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Contemporary Latin American Politics

by: Raegan Effertz

Contemporary Latin American Politics POLI 238

Raegan Effertz
GPA 3.83


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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raegan Effertz on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 238 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Martinez-Gallardo in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/228872/poli-238-university-of-north-carolina-chapel-hill in Political Science at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
Class 2 I Latin American Politics Class Z January 13 2010 a 57 Colonization and colonial society 1 Motivation for Conquest o Technological Skills 0 Economic Prosperity o Evangelization 2Success Favored by 0 Superior equipment Horses Iron Weapons Gun Powder 0 Role of NonAztec groups who aided Spaniards in defeating the Aztecs 0 Disease Rapid decline in the native population 0 Peru Civil War 3 Economy 0 Search for gold silver and raw materials by colonists I Mercantilism o Colonial economies oriented towards exports produced with forced labor 0 Imports limiting development of local production by artisans and craftsmen 4 Politics 0 Natives were denied access to political power 0 Problem of maintenance of control over local elites I Elaborate bureaucracy I Tendencies toward local autonomy o Colonial power reflected the absolutist states I Important role for the Church and God in government 5Society 0 Ethnic Groups Europeans Africans and Natives o Strict hierarchies according to power wealth and ethnicity o Peninsulares gt Creoles gt MestizosMulattos gt indigenous peoplesAfricans 0 Extreme concentration of land holdings 6Culture 0 Central role of Catholic Church religious mission of colonization 0 Very close relationship of Church and State 0 Ambiguous role of Priests 0 Eclectic mix of religious traditions o Dominance of Spanish culture Struggle for Independence 1 By 1600s important changes eroded hold of Spain on colonies 0 Population Shift 0 More active role of creoles in economy I Haciendas larger states that utilized forced labor in the form of debt penitence 2Attempts by the Spanish Crown to tighten control increased power of peninsulares o Rivalry between peninsulares and creoles 3Developments in Europe Weakening of Spanish Crown by Napoleon s invasion 4 Emergence of several independence movements 0 Long drawn out wars from 1810 to 1825 Squot 0 Key Figures Hidalgo Morelos Mexico Bolivar Northern SA and San Martin Southern SA 5 Independence in Americas was an elite project Partial exception of Mexico 6Wars as a route to upward mobility for Mestizos Move up in the military 7Brazilian Exception Comparativer peaceful road to independence 0 Brazil as seat of monarchy followed by Portuguese attempts to relegate it to colonial status again 9 declaration of independence by Prince Regent 9 continuation of Monarchy 8 Economies after Independence Wars 0 Labor force depleted and capital holders fled back to Europe I Devastation by war and interruption of trade 0 With recovery continuation of same pattern of raw material exports but to larger 9 Political Legacies of Colonialism 0 Power vacuum 9 filled by military powercaudillos o Struggle over borders 0 Struggle over centralization of power under new government versus local autonomy o No unified national military Societal Legacies of Colonialism o Continuation of colonial stratification 0 High degree of landwealth concentration Legacies of Colonialism 1 Profoundly shaped the economies politics and societies in the 19 h c 2Structure of world economy and international system of states in the 20 h c deepened many of these traits 3Some of these traits are still obstacles to democracy development and human welfare II Imports and Exports of Latin America a b ExportImport Growth 1 Logic of Model 0 Doctrine of economic liberalismlaissezfaire economic policiescomparative advantage 0 Imports of consumer goodsluxury goods 0 Foreign investment in mines trade banking insurance railroads I Dependence on foreign demand finished goods and capital 2Consequences 0 Modern Elite I Change from semifeudal closed elite to entrepreneurial elite o Oligarchic democracy 0 dictatorships 0 Middle Class I Growth of quotservicequot and professional classes 0 Urbanization I Search for jobs 0 Working Class I First workers organizations I No political power until expansion of suffrage9 cooptative democracies ImportSubstitutionization Industrialization ISI 1IS First Stage 0 Policy shift after 1929 crash 0 Trade interruption lead to deliberate promotion of domestic industrialization to replace imports of finished goods o WWII further strengthening ISI Government Measures implemented to promote industrialization I Protect local industries vs foreign competition I State as promoter of capital formation I Investment in infrastructure I Supported overvalued exchange rate Advance of ISI Industrial output increased 6fold 195080 Manufacturing production increased 0 Accounting for 21 ofGDP in LA in 1960 vs 29 in industrialized countries 16 in East Asia Percentage of labor force in