the revolt Over 900 Jews holding out against Rome Rome sent 8000 soldiers 0 Didn t want another revolt starting 0 Built a circumvallation wall goes completely around Masada o Siege camps AH Legionary soldiers o Stayed in camps B and F o Drafted from Roman citizens 0 Heavy infantry Auxiliary soldiers o Stayed at auxiliary camps Drafted from nonRoman citizens Reward was granted Roman citizenship Assisted legionary soldiers O O O Protected the flanks of the legionary soldiers Main camps were placed at main supply lines o Camp B placed by dead sea for supplies by boat o Camp F placed because Flavius Silva could oversee the siege operations Romans came to Masada in the winter of 7273 or 7374 o Siege lasted one winter season o Masada fell in the following spring Camp F o After the fall of Masada soldiers were left in Camp F to make sure Masada had fallen completely o Walls around Camp F was 1012 feet high o Walls within Camp F were units where soldiers stayed 0 Walls were only 3 feet tall and were bases for pitched tents 1 Praetorium tent unit of Flavius Silva o Roman military camps were always placed the same o Found expensive pottery 2 Tribunal elevated podium where the commander could address troops 3 Officer s mess triclinium o covered by Camp F2 and stripped to foundation 4 Principia headquarters o had plastered floors and walls only one 5 Contubernia tent unitsbarracks o used for dining and sleeping o prepared food in the hearth by the contubernium Weapons found on Masada o Iron arrowheads o Armor scales worn by auxiliaries o Iron sword o Scabbard chape metal tip of leather sheath 32012 Reenactments of the Roman army o Tunic o Segmented armor upper body o No armor below waist mobility o Metalstudded apron o Dagger on left sword on right o Large rectangular shield o Pilum spear Snake path o Small winding path leading to Masada on the east side o Romans had to go up this path with machinery to break down the gates The siege ramp at Masada o Silva noticed a hill on the west side and constructed a ramp o Built a platform with a battering ram on top o Constructed of terraced boxes 0 Laid pieces of wood horizontally and vertically 0 Filled with stones and dirt Eleazar benYair the leader of the Jewish rebels at Masada o Convened all the people at Masada at the synagogue o Convinced the Jews to commit suicide 0 Men killed all wives and children 0 10 men killed the other men 0 1 men killed the other 9 and committed suicide Josephus o Joseph son of Mattathias o Becomes Flavius Josephus o Adopts the name of Vespasia o Wrote The Jewish War and Jewish Antiquities The Jewish War o 7 volumes o starts with Maccabean Revolt o ends with the suicide at Masada 0 only source of siege at Masada Potsherds inscribed with names ostraca o Possibly used as lots to draw for the killings RICHARD CHU 32012 Ancient Jewish tombs and Burial Customs Up to 70 AD The James ossuary James son of Joseph brother of Jesus Characteristic features of rockcut tombs in Jerusalem They are artificially hewn underground caves cut into the bedrock slopes around Jerusalem They are located outside the walls of the city Each tomb was used by a family over the course of several generations The burials were individual inhumations even if the bones were later collected and placed elsewhere Only the wealthier members of Jerusalem s population could afford rockcut tombs The layout and decoration of Jerusalem s rockcut tombs exhibit foreign cultural influences and fashions Iron Age Cemetery at Keteinnnom 7th century BC Modern Was later quarried revealing the tombs Enclosed tombs with a doorway o Contained rockcut benches Semicircles were cut for the heads while bodies laid on the benches When tombs were full older remains would be put in a repository hollowed out space under the benches Stopped being used after 586 BC 0 Families who used these tombs were exiled Bodrum ancient Halicarnassos The ruler around 350 BC died and his tomb is one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world Reconstruction