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The Marine Environment

by: Mr. Casimir Rohan

The Marine Environment MASC 101

Mr. Casimir Rohan
GPA 3.5

Justin Ries

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Justin Ries
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This 63 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Casimir Rohan on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MASC 101 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Justin Ries in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/228849/masc-101-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in Marine Science at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
Chapter 1 History of f 39 I Oceans cover 708 of the surface of Earth and contain 972 of its surface water A Interconnected to form global or world ocean B Four principal oceans plus one 1 Pacific OceanIargest deepest 2 Atlantic Oceansecond largest 3 Indian Oceanmainly in Southern Hemisphere 4 Arctic Oceansmallest shallowest Northern Hemisphere Antarctic or Southern Oceanportions of Pacific Atlantic Indian south of about 50oS C Seven seas 1 Smaller and shallower than ocean 2 Salty water 3 Partially enclosed by land or encircled by ocean currents D Comparison of land elevation and seafloor depth 1 Average depth of ocean is 3729 m 2 Average elevation of land is 840 m 3 Deepest part of ocean is Mariana Trench 11022 m 4 Highest land elevation is Mount Everest 8850 m ll Early exploration of the oceans for food trade and transportation A Pacific navigators traveled widely dispersed islands Kon Tiki Voyage 1 Beginning about 1100 BC most likely from Marquessa Islands 2 Islands closer to Asia peopled as early as 4000 or 5000 BC B Mediterranean culture Phoenicians explored the Mediterranean areas as early as 2000 BC a Sailed around Africa and to the British Isles 2 Greeks a Herodotus mapped Mediterranean areas in 450 BC c Eratosthenes geometrically determined Earth s circumference about 40000 km 3 Romans b Ptolemy AD 150 compiled Roman knowledge of that time in world map Ill Middle Ages and Ming Dynasty A Arabs leading navigators after about AD 500 B Vikings from Scandinavia explored the Atlantic Ocean 1 In the 9th and 10th centuries Iceland and Greenland were settled 2 In 995 Leif Eriksson reaches North America Vinland 3 Settlements in Greenland and Vinland abandoned by 1450 C Chinese sailors 14051433 sailed from China across Pacific and Indian Oceans IV European exploration during the Renaissance 14th17th centuries A Rediscovered knowledge of Greeks Romans and Arabs B Age of Discovery 14921522 influenced primarily by search for new trade routes Primarily Portuguese sailors established trade route around Africa Key people Prince Henry the Navigator Bartholomeu Dias and Vasco da Gama 3 Europeans explored North and South America Key people Christopher Columbus 1492 1502 Bahamas Central and South America John Cabot 1497 landed in North America Ferdinand Magellan and Juan Sebastian del Ca o circumnavigated globe 15101522 Spain and Portugal dominated global oceans after the Age of Discovery and exploited gold and other ores from Mexico and South America Spanish Armada fleet of over 100 ships defeated by English and weather 1588 8 British Isles dominant world power from 1588 to early 1900s C Scientific achievements during the Renaissance due to new technologies and observations Magnetic compass imported from China to Europe in 13th century 2 Threemasted ships for longdistance travel Mercator projection maps with lines of latitude and longitude 1569 V Beginnings of ocean science A European contributions 1 Captain James Cook 17281779 British navy ships Endeavour Resolution and Adventure a Searched for hypothesized Antarctica b Accurately mapped many islands in Pacific c Systematically measured seawater temperature winds currents depth and so on d Used the marine chronograph to determine longitude 3 HMS Challenger expedition 18721876 birth of oceanography British government funded first wholly scientific ocean expedition b C Wyville Thomson 18301882 chief scientist c Sampled seawater measured depth and temperature collected marine organisms from a variety of depths retrieved bottom sediment measured surface and deepwater currents d Scientific results 50 volumes 20 years included i Classification of 4717 new species of marine life ii Deepest depth measured Mariana Trench iii Detailed analyses of seawater William Dittmar 5 Fridtjof Nansen 18611930 and ship Fram explored Arctic Ocean and determined there is no continent over the North Pole a Measured depth of water collected seawater samples measured ice thickness studied currents near surface and deeper B US contributions 1 Benjamin Franklin used information from ship captains to publish the first map 1777 of the Gulf Stream 2 Matthew Fontaine Maury 18061873 Father of Oceanography compiled information from ships logs and produced the first textbook in oceanography The Physical Geography of the Sea in 1855 3 Charles Darwin 18091882 and HMS Beagle traveled from 18311836 made observations that were essential to his Theory of Evolution A Learned about marine atolls B Coral reefs grow upwards as islands subside causing for circular craterlike formations Vl Twentiethcentury oceanography and beyond A New technologies improve ocean study B Meteor German 1925 systematically determined depths using echo sounder or sonar 1 George WUst chief scientist developed fourlayer structure of ocean C Antisubmarine activities during and after World War II spurred interest and funding in marine sciences D US government funds ocean research at US universities E US and international governments sponsor global marine research 1 Deep Sea Drilling Project DSDP began in 1968 specially equipped ship that drilled and retrieved cores from the deep sea floor 2 Many other national and international programs specializing in marine geology marine geophysics marine geochemistry ocean currents climate change and marine life F Instruments carried aboard satellites measure ocean properties on a global scale such as surface temperature ice cover and water color VII Submersiblesmanned deepdiving submarines A Bathysphere of William Beebe and Otis Barton lowered to 923 m in 1934 a Had 15 ft walls to withstand pressure B Submersible Alvin began dives in 1964 to depths as great as 4000 m 1 Robert Ballard on Alvin discovered hot water springs and unique living communities on the seafloor in 1977 2 Ballard used Alvin to locate the sunken Titanic in 1985 VIII ROVs and AUVs A Remotely operated vehicles ROVs and autonomous underwater vehicles AUVs are not staffed 1 Advantages of unmanned vehicles no risk to human life longer time in deep water not as expensive 2 Instruments on vehicles collect data and specimens 3 ROVs are tethered to surface ship AUVs are not tethered XI Living under the sea A Permanent underwater living habitats for humans on the continental shelf B Various projects began in early 1960s most ended in the late 1960s C Three small underwater habitats still exist mainly for research purposes Chapter 2 Chapter 2 outline I Universe is made up of galaxies A Milky Way galaxy contains our Solar System B Large distances are measured in lightyear Closest star to the sun is 4 light years away For example Milky Way galaxy is 100000 lightyears in diameter C Distant galaxies are moving apart from one another expanding universe 1 Measured by redshift change in pattern of light emission toward red end of spectrum 2 Greater the shift toward red the faster the speed II The Big Bang Lemaitre s Cosmic Egg Began as point sphere of infinite density 15 billion years ago A Universe about 137 billion years ago was a dense hot supermassive ball B Cataclysmic explosion resulted in formation of 1 Elementary particles atomic particles 2 Hydrogen and helium formed 100000 years after Big Bang 3 After about 200 million years stars generated from H and He 4 Clouds of H and He compress fusion occurs stars form 5 Another contraction He converts to Carbon and so on until heavier elements are produced 6 Supernova explosions eject heavier elements into space and these heavier elements form new stars Supernovas lead to the creation of iron Fe and iron cores of planets Star contracts and explodes in supernova creating Fe III Origin of solar system 10 billion years after Big Bang A Nebular hypothesis states that all bodies in Solar System resulted from rotating cloud of gases mainly H and He and heavier elements from earlier supernovas B Gases rotated around gravity point formed protoplanets see below C Central part of nebular matter became the Sun emitting light and ionized particles solar wind D Smaller amounts of cloud material away from center became protoplanets E Protoplanets became planets and moons after compression and heating all made from same source at same time but look different a Sun heated early atmospheres of protoplanets b Light gases H and He of protoplanets were blown away by solar wind F Composition determined by density stratification of mass G Gaseous composition determined by differential heating planets closest to sun were heated the most H Protoplanets eg Protoearth were partially molten a Protoearth was 1000x wide 500x more massive than modern Earth b Molten materials stratified according to density caused solid core Dense materials in core mainly Fe and Ni Less dense materials in mantle plastic mantle iquot Protoearth was also bombarded with meteorites iv Moon was created when a Marssized object hit Earth transferred metal which became metallic core rocky outer layer went to Earth s orbit becoming Moon Still less dense materials in crust oceanic and continental c Least dense material in oceans and atmosphere liquid and gas Basic Meteorite tvpes IMPORTANT FOR TEST Stony textures basically like igneous earth rocks mantle fragments of shattered planets IronNickel allo y core fragments from shattered planets Chondritic probably not planet pieces some retain volatile minerals a k a carbonaceous chondrites IV Rock and minerals A Earth is made up of rocks which are made up of minerals Three main types of rocks igneous sedimentary metamorphic 1 Rock cycle shows interrelationships lgneous rocks crystallize from molten material magma a Basalt is finely crystalline cooled quickly oceanic crust b Granite is coarsely crystalline cooled slowly continental crust 3 Sedimentary rocks are deposited from weathered rock materials Sandstone mediumsized rock fragments ithified b Limestone ions precipitated from solution 4 Metamorphic rocks are preexisting rock transformed by high pressure and temperature but not high enough to melt rocks a Frequently found in roots of mountain belts b May be found surrounding igneous rocks C Common rockforming minerals 1 Minerals are solids with a general chemical composition but a specific crystal structure 2 Most common silicates contain arrangements of silicon atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms silicate tetrahedron V Origin of the atmosphere and the oceans A Atmosphere resulted from outgassing of