manufacturing increased from 1520 in 1960 to 2328 in 1980 But problems with industrial employment 0 Consequences I Social consequences of accelerated process of industrialization o Urbanization 0 Changes in socioeconomic structure I Political Consequences o Cooptative democracy Chile 0 Populist alliances Mexico Brazil Argentina 0 Problems with ISI I Continued heavy dependence on imports and on foreign capital I Deterioration of terms of trade I Stagnation of market growth for traditional exports I Multinational corporations in manufacturing 9 profit reparation 2Deepening of ISI Second Stage of ISI 0 Domestic Market was slowing because goods are too expensive and ppl do not have jobs 0 Having a closed economy made products less competitive in the int l market Low Quality Products 0 No capacity to turn to exports to expand market 0 From light consumer goods to intermediate and capital goods I But technological dependence on the US and Europe continued as well as capital reliance from other countries 3Economic Crises 9 Military Regimes 0 Examples Brazil 64 85 Chile 73 89 Uruguay 73 85 0 Argentina Military Intervention six times I Professionalization of military No political parties only Argentines I Democracy politics as problem strong government as solution 0 How did these economic changes shape politics I Modernization Theory Economic progress would bring about economic and political change I Middle Class wants stabilization o BureaucraticAuthoritarianism I Stages of Economic and Political development linked through changes in social structure and political mobilization I Economic development creates new groups 4Economic Model 9 Political System 0 ExportImport 9 Oligarchic 1880s1930 I Prosperity for Small Elite inequality 9 Limits scope of political participation I Urbanization and Middle classes 9 Elite is related to export sector I Small militant labor movements 9 Popular sector has not been incorporated I Oligarchic democracy or centralizing dictator I Outcome dependent on strength of middle and working classes and reformist elites ISI 9 Populism 193060 I Quick expansion of industry makes wage and benefits expansion easy 9 Authoritarian sometimes initially democratic I Incentives to expand working class 9 Direct appeal of leader to masses bypassing of mediating institutions I Incentives for incorporation of working class into populist coalition 9 Legitimacy base on charisma nationalism appeals to social justice Second Stage ISI 9 Bureaucratic Authoritarianism 196082 I Crises of ISI 9 Military Authoritarianism and control of state I No room to expand market 9 Exclusion and repression of labor and the left I High cost of producing capital goods I More austere eco policies that deemphasize concessions to workers 9 Narrow support base in internationalized bourgeoisie foreign capital and top bureaucracy 5Consequences What is Democracy a Definition of Democracy 1System of governance in which rulers are held accountable for the actions in the public realm by citizens acting indirectly through the competition and cooperation of elected representatives Schmitter and Karl b Breaking Down the Definition 1 RegimeSystem of Governance Set of patterns that determines I Who can access office I How they can access office I Rules for making binding decisions Democracy I Institutionalized I Office accessed through competition I Officials accountable to citizens Authoritarian I BureaucraticAuthoritarianism I Access not through election exclusion narrow base of support I Use of force usually militarily Military Regimes Sultanistic I Personal rulership no restraints on ruler 2Participation quotCitizensquot Greek Selfgovernment government by and for the people I Demos peoplekratos to govern Government of the People Representative Democracy I Elected representatives interpret general will and carry it out James Madison A cure for the faction Restrictions for Participation in Government Age Felonies Criminals Citizenship Poverty Property Rights Literacy m 3Competition 0 Evolution from consensus to elections 0 Typically through elections but other means of participation 4 Protection of Minorities o Majority rule How to avoid tyranny of majority 0 Liberal Democracy Limits on authority in order to guarantee protection of rights and freedoms o IlliberalRestricted Democracy Elections BUT restrictions to liberties I Restricted franchise Literacy qualifications I Military intervention in campaigns I Prohibition of certain parties or candidates I No protection of freedom of speech press assembly 0 Modifications to majority rule 5 Measures of Democracy 0 Dichotomous state is either democratic or not I Straightforward but some cases not so clear 0 Continuous Different scales with different components I Freedom House quotFreedomquotPolitical rights civil liberties o Polity Qualities of executive recruitment constraints on executive authority and political competition 0 Economist Intelligence Unit quotThickerquot concept Includes electoral process and pluralism civil liberties the functioning of government political participation and political culture Cycles of Electoral Democracy Latin America in the 19 h Century 1Three distinct prevalent