of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus o The monumental tomb of Mausolus of Caria ca 350 BC The Tomb of the Maccabees at Modiin o Never been found o Described by ancient sources o Sits on a tall raised podium with columns and a pyramidal roof 0 Inspired by the tomb at Halicarnassus 32712 Jason s Tomb in Jerusalem o Rockcut tombs are now decorated on the outside 0 Modeled after the mausoleum o Nefesh referred to monumental tombs o No more rockcut benches o Niches loculi were cut into the rock 0 Sealed off with a stone rock 0 Hellenistic influence Herodian Period RockCut Tombs Kidron Valley o The tomb of Absalom o The tomb of BeneHezir o The tomb of Zachariah The Tomb of BeneHezir in the Kidron Valley o Doric columns 0 Doric triglyph and metafrieze o Inscription This is the tomb and the nefesh of BeneHezir o Priestly family o Passage cut through the bedrock leading to the tomb of Zachariah The Tomb of Zachariah o Misnomer not a tomb and nothing to do with Zachariah Solid rock no burial chambers Greekstyle ionic columns 0 Modeled after the mausoleum This tomb is the nefesh of the tomb of benehezir A column was found of a monumental building in Jerusalem o The tomb s column was modeled after this column The Tomb of Absalom o The tomb s roof is built instead of cut o The roof is funnelshaped o Both a tomb and a nefesh o The roof structure was an imitation of Herod s tomb The Tomb of the Kings The Tomb of Queen Helena of Adiabene o Open courtyard and steps leading to the courtyard was cut out of rock along with the tomb o Porch with columns o Three pyramidal structures Doric triglyph and metope frieze Nicanor s Tomb on Mount Scopus o Ossuaries inscribed with Nicanor of Alexandria The Sanhedria Tomb s o Members of Sanhedria were not buried here 0 They were buried in their own family tombs Umm elAmed o Doric triglyph and metope frieze o Imitation wall cut to look like Herodian wall Ossuaries o Typically built with local stone o Container for bones 0 Long enough to accommodate longest bone o First appeared in Jerusalem s rockcut tombs in the middle of Herod s time o Used until Jerusalem was destroyed o Plain or decorated o Geometrical of floral designs c When bones were removed form loculi placed in ossuaries o Inscribed with names of person in the ossuary The Tomb and ossuaries of Caiaphas family o joseph son of caiaphus 0 Family tomb of high priest of presumed over the trial of Jesus Why ossuaries LY Rahmani o Ossuaries were introduced in rockcut tombs in Jerusalem in connection with the rise of the farasaic belief in the future resurrection of the dead 0 Farasies allowed for interpretation of the Hebrew bible Such as resurrection o Sadducees said souls die with the bodies Bones in Jason s Tomb before ossuaries were piled up on the floor o Ossuaries were not designed for resurrection because more than one person s bones were found in ossuaries o Jews were not scrupulous about putting all bones in ossuaries o Prevailing right of disposal of dead was cremation o Remains of cremation were chunks of bones and ash and put in urns Heat was not enough to burn all remains Urns were boxes similar to ossuaries 0 Jews could not cremate but collected bones into ossuaries The Death and Burial of Jesus Trench graves in the Qumran cemetery o Rarely found 0 Easily bulldozedbuilt over o Hard to date when found Trench grave in the Nabatean cemetery at Khirbet Qazone by the Dead Sea Not exceptional to bury nonrelatives in a family tomb Joseph of Arimathea put Jesus in his tomb All Jews should be buried within 24 hours of death Not allowed to bury during the Sabbath The Talpiyot Tomb Excavated in 1980 by Amos Kloner One chamber with loculi 10 ossuaries and 6 with names 0 Jesus Joseph Mary To accept this claim we must disregard the colonial Gospel accounts which are consistent with archaeological evidence and Jewish Law Jesus family was poor and would not have owned a rockcut tomb Had Jesus family owned a rockcut tomb it would have been in Nazareth No rockcut tomb means no ossuaries The names on the ossuaries were