various gases once in the interior of Earth came from widespread volcanoes Water precipitated when Earth cooled forming the oceans 1 Likely composition similar to volcanic gases today 2 Water vapor carbon dioxide nitrogen and others sulfur dioxide methane 3 Modern atmosphere resulted from life photosynthesis B Oceans also resulted from outgassing 1 Water vapor cooled and condensed to form water 2 Other theory is that oceans formed from melting of waterbearing rocks 2 Oceans appeared on Earth s surface about 4 billion years ago C Oceans on other planets 1 Earth has just rightquot temperature for water on planet surface Depends on distance from Sun and rotational period b Depends on natural greenhouse effect 2 Moons may have oceans eg Europa one of Jupiter s moons D Ocean salinity 1 Rain and chemical weathering of rocks on land release dissolved ions and elements to oceans 2 Salinity of today s ocean represents balance of input and output of salt 3 Salinity comes from weathering of continentaloceanic crust Vl Cycling and mass balance A Mass balance shows water in oceans came from Earth s mantle B Dissolved salts in ocean primarily from chemical weathering of rocks on land eg Na Ca K Si Mg and Fe resulted from primary crystalline rocks C Volcanic gases also deliver salts to ocean eg Cl 8 CO2 and N2 excess volatiles Vll Origin of life A Life is selfreplicating or reproducing consumer of energy from its environment 1 Contains water 2 Contains membrane B UreyMiller Experiments o 22year old graduate student at the University of Chicago discovered that combining gases mimicking Earth s ancient atmosphere with seawater and electricity resulted in the formation of a large assortment of organic molecules including amino acids which are the building blocks of life 0 These results supported the assertion that life arose in the oceans 3 Responds to stimuli and adapts to environment changes through time 4 Carbonbased on Earth 5 Earliest lifeforms bacteria found in rocks about 35 billion years old B Oxygen O2 is essential for most life on Earth 1 Utilized by animals to oxidize food 2 Ozone 03 in stratosphere absorbs ultraviolet radiation 3 Early atmosphere had little 02 or 03 a 02 readily combined with Fe b No ozone layer to absorb harmful UV radiation C First organic substances 1 Made of H C and N 2 Amino acids nucleotides proteins nucleic acids DNA and RNA 3 Stanley Miller 1952 and later scientists created amino acids and nucleotides by electricity simulating lightning interacting with C02 CH4 NH3 H and H20 in oceans 4 Unclear how these small organic molecules combined to form larger organic molecules 5 Possibly organic molecules originated on deep seafloor at hot vents rather than on surface ocean 6 Most likely life developed in oceans D First organisms 1 It is unclear how large organic molecules became organized began replicating forming living organism 2 Earliest lifeforms likely heterotrophs like fermenting bacteria that need an external food supply Specifically prokaryotes Eukaryotes followed probably formed due to symbiotic relationships among groups of bacteria 3 Autotrophs can make own food supply from raw materials in ocean plus energy source such as electricity lightning or sunlight a Anaerobic bacteria live without atmospheric oxygen Allowed for photosynthesis without oxygen eventually filling the world with O2 Chemosynthesis occurs at deep sea vents using Earth s geothermal heat 4 Photosynthetic organisms a Use sunlight as energy source to produce sugars and oxygen b Earliest may have used H2S as source of H eg modern sulfur bacteria c Ancestors of modern cyanobacteria used H20 as source of H earliest evidence of photosynthetic bacteria in rocks about 35 billion years old 5 Oldest rocks 2 billion years old with iron oxide rust indicate oxygenrich atmosphere 6 02 released by photosynthetic autotrophs poisoned early atmosphere for anaerobic bacteria oxygen crisis a Extinction of many anaerobic bacteria about 18 billion years ago b Modern anaerobic bacteria live deep in soil garbage other lifeforms c Early aerobic organisms evolved to use aerobic respiration E Multicellular life 1 Prokaryotic cellssingecelled no nucleus no internal membrane earliest 2 Eukaryotic cellsmulticelled nucleus complex membranes contain intracellular bodies earliest fossil evidence 14 to 16 billion years ago 3 Eukaryotic cells may be the result of symbiotic relationships of groups of bacteria F Evolutiongroups of organisms adapt and change with time through natural selection 1 Environment modified life and life modified environment a Example change from early C02 atmosphere to modern O2 atmosphere 2 Solar energy captured by fossil plants used today fossil fuels Vll Radiometric dating and the geologic time scale A Radioactive elements spontaneously decay to other elements at a fixed rate 1 Halflife is the time required for half of atoms in sample to decay to other atoms 2 Closed system no exchange of material in or out 3 Age of rock determined by comparing amounts of original element and of decayed product radiometric age dating B Geologic time scale 1 Ages of rock and names of time periods 2 Geologic time periods delineated by major episodes of extinction 3 Oldest known rocks 396 billion years Chapter 3 Plate Tectonics and the Ocean Floor Chapter 3 outline l Plate Tectonics or the new global geology A Thin rigid plates make up surface of Earth B Plates move with respect to each other C Plate motions produce major features D Continents were once all connected as Pangaea surrounded by a single ocean ll Evidence for Continental Drift A Alfred Wegener 1921 proposed continental drift using such evidence as 1 Puzzlelike fit of continents a Edward Bullard in 1960 fit continents together at continental slope 2 Matching rocks structures and ages and mountain belts b Rocks of similar ages types structures in one continent match rocks on other continents c Mountain ranges continue from one continent to another eg Appalachians and Caledonides 3 Glaciated rocks and glacial deposits d Evidence of glacial ice in temperate regions 300 million years ago 4 Direction of glacier movement 5 Other climate evidence e Fossil plantsanimals indicate different climates than today B Distribution of fossils 1 Landliving organisms found in separate continents without land bridgesquot C Objections to Wegener s model of continental drift 1 Continents cannot plow through oceanbasin rocks 2 Energy source unlikely to be gravity and tides lll Evidence for Plate Tectonics A Earth s magnetic field and paleomagnetism 1 Magnetic minerals in igneous rocks recorded magnetic field at time they cooled below Curie point 6000C 2 Magnetic minerals in sedimentary rocks also recorded magnetic field at time they were deposited 3 Paleomagnetism in rocks records magnetic dip magnetic inclination and therefore latitude a Continents did move relative to each other b Apparent polar wandering 4 Magnetic polarity reversals occurred at specific times in the past a Magnetic anomalies of seafloor b Symmetric about axis of midocean ridge c Stripe patterns trend northsouth B Sea floor spreading 1 Bathymetry of the seafloor reveals midocean ridge and ocean trenches 2 Henry Hess 1960 proposed idea of seafloor spreading a Ocean crust created at midocean ridge b Older ocean floor destroyed at oceanic trench subduction zone 3 Fredrick Vine and Drummond Matthews 1963 related magnetic anomalies on ocean floor to reversals in polarity of Earth s magnetic field 4 Radiometric age dating establishes that ocean floor is youngest at midocean ridge and oldest toward continents 5 Heat flow is higher at midocean ridge lower at oceanic trench 6 Most earthquakes occur at edges of plates plate boundaries C Plate tectonics accepted by the late 1960s 1 Unequal heat distribution likely driving force IV Earth structure A Earth is divided into three main layers on the basis of chemical composition 1 Crust low density mainly silicate minerals thin average depth from surface of Earth is 30 km 2 Mantle higher density material mainly Fe and Mg silicate minerals extends from base of crust to 2900 km 3 Core highest density material mainly Fe and Ni extends from base to mantle to center of Earth to 6370 km B Earth divided into five main layers on the basis of physical properties 1 Lithosphere cooler temperature rigid and brittle outermost layer surface to about 100 km deep 2 Asthenosphere hotter temperature plastic partially molten from 100 km to 700 km 3 Mesosphere plastic and rigid behavior due to high pressure from 700 km to 2900 km 4 Outer core liquid lnner core rigid C Interior of Earth studied by 1 Gravity density of layers 2 Seismology earthquakes generate seismic waves that can travel through Earth velocities depend on density a P and S seismic waves b Seismic tomography 3 D maps of Earth eg temperature differences D Lithosphere 1 Oceanic crust composed of basalt average thickness 8 km 2 Continental crust composed of granite average thickness 35 km E Asthenosphere 1 Highly viscous material flows slowly F lsostatic adjustment vertical movement of crust caused by different densities 1 Less dense material is buoyant and floats on denser material 2 Oceanic crust and continental crust float on asthenosphere 3 Oceanic crust is thin and more dense so it floats lower 4 Continental crust is thick and less dense so it floats higher 5 Areas that were once loaded with additional weight eg glacial ice rebound when load is removed eg ice melted isostatic rebound V Plate boundaries A Divergent 1 Plates move away from each other at crest of midocean ridge 2 Pullapart faults create void rift that is filled in with upwelling magma from magma chambers 3 Ocean floor created at first as narrow linear seas eg Red Sea then widened to large oceans 4 Faster spreading rates create broad gentle midocean ridge with less intense earthquakes as measured by seismic moment magnitude 5 Slower spreading rates create narrow steep midocean ridge with more intense earthquakes B Convergent 1 Plates move toward each other and collide 2 Ocean floor destroyed at oceanic trench by subduction into mantle 3 Oceaniccontinental convergence a Ocean plate subducted beneath continental plate b Continental arc made up of andesite volcanic rock created through explosive volcanic activity 4 Oceanicoceanic convergence a Denser oceanic plate subducted beneath other oceanic plate b Island arc made up of basalt 5 Continentalcontinental convergence a Two continental plates meet neither is subducted b Formation of high mountain ranges made up of deformed rocks 6 Earthquakes extend from near surface down to 670 km WadatiBenioff seismic zone C Transform A Plates slide past each other between segments of midocean ridge l Oceanic transform faults are perpendicular to midocean ridge 9 Continental transform faults cut across continent eg San Andreas Fault Vl Some applications of plate tectonics A Mantle plumes and hotspots A lntraplate volcanism centered on columnar areas of hot magma mantle plumes that create volcanoes on surface of Earth hotspots 2 Mantle plumes have deep