Introduction to Chinese Culture through Narrative
Introduction to Chinese Culture through Narrative CHIN 252
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Kyle Jacobson on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHIN 252 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Eric Henry in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/228844/chin-252-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in Chinese at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Fall 201 1 Chinese 252 Review Questions Series 1 Part A 1 How many tones are there in modern standard Chinese 4 2 The great majority of Chinese characters have two components What are these two components called and what is the function of each Radical purpose Character sound 3 In Chinese which comes first the given name John Sally etc or the suIname Smith Johnson etc surname 4 In what year was China first made into a unified imperial bureaucratic state 221 BC 5 What Chinese ruler is famous for having buIned books and buried scholars subsequent to the unification referred to above Qin Shi Huang 6 Why does Chinese make relatively little use of words borrowed from other languages Chinese uses characters that represent both meaning and sound so a loanword would not accurately describe them 7 Name an Asian language other than Chinese that is that is also tonal and in which single syllables usually carry meaning as in Chinese Vietnamese Thai Laos Central Tibetan 8 What is the name of the Chinese transliteration system used in this course Pinyin 9 Write in the approximate sound values of the following Chinese initial consonants c ts q ch 2 g zh x M 10 What does the fourword idiom threepeople createtiger mean If three people claim there is a tiger in the market place others will believe it too 11 In the pinyin system what sound does the letter represent in the syllable zhi 12 What two steps must you follow to find a character you do not know how to pronounce in a Chinese dictionary Find the radical and then find the rest of the character use the number of strokes in both steps 13 Which of the following English words rhymes best with the Chinese syllable im 1 clue 2 see 3 the 14 Which of the following English words rhymes best with the Chinese syllable m 2 see 4 toy 4 tie 15 Which of the following English words rhymes best with the Chinese syllable Mg 1 sing 2 sang 3 song 16 Which of the following Chinese syllables rhymes best with the English word hung 1 zhong 2 jing 4 zhang Chinese 252 Review Questions Series 1a Fall 2011 2 17 Which of the following Chinese syllables is closest in sound to the the English pronoun 1 1 yi 3 ei 4 e 18 Which two of the following Chinese syllables rhyme 1 W 4 zu 19 Supply four Chinese syllables each of which exemplifies a different pronunciation of the letter i in the pinyin system Zhi ni ai liu 20 In the pinyin system how are the sounds j ch and sh respectively represented in cases where the tongue is in the retroflex position Zh ch sh 21 In the pinyin system how are the sounds ch and sh represented in cases where the tongue is in the palatal position J q X 22 What are some features of Longshan culture that do not appear to have existed in the earlier Yangshao culture Longshan had gray pottery culture higher state of technology human area clay male organ has been found evidence of social stratification War heard animals skeptomancy the use of bones and shells for fortunetelling 23 In Chinese myth what two figures are regarded as founders of the institution of matrimony Nuwa and Fu xi invented them after being married 24 What mythical ruler is said to have eaten hundreds of herbs in order to discover which were beneficial and which harmful to humankind Shennong Emperor of the Five Grains 25 In what general area of present day China did Chinese civilization initially develop The Yellow River is said to be the Cradle of Chinese Civilization 26 According to legend how did Yao and Shun handle the problem of succession They made inquires and conducted searches to find the worthiest possible successor 27 In Chinese legend who is said to have repaired the sky with multicolored stones after a great cataclysm Nuwa 28 Which is further north the Yangzi River or the Yellow River Yellow River 29 According to legend what contribution did Fu Ximake to the art of recordkeeping Created 8 tangrams and is regarded as the founder of calligraphy 30 Lei Z the consort of the Yellow Lord and the girl with the horse s head are both associated in legend with the origin of what Silk worms Chinese 252 Review Questions Series la Fall 2011 3 31 What dynasty is said to have been founded by