common and Judean No Christian sources that preserved the tradition that Jesus owned a family tomb in Jerusalem The James ossuary 4312 Purchased on the antiquities market No archaeological context Do not know if the inscription was authentic James son of Joseph brother of Jesus 0 After Jesus death James took lead of the Jewish community The BarKokhba Revolt The second Jewish Revolt against the Romans 132135 AD 115117 reign of Trajan the Diaspora Revolt Hadrian 117138 AD AeliaCapitolina renamed Jerusalem Temple to Capitoline Jupiter Bar Kokhba the son of a star Bar Koziba the son of a liar Bethar NahalHever canyon excavated by YiguelYadin Cave of Horror Cave of Letters o Jewish families hid in caves brought their valuables o Romans besieged the caves Jews starved o Yadin found Bedwin have already ransacked the cave o The families hid valuables found by Yadin o A hoard of bronze vessels from the Cave of Letters Contained bronze vessels incense shovels o A libation bowl patera decorated with an image of Thetis the mother of Achilles Belonged to a Roman soldier Figures rubbed out because offensive o Documents from the cave of letters 0 Bebatha s archive Belonged to a woman named Babatha Marriage contract deeds etc Voice of a woman rare in antiquity She was illiterate and had the documents written for her 0 A letter sent by BarKokhba Roman camp above the Cave of Letters Darom Southern oil lamps o Same shape as Herodian wheelmade oil lamps o Moldmade and decorated Coins of the Bar Kokhba Revolt o Biblical Hebrew script revived o Images connected to Jerusalem temple AeliaCapitolina Hadrianic Jerusalem SyriaPalestina Philista o How Palestine go its name PubliusAeliusHadrianus and Capitoline Jupiter o New temple dedicated to Jupiter Pantheon in Rome o Designed by Hadrian Madaba Map ca 600 AD o mosaic floor in a church in Jordan in a town called Madaba o cardomaximus 0 main NS street o decumanusmaximus 0 main WE street Demascus Gate Bab elAmud The Gate of the Column Church of the Holy Sepulcher 4512 Damascus Gate o Today s gate is built over the site of the Hadrianic gate 0 Dates back to the 16th century o Only remains of the original gate is the smaller gate on the left o Latin words on stone above remains of Damascus gate 0 Direct link to Rome 0 by decree of the councel of AeliaCapitoIina o Statue of Hadrian atop a column inside gate o The ground level of the plaza today is higher than the time of Hadrian o The lines of the streets remained the same The main cardo is narrower today The Oval Plaza in Gerasa Modern Jerash in Jordan Hadrian s northern forum in the area of the Church of the Sisters of Zion on the Via Dolorosa o Not part of Herod s Antonio Fortress part of Hadrian s forum 0 Struthion pools o Lithostratos pavement 0 Arch of Ecce Homo Hadrian s Western Forum o Church of the Holy Sepulcher built by Constantine 4th century AD o Basilica and temple dedicated to Aphrodite 0 According to Christian tradition the temple was built over where Jesus was crucified o Early 4th century AD Roman emperor Constantine legalized Christianity and adopted it as his own 0 Tore down temple to Aphrodite to expose the tomb of Jesus and enshrined in a monument Rotunda circular building with dome o Constantine converted Hadrian s basilica to a Christian hall of worship The Russian Alexander Hospice NahmanAvigad o Excavated jewish Quarter and cardomaximus o Found the pavement of the original cardo 0 Under the pavement he found pottery and coins dating to 4 centuries later 0 Concluded that only the northern part of the city was used by Hadian 0 Southern part was not built until 400 years later Southern part was not settled Southern area was very dense in ruins Third Wall o Hadrianic 0 Would mean larger area of hadrian s city o A triplearched gateway with inscriptions in Latin dating to the time of Hadrian o Would mean Damascus gate lied in the middle of the city o Cluster of graves outside the line of third wall suggests that the wall surrounded part of the city The socalled Third Wall Hadrian s north wall of