roots to mantlecore boundary 3 Few mantle plumes occur near divergent plate boundary 4 Island chains nemataths record motion of plate over mantle plume B Seamounts and tablemounts 1 Seamounts are conical underwater volcanoes tablemounts guyots are flat underwater volcanoes 2 Moved away from midocean ridge C Coral reef development 1 Charles Darwin proposed that coral reefs differ because of subsidence of volcanic islands 2 Coral animals build large structures of calcium carbonate in shallow warm ocean water 3 First fringing reef id located on margins of volcanic island or continent 4 Second barrier reef is separated from land mass by lagoon coral reef builds upward as land subsides eg Great Barrier Reef 5 Third atoll is reef with no land above sea level D Using satellites to detect plate motion 1 Measurements over 20 years indicate that locations on Earth are moving apart E Paleoceanography 1 Changes in shape composition and character of oceans 2 Continents plate boundaries move through time 3 Ocean basins are created and destroyed through time 4 Large landmasses eg Pangaea grow by continental accretion eg Laurasia and Gondwanaland 5 Large landmasses eg Pangaea can be split by rifting and separated by creation of seafloor eg Atlantic Ocean F Future positions of continents and ocean basins deduced through plate tectonics 1 Red Sea widens East African Rift Valley may become narrow ocean 2 Atlantic Ocean widens Pacific Ocean narrows 3 Central America may no longer connect North and South America Chapter 4 Marine Provinces Chapter IV outline l Bathymetry measures the depth of the oceans and maps seafloor topography A Bathymetric techniques 1 Early rope and wire soundings 2 Echo sounders use sound and its reflection 3 Precision depth recordercontinuous profiles of ocean depths 4 Multibeam echo sounders and sidescan sonar increased precision 5 Satellites measure topography of seafloor B Subseafloor ocean structures 1 Seismic reflectionstrong lowfrequency sound ll Hypsographic curve plots percentage of Earth s surface at different heights land and depths oceans A Average depth of ocean 3729 m oceanic crust is denser B Average height of continents 840 m continental crust is less dense Provinces of the ocean floor A Continental margins shallow ocean close to land continental crust 1 Passive margins not at plate boundary not tectonically active a Continental shelf continental slope continental rise 2 Active margins at plate boundaries tectonically active a Convergent active margin oceaniccontinental convergent plate boundary Narrow continental shelf steep continental slope oceanic trench O39 Transform active margin transform plate boundaries tectonically active Linear islands banks deep basins close to shore 3 Continental shelf extends from coast to shelf break a Generally flat may be narrow or wide 57 Average width 70 km passive margin wider shelf active margin narrower shelf c Average depth of shelf break 135 m d Generally mimics adjacent continent topography 4 Continental slope extends from shelf break to deep ocean a Gradient ranges from 1 to 250 averages 40 b Amount of relief greater at active margin c Submarine canyons typically occur on slope resemble river canyons on land i Formed by erosion of turbidity currents 01 Continental rise transition between continental margin and deep ocean 5 Made up of sediments deposited by waning tubidity currents turbidite deposits b Shape on map resembles fan submarine fans c Rise exists only where sediment can accumulate not common at convergent active margins B Deepocean basin oceanic crust seaward of continental margin 1 Abyssal plains very flat deep seafloor 1 Deposition of finegrained sediment once in suspension 2 Volcanic seamounts tablemounts abyssal hills 2 Marine flood basalts 3 Ocean trench in convergent active margins 1 Most trenches along margin of Pacific Ocean Pacific Ring of Fire 2 DeepestMariana Trench 4 Backarc spreading center landward of island arc C Midocean ridge divergent plate boundary 1 Longest mountain chain 75000 km 2 Covers 23 of Earth s surface 3 Rift valley at crest magma upwells pillow lava 4 Hydrothermal vents warm water white smokers black smokers a Metal sulfide precipitates b Hot vent communities 5 Ocean ridge steep rugged prominent rift valley versus ocean rise gentle less rugged less welldefined rift valley 6 Fracture zones aseismic scars are extensions of transform faults Chapter 5 Marine Sediments Chapter outline l Sediments in cores reveal Earth history A Sediments lithified to sedimentary rocks B Mineral composition and texture C Sediments classified by origin ll Lithogenous sediment terrigenous sediments A Rock fragments weathered and eroded from land 1 Transported to oceans by river wind ice gravity flow 2 Most found on continental margins 3 Windblown dust accumulates in open deep ocean B Composition reflects original rocks 1 Mostly quartz SiO2 chemically stable resists abrasion C Texture 1 Grain size indicates energy of transportation and deposition 2 Sorting indicates degree of reworking or variability of flows 3 Higher maturity clay content decreases sorting improves mostly quartz grains more well rounded D Distribution 1 Neritic deposits in shallow seawater 5 Mainly lithogenous 57 Beach sands O Continental shelf deposits 9 Turbidite deposits 0 Glacial deposits 2 Pelagic deposits in deeper seawater a May include distal turbidite deposits b Abyssal clay Iquot Biogenous sediment A Hard parts of onceliving organisms 1 Macroscopiclarge shells teeth bones 2 Microscopicsmall shells tests accumulate to form ooze mainly plankton a Ooze 30 or more biogenic material by weight B Composition 1 Calcium carbonate CaCO3 calcite or aragonite calcareous ooze a Planktonic microscopic protozoann foraminifers b Planktonic microscopic algae coccolithophores nannoplankton 2 Silica opal SiOnH20 siliceous ooze a Planktonic microscopic algae diatoms b Planktonic microscopic protozoans radiolarians C Distribution 1 Controlled by productivity destruction dissolution dilution 2 Neritic deposits a Carbonate deposits limestone i Modern environments shallow warm ocean water b Stromatolites i Cyanobacteria produce layered carbonates ii Hypersaline 3 Pelagic deposits a Siliceous ooze diatomaceous radiolarian or silicoflagellate ooze I Below areas of surface ocean upwelling high biologic productivity b Calcareous ooze foraminifer coccolith pteropod ostracod ooze i CaCO3 dissolves in deeper colder CO2rich ocean ii Lysocline and CCD calcite compensation depth iii Carbonate ooze shallower than about 4500 m IV Hydrogenous sediment A Precipitation of dissolved material in seawater B Manganese nodules commonly layered about a nucleus mainly Mn and Fe 1 Generally found in deep ocean 2 Mode of formation is not known C Phosphate sediments associated with high biological productivity in surface waters 1 Shallower than 1000 m D lnorganic carbonates precipitate without life 1 Ooids aragonite in shallow tropical seawater 2 Concentric layers wave agitation E Metal sulfides associated with hydrothermal vents F Evaporites form when seawater evaporates halite anhydrite gypsum 1 Areas of restricted inflow of seawater 2 High rates of evaporation V Cosmogenous sediment A 39 39 39 and 39 meteorite debris from outer space B Glassy tektites and FeNi micrometeorites Vl Mixtures A Most marine sediments are mixed B One sediment type is dominant Vll Summary of distribution of neritic and pelagic deposits A Neritic sediments influenced by latitude 1 Silt and clay found everywhere decreasing percentages from equator toward poles 2 Coarse particles gravel dominate at higher latitudes 3 Sand found everywhere most abundant at midlatitudes decreasing percentages from midlatitudes toward equator and poles 4 Coarse coral reef debris found at low latitudes B Pelagic sediments 1 Biogenous calcareous oozes most common on relatively shallow deepsea floor a Cover about 48 of seafloor 2 Biogenous siliceous oozes associated with areas of surface ocean upwelling b Cover about 14 of seafloor 3 Lithogenous silt and clay most common in deeper parts of ocean floors c Cover about 38 of seafloor 4 Deeper Pacific Ocean has relatively more abyssal clay than shallower Atlantic and Indian Oceans Chapter 6 Water and Seawater Chapter outline l Atomic structure A Nucleus has protons and neutrons B Electrons surround nucleus C Charged atoms are ions ll Water molecule A Moleculetwo or more atoms bonded together by trading or sharing electrons B WaterH20 two hydrogen one oxygen C Bend in geometry creates polarity 1 Dipolar molecule a Weak negative charge at 0 end b Weak positive charge at H end 2 Weak hydrogen bonds between water molecules a High surface tension Important for living organisms eg capillarity in plants D Universal solvent 1 Electrostatic bond between dipolar water and ions 2 Ocean is salty Thermal properties of water A H20 exists as solid liquid gas on Earth s surface B Heat must be added to break hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces between molecules for changes of state 1 Heat is energy of moving molecules 2 Temperature measures average kinetic energy of molecules C Water has high freezing point D Water has high boiling point E Water has high heat capacity 1 Heat capacity is amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of any substance by one degree Celsius Water can gain or lose large quantities of heat without changing temperature F Water has high latent heats Heat absorbed or released with changes of state A Latent heat of melting Latent heat of vaporization Latent heat of evaporation 01th Latent heat of condensation O Latent heat of freezing G Global thermostatic effects 1 High heat capacity and high latent heats of water moderate changes in temperature 2 For example evaporation removes heat from oceans 3 Condensation adds heat to atmosphere 4 Heat redistributed globally IV Water density A Most substances become denser when cooler B Water reaches maximum density at 40C C Ice less dense than water because of atomic structure of ice crystals ice occupies more volume than water D Increased salinity decreases temperature of maximum density and decreases freezing temperature of water V Seawater Salinity is total amount of solid material dissolved in water g1000g 1 Typical salinity is 35 or 35 000 parts per thousand a In open ocean salinity ranges from 33 to 38 ppt Most common elements dissolved in seawater Cl Na S04 Mg Ca and K B Brackish salty water less than 33 ppt C Hypersaline water more than 38 ppt D Measuring salinity 1 Evaporation 2 Chemical analysis a Chlorinity b Principle of Constant Proportions 3 Electrical conductivity salinometer Vl Dissolved components change salinity A Dissolved substances added to oceans 1 Primarily by rivers 2 Circulation through midocean ridgesrises B Dissolved substances removed from oceans 1 Salt spray 2 Recycling through midocean ridgerises 3 Biogenic sediments hard parts and fecal pellets 4 Evaporites C Residence time Average length of time a substance remains dissolved in seawater 2 Substances with long residence times are unreactive