forms of political rule 0 Caudillismo military or paramilitary strongmen set the authority over the nation 0 Integrating dictatorships gaining power through the idea that a political leader with centralize government authority Arise by getting rid of political caudillos Competitive Oligarchy or Oligarchy Republicanism power is limited to the wealthy and powerful elite only men can participate in government built as a way to reduce the power of the caudillos and centralize the elite in g limited 39 39 quot 39 39 39 2Cycles of Political Change in Latin America 0 19001930 NonDemocracies and Oligarchy is the majority political rule 0 19301975 Autocracies are majority but democracy is growing in popularity 0 19752000 Democracies are on the rise but still a large amount of non and semidemocracies 3Differences in Oligarchic and Autocratic regimes o In oligarchic regimes elections took place but only the elite could participate so they were not really free 0 In autocratic regimes elections did not take place and elite took over without being popular among the public 4Growth of Democracy 0 MShaped Curve I Rise in the 1950s fall in 60s and 70s with Brazil and Argentinean authoritarian regimes o By 1998 15 electoral democracies 4 semidemocracies and no autocratic regimes o By 2000 nearly 90 of Latin American population living in democratic societies 0 5 in the initial phase 30 in the second and 55 in final phase 5s the Latin American Trajectory Unique 0 Three waves of democratization Long Wave 18281926 Experiments with democracy to see how well it works in Latin American societies Followed by first reverse wave 192242 Short Wave 194362 Starts towards the end of WWII with the democratic powers winning the war and showing the powerfulness of democratic nations But it is followed by another reverse wave 195875 Third wave 197590 Democratization starts with the election of a democratic leader in the Dominican Republic 6 Explaining Waves 0 Internal developments Urbanziation Industrialization o Diffusion Snowballing Single Cause Economic Stability The Great Depression 1930s and Opening of Trade 1980s 0 Previous Experience Transitions to Democracy 1Many Changes from one type of regime to another 155 in LA 2Variations Among Countries 4 in Chile or Venezuela vs 14 in Argentina or 17 in Honduras 3Some Last Some Don39t Haiti was democratic for 1 year between 1900 and 2000 Costa Rica has been democratic since 1953 4What explains transitions to democracy o Is the starting point important in determining the outcome Starting Point Types of Authoritarian Rule 0 Personalistic Leaders want power for the sake of power itself based on patronage in order to build a base of support 0 Military Traditional Caudillo I sum o Civilian T 39 39 state J 39 g 0 Institutional Power belongs to whole parties Military or Bureaucracies 0 Military Collective Juntas or BureaucraticAuthoritarian regimes o Civilian One party state or corporatist regimes o What other factorsactors are important Economy Economic Development 0 Modernization Theory 0 only in a wealthy society in which relatively few citizens lived at the level of real poverty could there be a situation in which the mass of the population intelligently participate in politics and develop the self restraint necessary to avoid succumbing to the appeals of irresponsible demagogues Lipset o Criticisms 0 Casual relationships could work in opposite direction 0 Defend importance of political variables concerning a democratic regime o Other authors argue that modernization instead of promoting a distribution of wealth and democracy may generate authoritarian regimes or those of exception ignore history and culture that make a transition to democracy more prominent racial religious etc divides What do we see in LA 0 190039 appears to confirm the modernization theory 0 194077 Positive relationship between level of development and political democracy but weaker 0 During the last period this relationship weakened markedly o How do they happen I What factors are important 0 Social Forces 0 190039 Elites pushed for partial political reforms strategy to keep the oligarchy in power and to keep working class in check so they would not challenge the system Strategy was successful because the lower classes were small and isolated 0 194070 Reforms pushed by middle classes but did not always side with workers Success depended on who middle class allied with When the middle class allies with the working class the outcome is fulldemocracy The episodes of democracy in South America were short lived because of this 0 19782000 Role of working class was mixed In Peru Argentina and Chile pressure from workers helped to form a broad front and remove military regimes from power Business played an important role in political reform In Mexico business played a more important role 0 Two types of Change 0 Ruptura violent break from previous regime more likely after personalistic regimes o Reforma negotiations between incumbents and dissidents typical after oneparty or military regimes most common means of transition 9 pacted transitions 0 Politics of Transitions o Authoritarian Side Within the Regime I Hardliners