AeliaCapitolina 41712 Synagogue Greek synagoge beth Knesset Hebrew o Completely different from temples o Gathering of Jews to read and study the Torah First Temple Period Solomon s Temple ca 970 586 BC Second Temple Period 516 BC 70 AD Theodotos inscription from Jerusalem before 70 AD o Inscription found that was originally part of a synagogue in Jerusalem o Greek writing 0 Belonged to upper class because they spoke Greek o No reference to rabbis o Rabbis were not leaders in ancient synagogues o Archisynagogos leader of syngagogue Masada synagogue First Jewish Revolt 66 70 AD o No Torah shrine arch to hold the Torah scrolls o No Jewish symbols o The benches indicate assembly only sign of synagogue BarKokhba Revolt Seond Jewish Revolt 132 135 AD Rabbinic Judaism o Experts in reading the Torah rabbis o Taught students orally and passed down generations o Judaism today was not recognized by Jews Galilean synagogues 2quotd3rd centuries o Capernaum o Chorazin Transitional synagogues 4th century o HamathTiberias Byzantine synagogues Sm6th centuries o Beth Alpha The Galilean synagogues at Capernaum o 3 doors leading to a large room with columns o aisles wrap around the margins of the room o courtyard with columns o adopted plan of a basilica o carved reliefs with figured images The Galilean synagogue at Chorazin o Carved reliefs of figured images o Seat of Moses of Chorazin o Inscribed with Aramaic Transitional Synagogue HammathTiberias Placement of shrine 0 Already facing shrine when through door Mosaic floors 3 part mosaic deign in the middle 0 Greek inscriptions sign of wealthy Maxmos Gedaliah having made a vow fulfilled it Long may he live 0 First mosaic o Donor names Center panel 0 Greek sun god Helios Top mosaic 0 Arch of the covenant o Torah shrine Byzantine synagogue at Beth Alpha o Identical to an early church 0 Atrium narthex nare apse o Mosaic floors In the 4th century Christianity was legalized by Constantine o No church buildings before then o Christians started building monumental buildings How do we explain the appearance of these images in Ancient synagogues o Influence of and competition of Christianity o Rise of reemergence of the Jewish priestly class in late antique Palestine o Jewish mystical beliefs and practices Circular mosaic floors represented domed heavens 41912 Ancient Jews believed in different angelic and nonangelic beings besides God Hekhalot literature o Describes the 7 heavenly temples o God in highest heavenly temple Merkavah the divine chariotthrone of God Metatron o Enoch was 2nd in power to God o Enoch turned into Metatron o Only one in heaven allowed to be seated in presence of God Byzantine Palestine 324 640 AD Justinian built o St Katherine s monastery at Mount Sinai o Hagia Sophia in Istanbul The Madaba Map ca 600 AD o Map dates to Byzantine Period Church of the Holy Sepulcher o Faces west instead of east o Facing tomb o Tomb in domed rotunda Nea Church Temple Mount not shown on the Madaba Map c When Jerusalem became a Christian city Jews tore down the Temple Mount Constantine tears down temple to Aphrodite to expose jesus tomb and builds a domed shrine on top of the tomb Aedicule Rotunda Cenotaph empty tomb Martyrium a spot that enshrines the tomb of someone who witnesses the truth of Christianity Justinian s Nea Church o Destroyed and remains found by Avigad o New Church of Mary the Theotokos Mother of God o Largest basilica ever found in Palestine o Church was built over sloping ground 0 Underground arches built for support The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem o Built by Constantine o Similar layout to the Church of the Holy Sepulcher o Dome enshrines where Jesus was born c Rebuilt by Justinian Abd alMalek an Umayyad caliph built the Dome of the Rock ca 696 AD o Muhammad s night journey on his horse from Medina to the farthest place al Aqsa and then up to heaven to meet the old testament prophets and back to Medina Abd alMalek or his son alWalid built the alAqsa mosque
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