and have higher concentrations in seawater 3 Substances with short residence times are reactive and have smaller concentrations in seawater Ocean salinity has remained nearly constant since end of Precambrian Vll Dissolved gases A Amount of gas in seawater depends on pressure temperature and ability to escape to atmosphere B Gases diffuse from atmosphere into seawater 1 Wave agitation increases amount of gas in seawater 2 Cooler seawater holds more dissolved gas 3 Deeper seawater can hold more dissolved gas 4 Conservative constituents substances dissolved in seawater that change slowly through time or are in constant proportions a Examples major ions in seawater argon gas 5 Nonconservative constituents substances dissolved in seawater that change due to biological and chemical processes a Examples 02 and C02 ln surface ocean 02 concentration high due to photosynthesis c Below photic zone 02 concentration decreases due to decomposition and respiration d Deep ocean water has high 02 concentration because of its source in polar regions cold seawater can hold more gas e In surface ocean CO2 concentration is low because it is used in photosynthesis f Below photic zone CO2 concentration increases due to decomposition and respiration Vlll Acidity and alkalinity A Acid releases H when dissolved in water B Alkali or base releases OH when dissolved in water C pH scale measure acidity or alkalinity 1 Low p acidic high pH alkaline pH 7 neutral 0 CO2 combines with water to form carbonic acid H2CO3 1 Carbonic acid loses H to become bicarbonate HCO3 2 Bicarbonate loses H to form carbonate CO32 3 Some carbonate combines with Ca to form CaCO3 quot39 Carbonate buffering system keeps pH of seawater about same 81 1 pH too high basic carbonic acid H2CO3releases H 2 pH too low acid bicarbonate HCO3 combines with H 3 pH of ocean varied little through geologic time F Oceans can absorb C02 from atmosphere without change in pH IX How salinity changes A Salinity decreases by 1 Precipitation runoff melting ice B Salinity increases by 1 Evaporation formation of sea ice C l39 39 39 39 cycle quot quot F that recycle H20 among ocean atmosphere and J a land X Horizontal and vertical variations in salinity A Higher latitudes salinity is lower because of rainsnow and runoff melting of sea ice and sea ice formation balance each other At midlatitudes salinity is higher because evaporation is higher C At equator salinity is lower because of rain D Salinity varies at surface ocean generally with latitude E Salinity in deeper ocean is more constant F Haloclinerapid change of salinity with depth Xl Density of seawater A Density of surface seawater varies from 1022 to 1030 gcm3 B Density of seawater controls vertical position of ocean water 1 Ocean layered according to its density C Density of seawater increases with cooler temperature higher salinity and higher pressure Temperature has greatest influence on density in surface ocean 2 Salinity has greatest influence on density in polar oceans 3 Pynoclinerapid change of density with depth 4 Thermocline rapid change of temperature with depth Ocean is divided into mixed surface layer upper water pycnocline and deep water 1 Highlatitude ocean is isothermal Xll Pure water compared with seawater A Similar in their physical properties B Different in other characteristics 1 Seawater is denser 2 Seawater boils at a higher temperature 3 Seawater freezes at a lower temperature Chapter 7 AirSea Interaction Chapter outline Atmosphere and ocean are one interconnected system A Changes in atmosphere affect ocean B Changes in ocean affect atmosphere ll Unequal solar heating A Amount of solar radiation on Earth changes from day to night B Amount changes with 1 Latitude 2 Thickness of atmosphere 3 Albedo 4 Angle between Sun and Earth seasons C Low latitudes receive more heat than higher latitudes D Tilt of Earth s rotational axis results in seasons Excess heat in tropical regions is transferred to polar regions by winds ocean currents F Atmosphere 1 Composition N2 02 Ar 2 Temperature decreases with altitude in troposphere Air density is less when warm air density is higher when cool 4 If water vapor content is high air is less dense lf air pressure is high cool dry air air sinks if low warm moist air rises Air wind flows from regions of higher pressure to regions of lower pressure I l Coriolis effect A Deflects path of moving object to right in Northern Hemisphere Caused by rotating Earth and different speeds of rotation at different latitudes Most pronounced for objects that move long distances across lines of latitude 3 Maximum deflection at poles 4 No deflection at equator IV Atmospheric circulation A Hadley Ferrel and polar cells Denser air sinks cool dry subtropical 30o NS and polar highs Less dense air rises warm moist equatorial and subpolar 600 NS lows D Surface winds move from high pressure to low pressure 1 Trade winds prevailing westerlies polar easterlies 2 Boundaries between wind belts a lntertropical Convergence Zone ITCZ b Horse latitudes c Polar front E ldealized threecell model of atmospheric circulation 1 Complicated by tilt differences in heat capacities of land and ocean uneven distribution of ocean and land 2 Monsoon winds V Oceans weather and climate A Weather is local climate is longterm average of weather Cyclonic flow around Northern Hemisphere lowpressure areas Anticyclonic flow around Northern Hemisphere highpressure areas Sea breeze and land breeze Sea fogwarm moist air over cooler ocean water vapor condenses Radiation fogwarm moist air cools over land 07quotquotquotU0W Sea smoke or steam fogcool air over warmer ocean 1 Stormsstrong winds rainsnow lightning Associated with warm front and cold front at areas of low pressure 2 Hurricanes originate over tropical oceans a Classified by wind speed SaffirSimpson Scale Require warm ocean warm moist air sufficient Coriolis effect Destructive high winds flooding from torrential rains and storm surge d Most deadly loss of life Galveston 1900 l Openocean climate patterns parallel to latitude Equatorial region rising air warm air and ocean light winds lots of rain 2 Tropical region varied precipitation strong trade winds Subtropical region sinking air high evaporation light winds 4 Temperate region prevailing westerlies 5 Subpolar region cooler air and ocean lots of rainsnow 6 Polar region sinking air very cold mostly ice Vl Sea ice is frozen seawater A Pack ice floating sea ice driven primarily by wind Polar ice thicker than pack ice driven primarily by surface ocean currents C Fast ice frozen sea ice from shore to pack ice D Less sea ice around Antarctica compared to Arctic Ocean Vll cebergpieces of ice broken off glaciers float in ocean Shelf iceAntarctic glaciers extend to ocean to create thick sheets of ice B Extremely large platelike icebergs Vlll Greenhouse effect Energy from the Sun is mainly shorter wavelengths that pass through atmosphere Energy reradiated from Earth is longer wavelengths that are absorbed by such gases as H20 and C02 1 Other important greenhouse gases methane nitrous oxide ozone and chlorofluorocarbons C This heat moderates temperature fluctuations and keeps Earth warm D Human activities increase the amount of C02 in atmosphere and may enhance greenhouse warming E Possible consequences of increased global warming A Higher temperature of seawater Changes in patterns of precipitation Possible migration of waterborne diseases Longer and more intense heat waves Shifts in distribution of living communities WQPPN Melting of ice resulting in rise of sea level More ice formation owing to more evaporation F International meetings to study human effects on global warming 1 lPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2 Kyoto Protocol G Much C02 dissolves in the ocean 1 Ocean absorption of CO2 moderates effect of atmosphere C02 2 CO2 in ocean used up in making shells Ocean s high heat capacity can take in heat without change in temperature H Growth of marine phytoplankton could be stimulated to use excess CO2 Adding iron to the photic zone would increase growth of marine plants and algae IX SOFAR channel traps sound A Sound is used to measure variations in temperature in oceans ATOC attempts to assess change in ocean temperature due to global warming Chapter 8 Ocean Circulation Chapter outline Ocean currents are water masses in motion A Redistribute heat from warmer to cooler regions B Influence climates of coastal regions C Affect ocean life D Winddriven surface currents E Densitydriven deep currents ll Measuring ocean currents Direct measurement with drift floating meters and fixed current meters B lndirect measurement 1 Pressure gradient controls currents 2 Satellite data on elevation of sea level 3 Doppler flow meter 4 Deepocean currents tracked by chemical tracers Distinctive temperature and salinity characteristics of water masses Surface currents A Wind creates currents by frictional drag 1 Currents would follow major wind belts 2 Continents influence surface currents 3 Other factors such as gravity friction and Coriolis effect also affect surface currents B Large circular looplike pattern of surface currents 1 Flow within the ocean from sea level to pycnocline 2 Affects about 10 of the global ocean C Equatorial currents 1 Flow westward north and south of equator 2 Pushed by trade winds D Western boundary currents 1 Westward flow of water deflected poleward by continents 2 Transport warmer seawater poleward E Westerlies push seawater eastward between 300 and 600 N or S F Eastern boundary currents 1 Eastward flow of water deflected equatorward by continents 2 Transport cooler seawater equatorward Subtropical gyres are circular flow of surface seawater within ocean basin H Subpolar gyres rotate in opposite direction in polar oceans l Ekman spiral and Ekman transport 1 Ekman spiral describes speed and direction of surface ocean under the influence of wind 2 Ekman transport describes average movement of surface ocean a 900 to right in Northern hemisphere b 900 to left in Southern hemisphere Geostrophic currents result from balance of gravity and Coriolis effect 1 Water flows around subtropical convergence K Western intensification Western boundary currents of subtropical gyres are fast narrow deep 2 Eastern boundary currents are slow broad shallow Equatorial countercurrents flow eastward between equatorial currents Caused by piling up of seawater on the western margins of ocean basins M Ocean currents affect climate of coastal areas Warm seawater warms air provides water vapor more rainsnow on land Cool seawater cools air less water vapor in air less rainsnow on land arid IV Upwelling and downwelling Upwelling is vertical movement of cool deeper nutrientrich seawater to surface Downwelling is vertical movement of warm nutrientpoor seawate to deeper regions C Nutrientrich upwelling creates high biologic productivity 1 Diverging surface water near 00 causes equatorial upwelling 2 Converging surface currents results in downwelling Coastal upwellingdownwelling caused by wind in relationship to coastline Ekman transport