Week 3 Notes: Lecture 5
Week 3 Notes: Lecture 5 ARH 209
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Notetaker on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 209 at University of Oregon taught by Walley A in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Hist of Japanese Art >1 >IC in Art History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
ARH209 History of Japanese Art Lecture 5 October 13 2015 The Meaning of Chineseness and Japaneseness Calligraphy Beginning of a Centralized Government Estabished in the latter half of the 7th century System established for appointing a successor to the emperor generally happened between brothers before moving onto the emperor s sons but was switched to direct inheritance in the end Justification for imperial legitimacy bloodlines and Buddhist appointment Construction of a waterclock controlled by the emperor dea of a permanent city acting as the political center introduced before the political center s location moved from the previous emperor s location to the successor s location Unifying unit of measurements dea of subjugated ethnic other and ceremonial domination within Japan Japanese Envoys to China Eariest record 57 CE Yamato envoy to Sui Dynasty China only recorded in China 600 CE Envoys to Tang China roughly 20 attempts between 630894 Envoys took place roughly every 16 years it was too expensive to attempt more often Only 60 success rate due to cold rapid current making for a dangerous journey many people that made it to China did not attempt the journey back Duration of stay varied from 1 year to a lifetime They purposely traveled in time to attend New Year s ceremonies in China 3 different routes from Heijo Capital to Chang an Northern route was the safest shortest distance southern and middle routes began being used later on Heijo Capital Layout of the city was highly influenced by China palace to the north gridlike city blocks symmetrical division down the middle of the city one major market on the left the other on the right etc Residentia buildings close to the palace courtiers homes had tiled roofs and imported Chinese d cor buildings further away had wooden roofs and were less decorated Beauties Decorated with Applied Bird s Feather Nara Exam Slides pg 2 6pane folding screens made with ink color and bird feathers Shows ideas of beauty and fashion of the period plump face thick tiedback hair red lips jewellike ornamentation between the eyebrows Clearly influenced by Chinese culture History of Writing in Japan Characters in China c 1300 BCE Most revered art form in East Asia Four treasures of the study brush ink stone ink paper Written objects came into Japan in the 5th century Kofun period Chinesestyle of writing practiced in Japan since the 7th century In the Nara period to be able to write means to be able to write Chinese not Japanese How it s done ink stone holds the ink brush strokes are made very expressively based on controlled or free movements takes a lot of practice every character has a sense of rhythm and flow within itself and how it reacts with the characters around it Paper was handmade and thus was more revered when someone just needed to jot down notes they would use wood scraps instead and once those scraps were used up they d be made into paper Buddhist Scripture Making Very sought after job pay was good since the ability to read and write was uncommon Different positions scribe editorproofreader formatmounter title writer polisher Scribes had to pass an exam to secure the position consisted of perfectly copying a sample sutra line of characters Created a sense of hierarchy Document on Recycled Paper Abbreviated form of scroll with official documents written on it Scroll made from paper scraps that were pasted together Flower Garland Sutra Nara Exam Slides pg 3 Gold calligraphy on purple paper considered the highest ranking form of calligraphy scribe had to cut the gold to make the ink and the dye for the paper was very expensive Zasshu Handscroll by Emperor Shomu Nara Exam Slides pg 5 Made to commemorate the death of his son Gakkiron Yueyiiun Handscroll by Empress Komyo Nara Exam Slides pg 4 Written in response to Emperor Shomu s scroll ustrates the subtle differences in style between scribes in comparison to Zasshu Calligraphy by Wang Xizhi A copy of Emperor Shomu s and Empress Komyo s scrolls to further illustrate subtle differences even when trying to exactly copy a document Development of Kana By Nara period Chinese characters adopted in Japan to phonetically write Japanese 4648 phonetic characters today Kana means quottemporary languagecharacters based on mana Mana is Chinese meaning official Page from a Copy of the Poetry Anthology ustrates the difference in meaning between kana and mana mana is bold demonstrating its official meaning where kana is written lightly and with less control demonstrating its temporary nature Collection of Poems by the ThirtySix Poets Nara Exam Slides pg 6 Another example of different paper and the expressive quality of calligraphy Yamato vs Kara Concept that separates calligraphy into two categories Yamato Japan Kara China quotwoman s hand or kana quotman s hand or mana used in private and written lightly used in public and written boldly Photos of these pieces have been posted in the Exam Slides on Canvas
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