Maintain the regime without any meaningful change I Reformers Willing to accept substantial liberalization 0 Democratic Side Opposition I Moderates intent on democratization even at the price of powersharing I Radicals condemn such bargain and seek unconditional democracy Key aspect is to understand the difference between reformers and moderates Three Conditions 0 Three Conditions 0 Reformers and moderates need to assure their respective constituencies that they will have strong presence under the new institutional arrangement 0 Reformers need to keep the hardliners in line 0 Moderates need to keep the radicals under control 0 Outcomes and Payoffs o Reformers O 5What explains whether they last or not VI Transitions to Democracy a Chile 1Timeline 0 18951920 Oligarchic Democracy I Parliament was the dominant government institution I Civil War 1891 9parliamentary republic I ExportImport growth from 1880s on based mainly on nitrate and copper I Congress Dominant representing oligarchy 0 192024 Restricted democracy Support from middle and working classes Institution of prolabor reforms government intervention Reforms for mobilization of labor Conservative opposition in Congress leads to partial control of government by military Partial reforms to appease labor 192432 InstabilityAuthoritarianism I Political instability 193270 Restricted Democracy Political parties become important vehicles of representation Three political poles right center left Popular front rules until 1952 central left coalition Right poles Alessandri wins with 316 of vote 195864 Growth of left Allende 289 Christian Democrats Frei with support from the right win the election 196470 Intense US involvement Reformist promises beginning of land reform and pressure on copper companies bit little 197073 Democracy Enfranchisement of illiterates under Allende Goal Democratic transition to a socialist economy strong reformist redistributive program Opposition US involvement in attempt to keep Allende from being confirmed in congress and also putting money into media campaigns to cover the election so that he could not be confirmed as the new president of Chile political right Electoral strategy erode popular support and gain 23 majority in congress to impeach Allende Economic sabotage scare tactics and communist smear campaigns by media Results inflation due to ineffective attempts at price controls and shortages and black markets increasingly open confrontations intensification of class conflict Electoral strategy failed Allende s vote share increased instead of decreasing the right pole resorted to a military coup instead August 1973 Prats pressured to resign followed by Pinochet who quickly advances plans for coup September 11 197389 BureaucraticAuthoritarianism I Heavy Repressionhuman rights violations I Complete restructuring of economy society 0 quotChicago Boysquot first neoliberal program 0 Repression of left banning congress and political parties Debt crisis aggravates difficulties After 1985 resumption of growth but Pinochet defeated in 1988 plebiscite The Opposition Unites9 1989 Elections 1989Present Democracy I Concertacion vs Alianza Electoral Democracy with authoritarian enclaves Problem of military legacies in constitution o Designated senators changed in 2005 0 Used to tilt the balance in congress a little more favorably to the right 0 To lock in the neoliberal policies 0 Binomial electoral system 0 Two seats per district one for the majority party and one for the second place party 0 This guarantees that the right wins an electoral seat even if they don t win the total election Moderate progress in reducing poverty and none on inequality 0 Chile is one of the most unequal countries in LA b Mexico 1Timeline 18761911 Authoritarian Diaz regime and revolution 0 Need for strong central state 0 Reliance on foreign capital for resources 0 Dictatorship 0 Political opportunity reserved for few 0 Revolution 0 Middle and upper classes wanted political reform 0 Workers joined in the hope that they would get better labor conditions and rights 0 Peasants wanted land and relief from debt peonage 191121 Revolution and Civil War 19212000 OneParty Authoritarian Regime PRI Regime 194070 0 Inclusion of workers and peasants in tent party 0 Corporatist organization representation not individual 0 Sustained through patronage possible because PR State and winning elections 0 Organize succession o Regularize competition among elites within party through rotation Type of Authoritarian Regime 0 Single party authoritarian regime vs bureaucraticauthoritarian o Civilian not military 0 Elections happened regularly I Parties existed o The constitution of 1917 was in effect I Congress quotworkedquot 0 Repression I Mexican regime was less repressive than the regime in Chile Decline after 1970s What happened 0 Long process and not a single event 0 Regime change throughout the 20 h c not just at the turn of the century 0 Change in economic model After 1982 debt crisis default and capital flight Loans from IMF and turn towards neoliberal program Shrinking size of state meant less spending and job loss I Privatization caused the problem for the government to