Yu the Great Xia Dynasty 32 What mythical Chinese ruler is especially associated with the virtue of filial piety Emperor Shun of Yu Dynasty 33 What is the earliest Chinese dynasty authenticated beyond a doubt by archeology Shang Dynasty 34 In what millennium BCE did the above dynasty exist 16004046 BC 35 What does the term zh ng xz39ng refer to Restoration 36 What legendary Chinese ruler is said to have called a great meeting of tributary chiefs at Mt Kuaiji or Accounting Mountain in modern Zhejiang Province DaYu 37 What was the name of the last capital city of the Shang dynasty Yinxu l Yin ruins 38 The oldest inscribed oracle bones thus far discovered date from the reign of what ruler 1300 BC King Wuding 39 Who was Fu Hao and what are our two principal sources of information about her Wife of king wuding oracle bones and tomb 40 What Zhou ruler undertook the final conquest of Shang King Zhou Wu Wang 41 What was the name of the military strategist whose counsel enabled the Zhou rulers to overthrow the Shang any of his several names will do Prime minister Jiang Ziya 42 What was the above figure doing when he was first discovered by a Zhou Wenwang Fishing with no hook 43 What dynasty is said to have almost come to an end when the entire ruling family was slaughtered except for the pregnant queen who ed back to her own tribe Xia Dynasty Queen was Xiang s wife 44 Who were Mei Xi Da H and Bio Si Presented to King lie and helped bring an end to the Xia dynasty through drinking Presented to King Zhou last king of the Shang dynasty born from dragon spittle she was offered to kind You as a gift 45 According to tradition what dynastic founder showed his virtue by keeping his hunting nets open on three sides so that only willing victims would be caught Cheng Tang founder of Shang Dynasty 46 What does the term ridn ming refer to Mandate of Heaven 47 In what Chinese text does the concept of ridn ming first appear Shu Jing the Classic of History 48 What Chinese classic is said to have been composed in part by the founder of the Zhou dynasty during a period of imprisonment Yijing the Classic of Changes divination 49 What dynasty is said to have come to an end soon after the king started setting fire to signal pyres as a means of amusing his favorite concubine Zhou Dynasty King Yu Chinese 252 Review Questions Series 1a Fall 2011 4 50 Name a language other than Chinese that is thought to belong to the same language family as Chinese do not name a dialect of Chinese Himalayan Tibetan Burmese Thai 51 According to tradition how did King Wu Ding of the Shang dynasty identify locate and recruit his wise advisor F u Yue Wu Ding had a dream of Fu Yue 52 In what way is ShenNong Spirit Farmer associated with the origins of traditional Chinese medicine He tasted each herb to personally find the properties and compiled a list He also invented acupuncture 53 What does the term sdn ddi refer to Three ancient dynasties xia 4 shang 1 zhou 1 54 What legendary figure is held up as an example of public spirit because he passed by his home three times without going in rather than be distracted from his work on ood control Yu Da Yu Yu the Great Son of Gun who executed for failing to control oods 55 Upon what evidence did Yao decide that Shun was the worthiest person in the realm to succeed him Yao gave him a district to govern and two of his daughters to be married Or Shun s filial behavior 56 What pair of mythical figures were depicted in early times as having human bodies ending in serpents tails that were intertwined with each other Nuwa and Fu xi 57 What figure in historical myth is credited with the invention of the Chinese writing system and how is he supposed to have gotten the idea of using linear patterns to represent words Cang lie on tortoise shell 58 To what era is the following little song attributed and what is its significance The sun rises and I work The sun sets and I rest 1 drill wells and drink I plough the earth and eat What has the might of the king to do with me Tang Yao disguised himself as commoner and heard this song and realized his methods of rule were perfect 23582258 BC 59 According to legend what foolish action on the part of King You brought about the fall of the Western Zhou dynasty To amuse Bao Si he lit up a beacon pyres used for signaling a threat of barbarian attack 60 Why was the Shang dynasty sometimes referred to as the Yi39n dynasty Yin was the last capital of the Shang dynasty 61 According to legend when Gugong Danfu the grandfather of Zhou Wenwang was the leader of the Zhou people barbarians came and demanded his wealth and possessions then came again and