causes surface water to flow away from Shoreupwelling Ekman transport causes surface water to flow toward shore downwelling E Langmuir circulation 1 Winds blowing across calm sea produce circular convection cells that alternately converge and diverge 2 Alternate rows of upwelling and downwelling Marked by long straight rows of seaweed and other life forms F Other upwelling associated with offshore winds seafloor topography sharp bends in coastlines and highlatitude regions no pycnocline G Global upwelling and downwelling A Equatorial upwelling N Subtropical downwelling 9 Coastal upwelling along western margins of continents P Season dependent V Surface currents Pattern depends on geometry of ocean major winds seasonal changes B Antarctic circulation 1 Antarctic Circumpolar Current West Wind Drift 2 East Wind Drift 3 Antarctic Divergence C Atlantic Ocean 1 South Atlantic gyre South Equatorial Brazil Antarctic Circumpolar Benguela currents 2 North Atlantic gyre a North Equatorial Gulf Stream North Atlantic Canary currents b Surrounds Sargasso Sea c Vortexes in Gulf Stream i Warmcore rings and coldcore rings d Gulf Stream warms Northern Europe e Labrador current flows south and carries icebergs D Pacific Ocean 1 North Pacific gyre a North Equatorial Kuroshio North Pacific California currents 2 South Pacific gyre South Equatorial East Australian Antarctic Circumpolar Peru currents 3 Strong equatorial counter current Walker circulation cell creates strong southeast trace winds a Upwelling along eastern South American margin b Pacific Warm Pool along western margin Indonesia E El Ni o Southern Oscillation ENSO 1 Warm and cold phases of changes in atmosphere and ocean cause changes in trade winds speed and direction 2 ENSO Warmphase event El Ni o Pacific Warm Pool moves eastward across Pacific large Kelvin wave a Warm seawater can harm or kill temperaturesensitive marine life b Warm seawater raises sea level c Low biologic productivity Atmosphere pressure shifts arid and wet areas flip flop 3 ENSO Coolphase event La Ni a a Strongertrade winds b lncreased upwelling in eastern Pacific 4 lrregular pattern in terms of occurrence and duration 5 Pacific Decadal Oscillation PDO cycles of Pacific warming and cooling over 2030 years Effects of El Ni os and La Ni as depend in part on strength of event a Various results some beneficial some disastrous 7 TOGA Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere and TAAO Tropical Atmosphere and Ocean programs monitor the oceans in order to predict El Ni o F Indian Ocean Seasonal reversals of monsoon winds land warms cools faster than ocean 2 North Equatorial Current replaced by Southwest Monsoon Current during summer 3 Indian Ocean gyre a North and South Equatorial Equatorial Countercurrent Agulhas Antarctic Circumpolar West Australian currents b Leeuwin Current depends on ENSO VI Deep currents A Thermohaline circulation below pycnocline 1 Affects about 90 of global ocean B Densest seawater is cold and somewhat salty Water masses identified on TS temperaturesalinity diagram C Huge volumes of seawater move at slow speeds D Sources of deep water 1 Antarctic Bottom Water AABW densest water mass very cold forms around Antarctica and sinks to seafloor 2 North Atlantic Deep Water NADW less dense than AABW Norwegian Sea water sinks and mixes with other North Atlantic water masses 3 Arctic convergence and Antarctic convergence are sites of sinking of cooler water sinks to intermediate depths above NADW North Atlantic Intermediate Water NAIW and Antarctic Intermediate Water AAIW E Deepwater circulation Atantic Ocean 1 AABW as far north as 400 N NADW as far south as 400 S 2 South Atlantic AIW 3 North Atlantic Mediterranean Intermediate Water MIW warm but very salty F Pacific Ocean 1 North Pacific North Pacific Intermediate Water NPIW 2 South Pacific AAIW 3 Oceanic Common Water mixture of NADW and AABW G Indian Ocean 1 AAIW 2 Red Sea Water warm and very salty 3 Oceanic Common Water mixture of NADW and AABW H Worldwide deepwater circulation 1 Conveyor belt combination of surface ocean circulation and deepocean circulation a North Atlantic Gulf Stream transports warm seawater poleward b Cooling of this water means it sinks and flows southward Chapter 9 c Joins deep water around Antarctica d Mixed water flows northward into Pacific and Indian oceans e Upwelling water flows west and north into Atlantic Ocean 2 Deep cold seawater takes 02 into deep ocean a Major influence on animal life in the oceans 3 Changes in deepwater circulation would alter global climate a If surface water did not sink oceans would be warmer b If ocean were warmer NADW might not sink as readily Waves are moving energy A Most travel at interface between atmosphere and ocean Disturbing forces cause waves A B 0 Wind blowing across water creates most waves in ocean Surface waves 1 Wind driven AtmosphericInternal Waves 1 Occur at boundaries of water masses of differing densities 2 Movement of fluids with different densities within fluid 3 Happen at the center of a water column Tides 1 Driven by gravity s force sun and moon Mass movement into ocean landslide calving icebergs 1 Splash waves Seafloor movement 1 Seismic sea wave or tsunami 2 Tsunamis are only a few inches high until reaching shore long wavelength lots of water G Human activities 1 Wakes of ships H Most energy possessed by ocean waves exists as winddriven waves Hi How waves move A Waves transmit energy through matter 1 Matter itself does not move 2 Particles move B Progressive waves 1 Longitudinal a Waveform causes compression and expansion backandforth a Example sound waves b Travels through gas liquid solid 2 Transverse a Waveform causes sidetoside or upanddown motion b Travels generally through solids only 3 Orbital a Waveform causes particles to move in circular orbits b Occurs between two fluids of different density c Ocean surface waves d Combination of longitudinal and transverse lV Wave characteristics A ldealized sine wave A Crest trough Still water level l 3 Wave height a Vertical distance between successive cords and troughs 4 Wavelength a Horizontal distance between corresponding points on successive waveforms 5 Wave steepness heightlength a If greater than 17 waveform breaks 6 Wave period a Time it takes for one wave to pass a fixed position 7 Frequency a Waves per second 1T inverse of period B Circular orbital motion 1 Diameter of orbit is equal to wave height in deepwater waves 2 Diameters decrease with depth 3 Wave base 12 L is where circular motion dies out C Deepwater waves 1 Water depth is greater than wave base have no interaction with the sea floor a Deeper than half of its own wavelength 2 Wave speed celerity is proportional to wavelength 3 When not interacting with sea floor deepwater waves have equal diameter in all directions D Shallowwater waves 1 Water depth is less than 120 of its own wavelength 2 Friction with seafloor reduces speed 3 Wave speed celerity is proportional to depth 4 Orbital motion is flattened due to interaction with the seafloor E Transitional waves 1 Has characteristics of both deep and shallow water waves 2 Water depth is between 12 and 120 of the wavelength 3 Wave speed depends on both wavelength and depth 4 Circular motion is partially deformed V Windgenerated waves A Sea 1 Area of wind that generates waves 2 Variety of periods and wavelengths in surface waves a Capillary waves a First waves generated when wind blows over sea are capillary waves Don t crest just ripples on surface b Capillary waves build up into gravity waves c Profile increases with build into gravity waves d Breaking on a crest increases angle while capillary waves are more sinusoidal don t break b Gravity waves a Come from growing capillary waves b Much larger than capillary waves have pointed crests and rounded troughs c Height length and speed of waves increase as wind increases d When windspeed wavespeed the wave stops growing 3 Amount of energy in waves a Wind speed b Duration length of time wind has blown in prevailing direction c Fetch area over which prevailing wind has been blowing d Choppiness occurs at the site of winddriven wave formation a As the waves move away from this site they are sorted out by differing speeds into organized symmetrical swells 4 Wave height related to wave energy a Largest reliably measured open ocean wave 34 m 5 Waves grow to maximum wave height fully developed sea a Waves exceeding heightlength of 17 break in white caps in open ocean surfwaves along coast 6 Wave crowding waves slow down as water gets shallower 7 Increase of wave height water is pushed upwards as water depth decreases and wave energy gathers 8 Surf zone back of wave moves faster than the front wave height is too high and breaks B Swell need more information 1 Uniform symmetrical waves travel out from sea 2 Wave dispersion a Sorting of waves by wavelength wave speed 3 Decay distance from sea to swell 4 Group speed is half the individual wave speed C Propagation of waves 1 Longer waves outrun shorter ones create wavetrains 2 Speed of wave trains is about onehalf the speed of constituent waves D Interference 1 Constructive interference waves in phase a Wave heights increased 2 Destructive interference waves out of phase a Wave heights decreased 3 Mixed interference a Most common b Wave heights are different surf beat c Mixed in and out of phase sort of random Chaotic 9 E Free and forced waves 1 Free wave moves with momentum swell 2 Forced wave is pushed by force that has same period a In sea mixture of forced and free waves b Tide is forced wave F Rogue waves caused by convergence of wave heights 1 Unusually large waves 2 Caused perhaps by constructive interference 3 Caused when waves push again strong ocean currents G Surf zone 1 Surf near shore where waves break 2 Shoaling waves a Wave velocity decreases b Wave length decreases c Wave height increases 3 Breakers wave steepness increases if it reaches 17 the waveform breaks a Spilling gentle beach slope relatively low b Plunging curling crest moderately steep beach slopes c Surging abrupt slope H Wave refraction 1 Bending of wave crest wave front as it approaches shore 2 Portion of wave closest to shore slows down first causing refraction 3 Waves close to shore are nearly parallel to shore 4 Wave energy focused on headlands dispersed over bays 5 Causes erosion on coast l Wave diffraction 1 Wave energy is transferred around or behind barriers 2 Allows waves to travel further despite interference from breakwaters etc J Wave reflection 1 Waves bounce back from solid objects steep slopes or walls at the same angle 2 Standing wave is sum of two waves with same length moving in opposite directions appears stationary a Occurs when nodes and antinodes are at the same height b Node no vertical movement c Antinode maximum vertical movement Vl Tsunami or seismic sea wave A Sudden changes in seafloor topography motion of fault block 1 Volcanic eruptions 2 Submarine faultsmost common 3 Submarine landslides B Long wavelength 125 mi fast speed 435 mph in open ocean C Near the shore tsunami causes