give to people who were loyal to the ruling party When people start cutting subsidies that they have been used to they start questioning their loyalty because they are not receiving the same care they were before Weakened capacity to quotoil machine o Weakened corporatist mechanisms 0 Loss of legitimacy because of challenge to leadership role in economic development I Continued economic and social crisis in 1994 Assassinations and EZLN I Where is the social justice and economic support that was promised o InternationalScrutiny I The government started to rely on international exports but had to change the ways in which they did business in order to deal with countries of Europe and US 0 Electoral reforms o Intended to keep appearances of democracy 0 Open spaces for peaceful expression of opposition after 1968 o Gives opposition forum from which to ask for more space I Dilemma how much can you open your political system without causing problems of security and exposure 0 PRI negotiated away its advantage 0 2000Present Democracy I Democratic Survival and Institutional Alternatives 0 How to avoid the authoritarian government of the past and maintain the presence of democracy in Mexico 0 What Went Wrong Before 0 Military Main threats came from groups within the country They are not meant to rule a country but only to protect it Need for civilian control of the military Make sure the armed forces are subject to the rule of law After transition to democracy the military became less of a political player loss of military spending and loss of privileges for high ranking military officials 9 W v 0 US Intervention People saw US intervention as detrimental for the success of democracy in LA Globalizations would spread the idea of free markets and democracy more rapidly US has invaded LA countries in order to quotdefendquot democracy 0 Internal Social Conflict Internal worker demands to the government provoked reactions from the elites 9 alliances between the elites and the military 0 Was there something wrong with LA democracy Perhaps there is a flaw in the way LA countries are organized There are fewer stable presidential democracies 4 than parliamentary democracies 25 with 25 continuous years of democracy Most LA countries have presidential systems VII Presidential vs Parliamentary a How is the head of government elected and who has authority over the cabinet 1 Head of state samedifferences from head of government 2Plurality vs Majority 57 Who makes up the executive branch 1Presidential Separately elected president Cabinet named and dismissed by president 2 Parliamentary Parliament popularly elect and executive is selected by parliament cabinet is elected by majority or PM chosen by majority party and cabinet approved by it Can the executive remove the legislature or viceversa Squot 1 Presidential Fixed term separate survival Legislature cannot remove president except under extreme circumstances and president cannot dissolve legislature 2 Parliamentary Legislature can dissolve PM and cabinet with a vote of no confidence retiring majority support no separate survival d Institutional Design 1 Presidentialism o Decisive and stable 0 But excludes minority interests 0 Divided government and cooperation I Separate elections make divided government possible 0 Likely outcome deadlock o Worse if multiparty quotdifficult combination 0 No incentives for coalitionbuilding o Rigidity I Critics of presidentialism argue that parliamentary systems are more flexible I President is guaranteed fixed term but no guarantees that staying will not produce crisis that might threaten the stability of the regime 0 Something I missed Tension reflected in discussion about 0 How long presidents should stay in office 0 How strong there mandate should be 0 Something I missed Executive Power 0 Election 0 Plurality vs Majority runoff I Plurality Mexico Costa Rica Paraguay Venezuela Weak mandate Allende with 365 of vote I Majority Runoffs Argentina Brazil Chile Nicuragua Strong mandate Small parties centrist politics 0 Reelection I If there is no reelection there is no incentive for the president to do what the people want 0 Sources of Power 0 Constitutional Powers What does the constitution say that the president can and cannot do I Proactive decrees vs Reactive veto powers I Partisan 0 Low Brazil High Mexico 0 How to enhance the legislature s role as representative of people s interests I Concern about divided government and multiparty systems I How to organize elections to maximize representation but avoid the pitfalls of too many parties Mixed Party systems I How to assure stable parties that play important role of representing interests 0 Legislative Branch I How do you elect the legislature 0 Single member districts One seat for each voting district 0 Encourages 2Party moderation 0 Proportional Representation Seats according to vote share 0 Making presidential systems more stable 2 Parliamentarism 0 Flexible and inclusive I Honduras I o 397 I 0 374 I Coalition building 0 But can be unstable VIII Latin American Democracy Liberal or Illiberal a Spread of Electoral Democracy 1 By 2000 nearly 90 of population living in democracy 0 Free and