demanded his land and his people How did Gugong Danfu respond to these challenges and what was the result He gave them up because he did not want his people to suffer 62 What Chinese classic is said to have been composed in layers by four successive culture heroes Fu Xi Zhou Wen wang Zhougong and Kongzi The Book of Changes Yi 4 Jing 1 Chinese 252 Review Questions Series la Fall 2011 5 63 The ordinary Chinese word for China nowadays is Zhongguo What are the literal meanings of those two syllables Middle State 64 What did the word Zhongguo mean in preimperial times Spring and Autumn and Warring States Distinguish huaxia from barbarians 65 In what Chinese classic are the oldest existing examples of Chinese poetry collected Shijing 66 What Chinese classic consists entirely of dry factual entries such as the following In the ninth month his lordship and an officer of Song made a covenant in Su Spring and Autumn Annals Chunqiu 67 In what period of history do traditional Chinese dates start to be reliable Gonglhe2 period Zhou Dynasty 68 According to legend what were some of the circumstances surrounding the birth of B50 Si Dragons saliva kept in box spilled and formed turtle went in front of slave who became pregnant abandoned by mom39 adopted by people in Bao state given to king you 69 What are the four main categories into which the poems of the Shzjz39ng are divided Airs lesser courtly songs greater courtly songs and sacrificial hymns 70 What is the earliest surviving Chinese text that consists throughout of prose narrative Shuljing 71 According to tradition what dynasty suffered a fortyyear interruption a few reigns after its inception due to a king s fondness for hunting Xia Dynasty King Taikang 72 Which of the Spring and Autumn period states was originally the fief awarded to Iiang Taigong and his descendants by the founders of the Zhou dynasty Qi state 73 Who is supposed to have said As from the stump of a felled tree there are sprouts and shoots Heaven will perpetuate its decree in our favor in this new city and what was the occasion Pan Geng when he wished to remove the capital to Yin 74 Brie y what happened during the gt mgh oint cooperation regency period toward the end of the Western Zhou King Li4 flight to exile39 dukes of Shao4 and Zhoul took over39 lasted 14 years prince Iing 4 9 King Xuanl 75 Put the following personages in chronological order Guan Zhong Yu the Great Nilgua Jiang Taigong King Wu ding Cheng Tang Qin Shi Huang Yao Bao Si Shao Kang Shun Nu gua Yao Shun Yu Shao Kang Cheng Tang King Wu ding Jiang Taigong Bao si Guan Zhong Qin Shi Huang Chinese 252 Review Questions Series 1a Fall 2011 6 76 Why was the capital of Zhou moved from Hao near presentday XTan to Luo presentday Luoyang in 771 BCE King Wu of Zhoul after having conquered King Zhou4 of Shang was afraid bc he didn t yet have mandate of heaven He moved the capital to Luo4 which was the domain of the earlier the Xia4 dynasty the domain appointed by heaven 76 Why was the capital of Zhou moved from Him near presentday Xi an to Luo presentday Luoyang in 771 BCE The Zhou capital had been sacked by western barbarians Quan Rong or Dog Warriors King You killed and Bao Si held captive Prince Ji Yijiu or King P ing of Chou ed to the east and moved the capital to Lou 76 Why does Zu zhuan say Ying Kao Shl39l was wholly lial His love for his mother passed over to Lord Zhuang Zheng Zhuanggong It was important for sons to respect their mothers because it would give them the graces of their ancestors Ying Kao Shu was filial and since his wellbeing depended on the King s his ancestors help mend Lord Zhuang s relationship with his mother 77 According to legend why did the two elder sons of G gong Danfu decline to accept the throne and go to live among the barbarians of the eastern seacoast The youngest brother Yili had a son Chang whose birth was accompanied by good omens The elder sons realized that Gugong wished the succession to pass to Iili so that it might later come to Chang So the elder brothers left Zhou and dwell with the barbarians as to yield the succession to Jili 78 In what era were Chinese politics dominated by the five hegemons be as speci c as possible Early Spring and Autumn Period 770476 BC 79 What is the relationship between Ch nqizi The Spring and Autumn Annals and Zu zhuan The Narrative of Zu The Narrative of Zou is a commentary about the Spring the Autumn period and were composed to explain and expand on its meanings Use as a historial source for the period and as a guide to interpreting the Annaals 80 What two ancient kings are said in Chinese legend to have been so powerful physically that