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General Descriptive Chemistry I

by: Prince Terry

General Descriptive Chemistry I CHEM 101

Prince Terry
GPA 3.52

Todd Austell

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Todd Austell
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Prince Terry on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 101 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Todd Austell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/228856/chem-101-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in Chemistry at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
Handout 1 Mass Length Volume Time Energy Temperature Metric Pre xes peta tera giga mega kilo deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto zepto yocto Conversions to Learn 1 kg 2205 lb 2835 g 1 ounce oz 16 oz 1 lb 1 lb 45359 g 254 cm 1 in 1 mile 5280 ft 10 km 621 miles 161 km 1 mile 1 m 1094 yards 103910 m 1 angstrom A 1ooocn 1 liter 09464 liter 1 quart qt 1 liter 10567 quart 4 quarts 1 gallon ga 1 min 60 sec 1 hr 3600 sec 1 day 86400 sec 1 joule J 1 kgomzlsz 1 kilojoulekJ 1000joules 418joules 1 calorie cal 0 K 27315 C 45967 F absolute zero gt U U 1 a lt Meaning multiplier 1x1015 1x1012 1x1 1x1 1x1m 1x10391 1x10392 1x10393 1x10396 1x10399 1x10 1x10 1x1039m 1x10 1x1044 Newsstgnawgnaw Handout 3 Who s Who in the Development of Atomic Theory Ancient Egyptians knew of static electricity and electric charge behavior Like charges repel and opposite charges attract Leucippus and Democritus Greece approx 400 BC First postulated quotatomsquot as smallest individual unit of pure substance quotatomistsquot contradicted previous quotcontinuistquot theory Plato and Aristotle were quotcontinuistsquot Ben Franklin approx 170039s discovered electricity with kite and lightning John Dalton approx 1803 an English school teacher based his atomic theory on what he already knew Law of Conservation of Mass Lavoisier 1796 Law of De nate Proportions Proust 1800 Dalton39s Law of Multiple Proportions approx 1805 C02 vs CO Dalton39s Atomic Theory Michael Faraday approx 180039s works with electrolysis Henri Becquerel notices phenomenon which Marie Curie later names and characterizes as quotradioactivityquot approx 180039s Curie wins Nobel Prize for her work Types of radioactivity beta alpha amp gamma emission see Fig 28 p 41 text Study of electrical conduction of gases at low pressure in evacuated tubes is extensive in approx 1860189039s Tubes known as quotcathode rayquot tubes CRT39s JJ Thomson 1897 de nes quotcathode raysquot as being negatively charged and he experimentally determines their charge to mass ratio em 178x108 coulombsg using the various de ections observed in both magnetic and electric fields Thomson names his newly discovered fundamental particle of negative charge the quotelectronquot Thomson postulates his model of the atom Goldstein 1886 had previously noticed quotcanal raysquot behind the perforated cathode of his cathode ray tube This was described 11 years before JJ Thomson discovered the electron see p 40 Thomson later would characterize these as fundamental entities of positive charge and Ernest Rutherford would name them quotprotonsquot Today39s known mass value for the proton is 16726x1027 kg Robert Millikan 1909 quotOil Dropquot experiment discovers fundamental unit of charge on an electron e 16x103919 coulombs From this and Thomson39s em value for the electron the mass of the electron is calculated to be 911x1031 kg This is much smaller 11837 th than the mass of lightest known element therefore the electron must be quotSUBATOMICquot Ernest Rutherford Hans Geiger and Ernst Marsden 1911 discoverthe quotnucleusquot of atom using experimental setup shown in Fig 210 p 42 The results ofthis experiment contradict Thomson39s model of the atom and Rutherford presents his new planetary model of the atom to t the data Still an unsolved problem of charge repulsionthere must be something else in atoma neutral particle James Chadwick 1932 bombarded beryllium Be metal with alpha particles and noticed emission of predicted uncharged particle the quotneutronquot Mass of neutron is now known to be 16749x1027 kg slightly more than proton


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