ocean level to rise or lower dramatically 1 Catastrophic damage to infrastructure and people D Tsunami warning system 1 Pacific Tsunami Warning Center collects information on seismic waves to forecast tsunami 2 People warned to evacuate Chapter 10 l Generating tides A Gravity and motion among Earth Moon and Sun 1 Earth and Moon rotate around barycenter centripetal forces keep Earth s particles in barycentric motion B Gravitational force between Earth and Moon 1 Varies with masses involved Moon is stronger because it is closer 2 lnversely proportional to separation distance squared C Centripetal force 1 Force that tethers one orbiting body to another D Resultant forces 1 Tidegenerating force results from gravitational force and centripetal force a When resultant forces are perpendicular there is no tide generating force Force exists only when it is tangential to Earth s surface 2 Horizontal component moves water 3 Tidegenerating force varies with mass and the inverse of the radius cubed E Two tidal bulges caused by tangential residue forces 1 One on side of Earth facing Moon 2 Other on side of Earth facing away from Moon ll Equilibrium theory of tides A Assumptions 1 Earth has two equal tidal bulges 2 Oceans cover entire Earth at the same depth uniformly deep 3 There is no friction between ocean and seafloor 4 The continents have no influence on tidal forces B Tidal bulges 1 Expect two high tides 12 hours apart each day Lunar day is longer than solar day 24 hours 50 minutes a Time of successive high tides shifts b Moon rises later each successive night C Solar tidal bulges lll Solar tideproducing force is smaller Sun is farther away A High tide flood tide and low tide ebb tide 1 Earth rotates inside lunar and solar tidal bulges B Monthly tidal cycle 1 New Moon and Full Moon lunar and solar tidal bulges combine all 3 are aligned causes greatest tidal range a Spring tide maximum tidal range 2 First and Last Quarter lunar and solar tidal bulges act at right angles c Neap tide minimum tidal range C In between these phases tides have mixed tidal ranges D Ecliptic 1 Plane that contains the elliptical path of the Earth as it revolves around the Sun VI 2 Precession plane of the moon s obit that rotates every 186 years quarter precession after 46 years a Note half precession shows that greatest tidal bulge is NOT always experienced at the equator but where the Moon s plane of orbit intercepts the Earth E Declination of Moon and Sun 3 Sun and Moon are not always directly over Earth s equator 4 Sun s declination from 2350 N or S yearly cycle 5 Moon s declination from 2850 N or 8 monthly cycle E Elliptical orbits 1 Earth closer to Moon perigee closer to Sun perihelion a Tidal range larger stronger 2 Earth farther from Moon apogee farther from Sun aphelion a Tidal range smaller F Prediction 1 Two equal high tides per day when Moon is over equator 2 Two unequal high tides per day when Moon is over Tropics Dynamic theory oftides A Tides as shallow water waves 1 Wave speed proportional to depth of water 2 Tidal bulges cannot keep up with rotational speed of Earth B Amphidromic points and cotidal lines 1 Ocean tides form cells due to friction in shallow water breaks up the two large tidal waves 2 Cotidal lines radiate from amphidromic points a Connect locations where high tides occur simultaneously In open ocean crests and troughs of tides rotate around amphidromic point a Cotidal lines indicate time of high tide b Radiate from amphidromic point c Rotary flow counterclockwise in Northern Hemisphere clockwise in Southern B Continents modify forced tide waves C Over 150 other factors influence tides at a particular shore 1 Time of high tide is not connected to Moon overhead 2 Partial tides compose main tides Tidal patterns VII VIII 1 Diurnal tide one high tide one low tide per lunar day B Semidiurnal tide two high tides two low tides per lunar day tidal range similar C Mixed tide two high tides two low tides per lunar day tidal ranges markedly different D Combining semidiurnal and diurnal tides generate a harmonic analysis Tidal phenomena A Tides in lakes 1 Only significant in large lakes 2 Forced standing wave 3 Free standing waveresonance tide seiche B Tides in narrow marine basins 1 Standing wave of great amplitude a Free standing wave reflected wave and b Forced wave tide C Tides in wide embayments Standing wave horizontal movement affected by Coriolis effect 3 Tides move in circular fashion piling up water on right side Northern Hemisphere A Bay of Fundy 1 Largest tidal range maximum spring tidal range 17 m B Coastal tidal currents 1 Near shore rotary flow changes to reversing flows in and out of restricted inlets 2 Flood current incoming high tide 3 Ebb current approaching low tide C Whirlpool or vortex Tidal currents in different basins with different tidal cycles A Friction with seafloor causes rapidly spinning water B Tidal bores occur because of incoming wave s interaction with outflowing river continuous breakwave 1 Tidegenerated wave 2 Lowrelief coastal rivers 3 High tidal range Chapter 11 l Coastal region A Shore between low tide and highest elevation affected by storm waves B Coast from shore to farthest inland oceanrelated features C Coastline is boundary between shore and ocean D Beach 1 Actively changing because of breaking waves 2 Shore backshore foreshore nearshore offshore 3 Berm beach face ongshore bar ongshore trough E Beach composition and shape 1 Locally available material 2 Coarser sediment beach steeper 3 Finer sediment beach less steep F Sand movement 1 Swash and backwash 2 Smaller lowenergy wavessand moved up the beach face summertime beach 9 Larger high energy wavessand moved down the beach face wintertime beach 4 Longshore current parallel to beach a Speed increases with steeper beach more wave energy increase in wave frequency increase in angle between breaker and beach P Longshore drift or transport a Sediment moved b Direction depends on direction of wave approach ll Types of shore A Erosionaltype 1 Headlands eroded wavecut cliffs sea caves 2 Sea arches sea stacks Typical in tectonically active areas eg US west coast A Depositionaltype distributed by waves and tides 1 Barrier island ocean beach dunes barrier flat high salt marsh low salt marsh lagoon IV VI VII 2 Rise in sea level pushes barrier islands landward Most originated from rise in sea level about 18000 years ago Spit bay barrier or baymouth bar tombolo Deltarivers deposit sediment at coast Beach compartmentriver beach offshore submarine canyons PPPN Humans alter natural movement of sand eg beach starvation b Beach replenishment Classification of coasts A Francis Shepard 18971985 5 Primary youthful nonmarine processes 6 Secondary mature dominated by marine processes Emerging and submerging shorelines A B 0 U ITI n Rising above sea level or sinking below sea level Emerging 7 Marine terraces stranded beach deposits Submerging 8 Drowned beaches submerged dunes drowned river or glacial valleys Tectonic and isostatic movements 9 Upliftsubsidence folding faulting tilting 10 Adjustments made for loading of sediments ice and unloading 11 US Pacific coastemerging tectonically active 12 US Atlantic coastsubmerging tectonically passive Eustatic changes in sea level 13 Worldwide 14 Changes in seafloor spreading rates 15 Continental ice sheets 16 Temperature changes of ocean Sea level and greenhouse effect 17 Sea level over past 150 years or so has risen 18 Combination of warming ocean and melting glaciers Characteristics of US coasts A Atlantic coast Vlll WQPPN B Gulfcoast 1 2 3 C Pacific coast 1 2 3 4 Hard stabilization Barrier islands from Massachusetts southward Tidal range increases from Florida northward Different rock types along coast Glaciers shaped topography eg moraines In most sections sea level is rising In most sections coast is eroding migrating landward Mississippi River delta dominates LATX section Tectonic subsidence rise in sea level High rate of erosion Less erosion in most areas Emerging coast Open exposure to high energy waves Dams on rivers lead to beach starvation A Prevents erosion or movement of sand along a beach B Groins and groin fields 1 2 3 C Jetties 1 2 D Breakwaters 1 2 E Seawalls 1 2 F Alternatives 1 Perpendicular to coastline Traps sand in longshore current on upstream side Several groins in groin field Perpendicular to coastline to protect harbors Pairs Parallel to shore offshore Deposition upstream erosion downstream Parallel to shore on shore Erosion on seaward side collapse of seawall Restrict construction in coastal regions a Relocation Chapter 12 l Coastal waters A General characteristics Shallow ocean close to shore Overlie continental shelf River runoff tidal currents and seasons affect water character About 95 of total mass of marine life 01th Estuaries and wetlands are some of the most biologically productive ecosystems on Earth B Salinity i When ocean and fresh river waters meet an estuary is created Difference in density of each body causes a halocline to form between salt and fresh water showing the boundary 1 Halocline comes about because of runoff injection of freshwater Evaporation on surface can cause halocline to move in opposite direction putting the saltiest water on top 1 Halocline shifts directions when offshore wind evaporates water off iii The force of runoff mixed with evaporation from wind creates an isohaline constant salinity caused by the mixing of each body C Temperature Temperatures are more stable in estuaries in highlow latitude regions causing isoclines at each temperature Low latitude areas have significant change in surface temperature which causes a visible difference thermocline Coastal geostrophic currents 1 Wind river runoff and Coriolis Effect 2 Northern Hemisphere current veers northward on western coast southward on eastern coast 2 High volume runoff low salinity water flows toward ocean pushed to right in Northern Hemisphere 6 Strength depends on wind strength and volume of runoff ll Estuaries A Partially enclosed coastal body 1 Freshwater runoff and ocean water 2 Most common river mouth on Origins Coastal plain estuary Fjord Barbuilt estuary PPN Tectonic estuary O Freshwater and seawater mix Vertically mixed Slightly stratified estuary Highly stratified estuary PPN Salt wedge estuary 01 Patterns vary with location season tidal or river conditions D Typical circulation pattern is low salinity flow toward ocean subsurface flow of ocean water toward land ITI Estuaries and human activities 1 Important breeding and nursery grounds for many marine animals 2 Humans affect estuaries negatively through industry manufacturing waste disposal shipping a Columbia River estuary b Chesapeake Bay estuary F Estuary circulation and plankton 1 Phytoplankton distribution dependent on seasonal circulation patterns 2 Phytoplankton and other lifeforms move seaward from estuary in late summer lll Coastal wetlands A Ecosystems with shallow water table 1 Coastal wetlandsswamps tidal flats coastal marshes bayous 2 Salt marshes and mangrove swamps a Oxygen poor bottom water peat deposits b