they could do such things as twist iron bars about like rope and kill wild beasts with their bare hands King lie the last king of Xia twist iron King Zhou the last king of the Shang kill beast 81 Why did Zheng Zhuanggong keep refusing to launch an attack against his brother Duan even though it was obvious that Duan was preparing to overthrow him It would looked bad if Zheng Zhuanggong attacked his brother rather by waiting to counterattack it would seem like Zheng Zhuanggong was simplify defending himself and this would help him gain the support of the people 82 What narrative motif occurs in all three of the following the story of Him Ji the Zhou founding ancestor25 the story of Bao Si46 and the story of Zheng Zhuanggong 69 Irregular births were treated as unlucky or bad omens Hou Ji mother stepped into the footprint of a giant Bao Si Girl stepped onto the lizard s slimy tracks Zheng Zhuanggong son was born backwards eyes were open when he was born 83 In the story Two Brothers Compete to Die Course Anthology what reason apart from admiration and affection does Prince Shou have for attempting to get assassinated in his elder halfbrother s place If news of Prince Shou s death reaches his father then his father will regret his errors and then by being a filial son I will have made him a compassionate father and my name will be remembered for countless generations 84 Who said The ones who bore me were my father and mother but the one who knows me is Bao Shl39l Ya Guan Zhong 85 Give an example of yielding through which according to legend the predynastic house of Zhou acquired Virtue and prestige Gu gong DanFu The Rong and Di tribesmen attack him and demanded his wealth and possessions and then demanded his land and people Gugong yielded and as a result his people followed him and they praised his virtue 86 Place the following eras in chronological order 1 Shang 2 neolithic Yangshao and Longshan 3 Spring and Autumn 4 Zhou 5 Warring States 6 Xia Neolithic Xia Shang Zhou Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period 87 Why did Qi the son of Y the Great attack and destroy the H11 a western tribe Chinese 252 Review Questions Series la Fall 2011 7 The Hu protested that Qi had usurped power and gone against the wishes of his father and the tradition of Yao and Shun The principle of royal succession through family inheritance was thus established by Qi through the use of force 88 What is the relationship of Him Yi and Han Zhuo the the Xia dynasty Han Zhuo was the trusted lieutenant of Hou Yi but Han Zhuo eventually seized power and had Hou Yi killed 89 Name three ancient rulers two Shang rulers and one Zhou ruler who act as sageseekers in historical legend Cheng Tang and WuDing Shang rulers and Zhou Wenwang Zhou 90 The Xia Shang and Zhou peoples originally inhabited different areas of north China One group was in the northeast one was in the northcentral area and one was in the northwest Which was which Xia north central Shang northeastern regions Zhou northwest 91 What mythical Chinese ruler is said to have won a great victory over Chi You a barbarous monster from the south who was the first to use metal weapons HuangDi 92 Why did Yao execute Gun the father of Yu the Great Gun tried to stop the floods with dams but they failed 93 According to legend how did Yao s two daughters become goddesses of the River Xiang a Yangzi River tributary and at the same time contribute to the appearance of the bamboo along its banks After the death of Shun they two daughters of Yao wives of Shun wept along the banks and then jumped into the Xiang river becoming river goddesses 94 When the clan of You Shi was attacked by King Ji and the clan of You Su was attacked by King Zhou what did the clans do to appease the wrath of the attacking kings The clans getting attacked gave the king beautiful women 95 Why did Prince Jiu and Prince Xiaobai choose Lu and Ju respectively as places of refuge before attempting to claim the throne of Qi Prince Xiaobai choose Ju because it was where the prince s mother s family lives the state is little so they will respect them it borders directly on Qi so they can get back to the Qi capital in a hurry Prince Jiu choose Le after consultation with his fellow tutor Shao Hu 96 Which of the hegemons was kidnapped from a conference by King Cheng of Chu Song Xianggong 97 Who said the following to whom and what were the circumstances I have heard that the hearts of sages have seven apertures King Zhou 98 Why did Guan Zhong try to kill Prince Xiaobai Qi Huangong Guan Zhong was afraid that if Prince Xiaobai got to the Qi before Prince Jiu then Prince Xiaobai will