Mangroves from equator to 30 N or S 3 Nursery grounds for commercially important fish 4 Efficiently remove toxins from water B Serious loss 1 Filled in and developed 2 About 12 wetlands in conterminous US have been destroyed 3 Office of Wetlands Protection US EPA a Wetlands protected or restored IV Lagoons A Shallow water landward of barrier islands 1 Restricted circulation a Freshwater zone b Transitional zone brackish c Saltwater zone 2 Hypersaline if high evaporation 3 Less saline if large runoff B Laguna Madre 1 Texas coast behind Padre Island 2 Hypersaline quot 39 39 39 quot high I quot 3 Warm water in summer cooler in winter 4 Infrequent high river run off makes it much less salty V Marginal seas A Semiisolated large bodies of seawater 1 Most due to tectonics 2 Or volcanic activity 3 Typically shallower than open ocean B Atlantic 1 Mediterranean Sea underlain by ocean crust a Mediterranean dried up thick salt deposits on seafloor 7 b Atlantic Ocean water enters through Strait of Gibraltar b Evaporates as it moves across Mediterranean c Circulation opposite of estuaries 2 Caribbean Sea separated by island arc a Four welldefined water masses 3 Gulf of Mexico C Pacific 1 Gulf of Californiaactive seafloor spreading a Changed by dams on Colorado River b Hydrothermal vents 2 Bering Sea broad and rather shallow a Circulation patterns create high biologic productivity i Upwelling ii Phytoplankton D Indian 1 Red Seaactive seafloor spreading a High temperature high salinity in surface water b High temperature very high salinity deep water brine pools 2 Arabian Sea surface currents dominated by monsoon winds 3 Bay of Bengal a Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers Chapter 13 Most live within sunlit surface waters A Marine algae in photic zone B Other organisms need algae directly or indirectly C Water necessary for life D Water harder to maneuver in II Classification of living things A Three domains 1 Archaea 2 Bacteria 3 Eukarya B Five kingdoms 1 Monera singlecelled no nucleus 2 Protoctista single multicelled nucleus 3 Fungi mold lichen 4 Plantae multicelled plants 5 Animalia multicelled animals C Taxonomy 1 Specific groupings arranged in order a Phylum class order family genus species 2 Species is fundamental unit lll Classification of marine organisms A Plankton oaters 1 Phytoplankton mainly algae 2 Zooplankton microscopic or small animals or animallike creatures 3 Bacterioplankton submicroscopic 3 Plankton make up most of Earth s biomass 4 Holoplankton life cycle is entirely planktonic 5 Meroplankton part of life cycle is planktonic B Nekton swimmers 1 Active swimmers or movers 2 Most adult fish squid marine mammals marine reptiles 3 Water pressure limits depth range C Benthos bottom dwellers 1 Epifauna live on surface of seafloor 2 lnfauna like in sediments or shells 3 Nektobenthos live on bottom but swim or crawl 4 Hydrothermal vent biocommunities a Archaeon produce food through chemosynthesis lV Distribution of life in oceans A Few marine species 1 Environment stable so no need to adapt to many different conditions B Two percent of known marine species is pelagic C 98 is benthic more ecological niches V Adaptations to ocean A Stable ocean environment means ocean organisms cannot readily adjust to small changes in temperature salinity turbidity pressure and other variables B Physical support C Water s viscosity 1 Viscosity39 with39 39salinity 39 39temperature 2 Plankton need extensions to help them float 3 Small size helps them float 4 Oil 5 Turbulence 6 Larger organisms streamlined to move actively D Temperature 1 Small daily and seasonal changes in temperature compared with temperature on land 2 Coldwater organisms compared with warmwater organisms a Smaller fewer appendages fewer species live longer reproduce less often b More biomass 3 Stenothermal organisms tolerate only small changes in temperature a Open ocean deeper 5 Eurythermal organisms tolerate larger changes in temperature b Shallow coastal waters openocean surface E Salinity 1 Euryhaline organisms tolerate larger changes in salinity a Coastal waters eg estuaries 2 Stenohaline organisms tolerate only small changes in salinity 3 Organisms extract silica and calcium and carbonate to make shells 4 Diffusion movement from areas of high concentrations to areas of low concentrations 5 Osmosis water molecules move through semipermeable membrane from less concentrated to more concentrated region a Osmotic pressure b lsotonic salinity in organism is same as that of seawater 3 Hypertonic salinity in organism is less than that of seawater d Hyptertonic salinity in organism is more than that of seawater F Dissolved gases 1 Gas solubility depends on temperature 2 Gills exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with seawater G Water s high transparency A Eyesight l Transparent bodies 9 Countershading A Disruptive coloration H Pressure 1 Most marine organisms have waterfilled bodies not airfilled Vl Divisions of marine environment A Pelagic open ocean 1 Biozones neritic oceanic epipelagic mesopelagic bathypelagic abyssopelagic 1 Sunlight euphotic disphotic aphotic zones B Benthic sea bottom 1 Biozones subneritic suboceanic littoral sublittoral abyssal hadal C Seamounts 1 Benthos zonation on steep slopes D Deep scattering layer DSL 1 Plankton krill lantern fish 1 Migrate vertically daily Chapter 14 Primary productivity A Photosynthetic productivity 1 Gross primary productivity 2 Net primary productivity 3 New production 4 Regenerated production on Measuring primary productivity 1 Plankton nets trap organisms 2 Gran method oxygen concentration 3 Chlorophyll levels SeaWiFS Availability of nutrients 0 1 Nitrate phosphorous iron silica as examples 2 Main source river runoff 0 Availability of solar radiation 1 Compensation depth for photosynthesis 2 Euphotic zone quot39 Margins of oceans 1 Nutrients available 2 Upwelling n Light transmission in ocean water 1 Electromagnetic spectrum solar radiation is mainly visible wavelengths 2 Ocean selectively absorbs longer wavelength of visible light 3 Secchi disk b Ocean color influenced by turbidity and photosynthetic pigment 5 Ocean color related to primary productivity a Eutrophic b Oligotrophic ll Photosynthetic marine organisms A Spermatophyta 1 Shallow seawater eg eelgrass surf grass mangrove B Macroscopic algae 1 Generally in shallow seawater most fixed to seafloor 2 Classified by color brown green red C Microscopic algae 1 Dominant 2 Phytoplankton a Golden algae diatoms and coccolithophores b Dinoflagellates red tide harmful algal bloom HAB lll Regional productivity A Biological pump organic matter from euphotic zone to sea loor 1 Thermocline pycnocline barrier to vertical mixing 2 Prevalent subtropical gyres B Polar oceans 1 Arctic productivity controlled primarily by sunlight 2 Antarctic productivity greater due to upwelling 3 Isothermal no barrier to mixing C Tropical oceans 4 Productivity low sufficient sunlight scarce nutrients thermocline 2 Equatorial upwelling 3 Coastal upwelling 4 Coral reefs D Temperate oceans 1 Combination of sunlight and nutrient availability strong seasonal component 2 Winter productivity low 3 Spring productivity higher until nutrients used up 4 Summer productivity low c Fall productivity higher until sunlight lessens as winter approaches IV Energy flow A Flow into marine ecosystems 1 Biotic community plus environment 2 Producers autotrophs 3 Consumers and decomposers heterotrophs a y I 1 B Symbiosis 1 Commensalism 2 Mutualism 3 Parasitism V Biogeochemical cycling A Matter is cycled from one chemical form to another by life 1 Production feeding decomposition dissolution B Carbon nitrogen and phosphorous cycles 1 Carbon readily available 2 Nitrogen and phosphorous limit primary productivity 3 Redfield ratio 105151 CNP 4 Carbon cycle uptake of C02 by algae and plants return of C through respiration and decomposition 5 Nitrogen cycle uptake by algae and plants consumption by animals and microbes released as dead matter and fecal matter a Complicated by nitrogenfixing and denitrifying bacteria 6 Phosphorous cycle uptake by algae and plants consumption by animals and microbes released as dead matter and fecal matter a Bacteria one step convert organic phosphorous to nutrient form 7 Nitrogen is most likely the limiting nutrient especially in temperate ocean 8 Silicon cycle limiting for organisms that use silicon for tests and shells Vl Feeding relationships A Trophic levels 1 Chemical energy transferred by feeding B Transfer efficiency 1 Usually inefficient 2 Gross ecological efficiency averages about 10 C Food chains food webs and the biomass pyramid 1 Food chain linear primary producer herbivore carnivore top carnivore 2 Food web branching top carnivores feed on different animals 3 Biomass pyramid number of individuals and total biomass decrease in successive trophic levels a Organisms increase in size D Microbes also consume primary producers 1 Phytoplankton exudates 2 Phytoplankton munchate 3 Zooplankton excretions 4 Cyanobacteria fix nitrogen important producers in oligotrophic open ocean 5 Viruses are parasitic Chapter 15 l Staying above the ocean floor A lncreased buoyancy 1 Gas containers a Swim bladder 2 Floating zooplankton a Microscopic tests with extensions i Radiolarians ii Foraminifers iii Copepods b Macroscopic i Krill ii Hydrozoans 2 Scyphozoan iellyfish have lowdensity bodies iv Tunicates v Ctenophores vi Chaetognaths B Swimming organisms 1 Invertebrate squids fish marine mammals 5 Pelvic fins pectoral fins control movement dorsal and anal fins stabilize 3 Tail fin caudal propels 2 Aspect ratio of fin determines efficiency of fin design 4 Pectoral fins modified to specialized uses 5 Deepwater nekton a Detritus or other deepwater nekton b Food not abundant organisms small and few d Special adaptations good sensory devices bioluminescence lll Adaptations for seeking prey A Lungers versus cruisers 1 Lungers wait for prey mostly white muscle tissue 2 Cruisers actively seek prey mostly red muscle tissue B Speed and body size 1 Generally larger fish swim faster C Coldblooded versus warmer blooded 1 Coldblooded poikilothermic fish swim slower 2 Warmblooded homeothermic fish swim faster D Circulatory system modifications 1 Extra arteries for fast swimmers lV Adaptations to avoid being prey A Schooling 1 Large numbers of organisms in welldefined social groupings a School can maneuver as if one b Safety in numbers B Abduction 1 One lifeform kidnaps another for protection 2 Amphipod and pteropod V Marine mammals A Warmblooded air breathing hairfur give birth nurse young B Order Carnivora 1 Prominent canine teeth a Sea otters polar bears walruses seals C Order Sirenia 1 Herbivore shallow water a Manatees dugongs D Order Cetacea 3 Elongated skull blowhole on top very little hair horizontal tail fin fluke 2 Specialized skin structure to reduce frictional drag 3 Some able to dive deep 9 Specialized lungs extract almost 90 oxygen in each breath b Large number of red blood cells store oxygen c Anaerobic respiration muscles insensitive to high amounts of C02 d Collapsible rib cage to prevent nitrogen narcosis 4 Suborder Odontoceti toothed cetaceans killer whale sperm whale porpoise dolphin a Porpoise smaller and bulky compared with dolphin b Porpoise teeth blunt dolphin teeth sharp c Often produce sounds vocalize and communicate with each other 9 Good vision and echolocation 0 Social groups v Large complex brains relative to body size 5 Suborder Mysticetibaleen whales a Largest whales blue whale finback whale humpback whale and gray whale b Eat zooplankton krill and small nekton c Baleen plates flexible keratin d Produce lowfrequency sounds 6 Gray whales migrate long distances a Feed in polar oceans Arctic North Pacific start migration in September 10 Breed and give birth in warmer oceans Baja California January c Endangered Vl Reproductive behaviors A Catadromousfreshwater species migrate to ocean to breed Atlantic eel spawn in ocean young elvers migrate to freshwater streams adults spawn in ocean B Anadromousmarine species migrate to freshwater to breed North Atlantic and North Pacific salmon C Eggs versus live births 1 Oviparous reproductionlay eggs in seawater or seafloor most invertebrates most fish many sharks skates and rays 2 Ovoviviparous reproductionfertilized eggs incubated in body until they atch sea horse pipefish 3 Viviparous reproductioneggs fertilized within body birth to live young marine mammals some sharks and rays Chapter 16 I More than 98 of known species in oceans are benthic A Most on continental shelf 1 Euphotic zone extends to sea oor B Benthic species affected by surface ocean circulation 3 Distribution resembles distribution of photosynthetic productivity in surface waters 11 Rocky shores A Epifauna adapt to desiccation wave activity rapid changes in physical and chemical parameters B Spray zone supralittoral l Shells protect from drying out C Intertidal zone nely delineated biozones l Hightide zone a Protective shell b Algae rock weed with thick cell walls 2 Middletide zone a Softbodied animals as well as shelled b Various algae c Mussel beds d Tide pools sea anemones sea urchins 3 Lowtide zone a Abundant and varied algae and animals III Sedimentcovered shores A Sediment e Beacheshigher energy wave longshore current steepest slope least stable 2 Salt marshes 3 Mud atslowest energy attest more stable B Intertidal zonation 1 Most well developed on steeper slope coarser sediment 2 Supralittoral high tide middle tide low tide 6 Maximum number of species and greatest biomass near low tide zone C Life in sediment l Adaptations burrowing suspension feeding deposit feeding carnivorous feeding D Sandy beaches 1 Bivalve mollusks burrow in mainly sandy areas 2 Annelid worms also burrow 3 Crustaceans include beach hoppers sand crabs 4 Echinoderms include sand star heart urchin 5 Meiofauna live among sand grains E Mud ats l Eelgrass and turtle grass 2 Bivalve mollusks 3 Crustaceans include fiddler crabs IV Shallow offshore ocean oor A Spring low tide to edge of continental shelf B Rocky bottoms sublittoral l Macroalgae such as kelp forests 2 Large crustaceans such as lobsters and crabs 3 Oysters in estuaries C Coral reef l Coral individuals polyps precipitate calcium carbonate 2 Coral reefs shallow warm normalsalinity ocean a Temperature sensitive coral bleaching b Sunlight for symbiotic algae in coral c Current or wave activity d Clear seawater lter feeders e Hard substrate for attachment Polyps and zooxanthellae mutually bene cial Algal biomass Coral zonation based on water motion 9939er Important a Largest structure built by living organisms b Diversity of species within coral reef c Shelter food breeding grounds for many sh d Tourism gt1 Nutrient levels a Increase with sewage discharge agricultural fertilizers b Increased nutrient levels mean more phytoplankton than benthic algae c Decrease in corals 00 Bioerosion a Animals eat coral polyps sea urchins sponges star sh b Crownofthorns star sh and reef 9 Reef corals reproduce asexually and sexually V Deepocean oor A Physical environment 1 Bathyal abyssal hadal 2 Dark cold salinity slightly less than 35 000 3 High pressure high oxygen 4 Currents usually slow but changeable abyssal storms B Food sources and species diversity 1 Most food comes from surface waters above including dead organisms and fecal matter 2 Diversity larger than expected C Deepsea hydrothermal vent biocommunities l Chemosynthesisarchaea manufacture carbohydrates using hydrogen sul de and geothermal energy Animals unusually large for these depths Some symbiotic relationships With archaea Associated with regions of high heat ow spreading ridges Species diversity low Probably shortlived vent areas 8095 Larvae transported by deepocean currents 9 Conditions in which life originated D Lowtemperature seep biocommunities chemosynthetic l Hypersaline seep biocommunity similar to hydrothermal vent lower temperature 2 Hydrocarbon seep biocommunity 3 Subduction zone seep biocommunity E Deep biosphere l Beneath sea oor 2 Microbes in pore waters Chapter 17 Laws and regulations a Mare liberum and the territorial sea i 1609 1702 international court decisions a Free passage across oceans b Coastal nation s sovereignty b Threemile territorial sea c United Nations Law of the Sea i 1958 to 1982 UN conferences on Law of the Sea ii 1993 ratified by 60th nation international law a Coastal nations jurisdiction 12 nautical miles b Exclusive Economic Zone 200 nautical miles c Free passage d International Seabed Authority e Law of the Sea Tribunal Ecosystems and fisheries gt 07 O U quot39 39quot39 0 I 07 0 Fisheries fish caught by commercial fishers 1 Standing stock 2 Overfishing 3 Maximum sustainable yield Fish recruitment and survival 1 Adding young fish fish recruitment 2 Survival of fish larvae 3 Juvenile survival Primary productivity effect on fisheries 1 Amount of fish removed equal to or less than influx of new nitrogen 2 More nitrogen limiting nutrient at upwelling Upwelling and fisheries 1 Long duration best for more fishing 2 Small phytoplankton results in smaller fish 1 Lack of nutrients 2 Upwelling rates too high World fishery Marine fishery largest in nontropical and tropical shelves A 2 Then in order upwelling coastal and coral systems and open ocean 3 World total fish production 4 Potential world fishery about 100 to 120 million metric tons lncidental catch or bycatch 1 Tuna and dolphins 1 Marine Mammals Protection Act 2 Driftnets or gill nets 1 Banned in 1989 Fisheries management 1 Regulation of fishing vessels 2 Fisheries in northwest Atlantic Seafood choices Mariculture marine aquaculture 37 of total world fishery Fish Crustaceans a Shrimp and prawn most valuable product Bivalves VI Vll 0 5 Oysters and mussels successfully cultivated Algae Mainly seaweed Energy resources A Energy from oceans i Nonpolluting ii Amount of energy potentially available is huge iii Renewable v Available anytime B Offshore winds C Currents D Waves E Tides i Tidal power plants F Thermal energy i OTEC Geologic resources A Petroleum a Offshore oil about 30 of world production B Gas hydrates clathrates a Most common is methane hydrate C Sand and gravel a Second in value to petroleum D Phosphorite phosphate minerals E Metal sulfides F Manganese nodules and crusts Chemical resources A Freshwater from desalination a Distillation of seawater b Solar humidification c Electrolysis d Reverse osmosis e Freeze separation B Evaporative salts a Common table salt halite C Drugs from the sea a Chemicals from marine creatures mainly from coral reefs Kastillo 2 Climate Change and Coral Reefs Part 1 Coralalgal Symbiosis o Symbiosis both organisms benefit 0 Coral provides algae with Stage to facilitate acquisition of sunlight Stable protected environment Compounds for photosynthesis o Algae provides coral with Oxygen Buildup of oxygen can be an issue Access to carbohydratesnutrient Removal of metabolic waste Coral reef bleaching o Harmful bleaching is caused by stress particularly temperature stress 0 Coral releases symbiont o Losing algal partner causes coral to starve die leads to cover of bad algae 0 Transition leads from healthy system to bleached reef to entire system collapse Causes of decreased coral cover coral bleaching 1 Global warming and increasing SST i Greenhouse effect 1 As excess greenhouse gases build up UV and infrared rays from the sun are trapped by the atmosphere increasing global temperature Coral bleaching acclimation acclimatization and adaptation Corals in warmer areas have adapted more effectively Kastillo 3 Topic open ocean corals may be in greater danger from ocean warming Global surface temperatures are increasing on average Coral reefs are being significantly affected by rising sea level temperature 0 Coralalgal symbiosis threatened 0 Causes transition from coral systems to algalsponge dominated reefs Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System MBRS 0 Network of reefs from tip of Yucatan to Belize to Honduras 0 Objective measuring coral skeletal growth trends Hypothesis forereef coral colonies have been less resistantresilient to climate change than backreefnearshore colonies Forereef corals are the farthest from the coast exist in cooler waters with less interaction with shore Backreef reefs are in the middle and inhabit a generally hospitable zone Nearshore reefs are affected by lots of traffic sandsedimentation human activity tidal activity and are generally resilient Experiment took coral core samples from Siderastrea siderea among other species to measure skeletal growth Cores can show trends in coral growth from year to year kind of like tree rings Takes seasons into account Wet season has low density bands Dry season has high density bands Analysis of coral cores using CoralXDS shows a negatively sloped graph Results of growth trends show that forereef corals have had declining growth rates while backreef coral growth rates have actually been increasing nearshore crosses the zero line 0 Objective 2 quantify the temperature difference over time with coral growth ratesresilience Hypothesis local stressors do not influence coral resistance to episodic thermal events increase resistance to episodic thermal events or reduce resistance to episodic thermal events Temperature trend over last three decades general increase for all zones Forereef corals experienced lower temperatures than other zones in early measurements backreef experienced the least change All 3 zones trended towards a similar temperature In situ temperature variability from has increased Increased temperaturesin situ variability has led to a negative growth trend in forereef corals Anomalies core taken from channel between backreef and forereef acts a little like both ends up being placed in between the two on a trend chart 0 Answers to the hypotheses Local stressors increased coral resistanceresilience to episodic thermal events Conclusions 0 Skeletal growth declined in forereef corals only 0 Forereef growth is negatively correlated with ocean temperature increase 0 Local stressors improved coral resilience


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