become the established ruler so Guan Zhong tried to eliminate Prince Xiaobai 99 According to legend What work was Fu Yue engaged in when King Wuding s emissaries found that his features matched those that the king had seen in his dream Fu Yue was a slave laborer who was just then engaged in ramming earth for the construction of a city wall 100 In Cao Mo Grasps a Sword how do the other lords respond when they see that Lord Huan of Qi has come to a conference wearing civilian robes and with no military escort They each withdrew their troops and chariots to a distance of more than twenty li 101 In Two Brothers Compete to Die how brie y does Gongzi Shuo eliminate his brothers and gain the throne of Qi He sends a band of people to ambush Jizi they bandits end up killing Jizi and Prince Shou 102 What larger state lay directly to the north and east of Lu Qi 103 How did Ying Kao Shu induce Zheng Zhuanggong to bring up the subject of the oath he had sworn before his mother Ying Kao Shu mentioned his own mother while eating 104 What reason did lord Huan of Qi give for reestablishing the state of Wei after the Di had killed and devoured its ruler and laid waste to its capital in 659 BCE Hong Yan put Wei Yis liver inhis and since Wei had a servant such as this it could not perish Chinese 252 Review Questions Series 1a Fall 2011 8 105 In Cao Mo Grasps a Sword Cao Mo induces Lord Huan of Qi to return some captured land to Lu by brandishing a sword in his face at a conference As it turns out Cao Mo and Lord Huan both gain prestige from this transaction How Cao Mo got anointed by Lord Huan Lord Huan admired for integrity and righteousness 106 Why did some ancient Chinese suspect that Guan Zhong was something of an unprincipled opportunist Guan Zhong first served Prince Jiu and then served his brother Prince Xiao Bai Lord Huan after he killed J iu 107 According to the Chronicle excerpt concerning him why did Song Xianggong think it would be a wise move to use the Viscount of ZEng as a sacrifice to the spirit of the river Sui Song Xianggong 108 According to traditional accounts how did the Book afSangs come into being Earliest items written by Duke of Zhou Compiled by Confucious 109 Which of the five hegemons is particularly remembered for repaying courtesies and avenging insults offered him during his years of exile Duke Wen of Jin 110 Where were the Duke of Zhou and his descendants enfieffed Moved from Binl to Wei4 River Valley 111 Why was Qi Huangong at first reluctant to make use of the services of Guan Zhong initially tried to kill Qi Huan gong 112 Why was Zhou Liwang driven from the throne in 841 BCE Corrupt and decadent king raised taxes new law to punish anyone who spoke against him39 revolt by soldiers and peasants 113 When Jin We39ngong realized that he had failed to bestow any reward on his devoted follower Jie Zi TuT how did he attempt to make Z1 TuT emerge from his wild mountain retreat and what was the result Unsuccessful search39 set aside the Mian2shang4 area to be used as fields to support sacrifices to Jie s4 spirit saying 1 do this to commemorate my error and honor a good man 114 The Zhou royal domain was b west of n c north of n d east of Jin 115 In the battle of Chengpu 632 BCE a the Shang overthrew the Xia39 b the Zhou overthrew the Shang39 d Chu defeated Jin 116 What does the Zu zhudn narrator have to say about the way Zheng Zhuanggong dealt with his younger brother Gongshu Duan Zheng overcame Duan at Yan39 acted like two rulers 117 Qin was a east of n b south of n north of Jin 118 During the Spring and Autumn period the Zhou royal domain was a south of Zhen c north of Zheng east of Zheng Chinese 252 Review Questions Series 1a Fall 2011 9 119 Chu was b west of Zheng c north of Zheng d east of Zheng 120 Why did the rulers of Qi all bear the surname Jiang Who became the first ruler of that state when he was enfieffed there all part of Jiang family Jiang Shang 121 What do the two elements in the name Wen Jiang signify Wen Jiang was the younger halfsister of Prince Zhu e39r of Qi also known as Qi Xianggong Written language 122 Who supposedly wrote the Zh u Lz Rituals ath u and the Yz Li Ceremonies and Rituals What Spring and Autumn period state was he the founder of Duke of Zhou39 Zhou Dynasty 123 Which text is more likely to consist primarily of true statements Zu zhudn The Narrative of Zuo or Ch nqi The Spring and Autumn Annals Chunqiu 124 Who said the following to whom and what were the circumstances I shall not look upon you again until 1 have reached the Yellow Springs Lord Zhuang 125 In the Spring and Autumn era what large state had rulers who were technically viscounts 2139 but referred to themselves as kings wring CHu 126 According to legend who originally cast the Nine Vessels that in the Spring and Autumn period were regarded as the supreme symbol of political legitimacy King Yu Xia Dynasty 127 According to Zu zhudn Qi Huangong and Guan Zhong entrusted Song Xianggong with a mission that was to be carried out after Huangong s death What was the mission of ensuring that Qi2 Xiao4gong1 would be the heir to the Qi4 throne 128 According to legend what future ruler made a promise to Chu Chengwang that if he ever came into military conflict with that ruler s state he would have his troops retreat three stages before doing battle Prince Chonger 129 According to Zu zhudn an emissary from Jin once sang the Shzjz39ng song Plop Fall the Plurns at a state banquet in Lu in order to ask for a fresh fruit b a gift of vermillion bows c military assistance in a forthcoming campaign d a marriage partner for a J in prince 130 What is the meaning of the character pronounced zhi written with a representation of an arrow next to a representation of a mouth Know inform knowledge 131 What does the term jz39 d refer to Accumulate virtue Zhou Dynasty term Chinese 252 Review Questions Series 1a Fall 2011 10 132 Why was Qi Huangong infuriated when he heard Ning QT singing a song the lyrics of which said Never have I seen a Yao yield to Shun Qi Huangong thought his rule was just a good as YaoShun but the lyrics implied that he was inferior 133 Why did Jin Wengong wish to bestow a reward on Jie Zi TuT Ii e Zi Tu cut off esh from his thigh for a starving Jin Wengong to eat 134 According to myth why was Huang Di the Yellow Lord able to defeat Chi You even though the latter had metal weapons and Huang Di didn t Used an army of animals 135 In modern Chinese the term gongh means republic What did the term refer to originally joint harmonyquot 136 Hou 11 the mythical ancestor of the Zhou people is particularly associated with a filial piety b dream interpretation c hunting 137 Why did Prince Chonger of Jin and his brother Prince Yiwu both go into exile To hide from the manipulative Li Ji who caused the suicide of Prince Shensheng so her own son could have the throne 138 What ruler is said to have altered his behavior for the better after listening to a court officer talk about a great bird that for three years had not been heard to sing or seen to y Zuan zhuang gong 139 According to legend the actions of the captured Rong princess Li H led to the forced suicide of one prince and the ight of two other princes in the state of a Zheng b Qin39 d Lu 140 According to legend who inadvertently revealed that he harbored improper desires when he asked about the size and weight of the Nine Sacred Vessels of Zhou Chu3 Zhuanglgongl 141 What Spring and Autumn era state found itself subject to 1 repeated attacks by Jin for showing allegiance to Chu and 2 repeated attacks by Chu for showing allegiance to Iin Zhou 142 In the Shzjz39ng or Book of Songs there is a poem Kio sings the oriole etc about three young noblemen who were buried alive in the tomb of one of the five hegemons Who was the hegemon Qin2 Mu2gongl 143 According to legend who during the early years of the Zhou dynastic period put down a rebellion established the basis of Zhou ritual and acted as a regent temporary ruler when King Cheng had not yet become an adult Duke of Zhou 144 Of the three dynasties of the sin ddi period which was particularly characterized by 1 short reign periods and 2 a great many cases of succession from an older brother to a younger brother Shang Dynasty Chinese 252 Review Questions Series 1a Fall 2011 11 145 According to legend what remarkable feat was performed by Shao King of the Xia dynasty Defeated Han Zhuo to restore Xia Dynasty 146 What early Chinese text is based on a set of 64 hexagrams stacks of broken and unbroken horizontal lines six lines to a set Yi2 Jingl Book of Changes 147 Who defeated whom in the battle of Chengpu The state of Jin4 defeated the state of Chu3 148 Why did Qi Xianggong have Pe39ngsh ng executed cf The Illicit Romance As a scapegoat for the murder of the marquis of Lu3 149 Why did I in We39ngong order his officers to set fire to the mountain where Iie ZituI was living in retirement with his mother This was an attempt to smoke Jie Zitui out of hiding so that Jin Wen gong could reward his previous good works See 133 sadly this plan backfired as Jie ZituT instead was burned to death 150 What can you see if you go to Ban P6 315 near Xi An Yangshao culture site women s graves are elaborately decorated
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