fair elections in most countries 0 Electoral Democracies I Competitive multiparty Universal adult suffrage Regularly contested elections I Access of major political parties to the electorate b Quality of Democracy 1 Democracies in LA did not look like those of Western Europe and North America 0 Persistent problems with democracies in LA 0 Exceptions as good liberal democracies 2 Liberal Democracies combination of electoral democracy with the protection of freedoms an rights 3 Illiberal Democracies Regime that combines free and fair elections with systematic curtailment of freedoms and rights 4Democracy Elections and Citizen Rights Free Free NOT Colombia democracies Venezuela Cuba democracies 5Free countries Liberal Democracies are on the rise from 19722005 Freedom House 0 Partly Free countries are stabilizing and NonFree Countries are declining c Prevailing Problems 1 Freedom of the Press Accountability and Public Voice 0 Dangers of Journalism Columbia Brazil Mexico Venezuela 0 Antidefamation Laws and Policies 2 Uneven Rule of Law 0 Corruption Colombia Bolivia Guatemala Ecuador Venezuela I All are considered illiberal democracies 0 Human Rights Violations Civil Rights I Arbitrary use of force by police or security forces Colombia 0 Support for Democracy Anticorruption Scale from 0 to 7 0 is most Illiberal Not Free and 7 is most liberal free Accountability I Civil Liberties I Rule of Law I Anticorruption I I 356 I 314 Bolivia 0 456 0 416 0 358 0 308 Colombia 0 456 0 395 0 378 0 374 Paraguay 0 429 0 403 0 332 0 333 0 Improve health care and o A lot of political criminal system pressure for corruption drugs people money trafficking Speedy Trial is slow 0 Better Gender Equality o Transparency among political leaders is low Overcrowded prisons SexTrafficking Discrimination Disabilities cl Colombia Liberal or Illiberal 1 Formal institutions of democracy are present but they coexist with violence and corruption murdering of civilians and drugs 2State is unable to guarantee security of its citizens 3Two Periods 0 National Front Restrictions on Political Competition 0 Post National1991 Constitution Front Restrictions of civil rights 4 Liberals and Conservatives 0 18631885 Liberals 0 18861930 Conservatives 0 19311946 Liberals 0 19461960 Period of Violence Bogotazo Civil Wars between the Liberals and Conservatives 0 President of the Liberals was killed 200 thousand deaths Military government of Rojas Pinilla 53 57 Junta and Transition to civilian rule 5 National Front 0 A Bipartisan regime agreement between the two parties to alternate control in government that emerged as a compromise after period of violence 0 Two Elements Alternation in Presidency Parity in all other positions Pros Restoring civilian rule end to violence Cons Limits to participation parties became unresponsive fragmented new forms of violence guerrillas Ended formally in 1970s but the new regime kept some of the national front ideals 6Poitica Rights 0 Failure of consolidation 0 Political Systems National Front Increased political expression weakening of the system of representation they offered people different benefits through their policies very clientilistic Democratic reforms 1991 Constitution reforms attempted to implement the political actors that were left out during the National Front regime But it caused fragmentation within the government participation increased and political parties multiplied governing became a lot more difficult and political power became weaker 7Civil Rights Strength of non state actors Guerrillas and Drug Cartels Guerrillas FARC ELN EPL M19 o FARC were created in response to a communist threat 0 Several peace talks have been initiated with the guerrillas 0 US Policy quotPlan Colombia Focus on narcotics Cartels Medellin Cali Fragmentation 0 Both cartels were dismantled in 1990s Partial collapse of the state because of the power of the guerrillas and cartels These actors give large sums of money to parts of the country that align with them rather than the central government s democracy possible where the rule of law is absent e Venezuela From Liberal to quotliberal Democracy 1 Large oil reserves Most oil producers are not democracies Autocracies Oil and Democracy Many reasons to believe oil rents hinder democracy as well as distorting development 0 quotRentierquot effect Politicians use oil money to buy off citizens so they don t have to pay taxes which cause government revolts o quotRepressionquot effect Oil money used to buy propaganda and hinder prodemocratic groups 0 quotModernizationquot effect Growth in wealth from oil money which leads governments to spend money on things other than education and better social programs that lead to democracy ButOil might provide quoteasy money which states can spend on items the population wants without threatening elite with redistributive policies Government revenues from oil had a quotdemocratic effectquot in Venezuela 0 Destabilization of Democracy in Venezuela after OPEC collapsed 2Brief Political History Before 1945 almost no history of democracy Populist quotDemocratic Action party controls state briefly during 194548 quotTirenio Period Elite coup in 1948 Oil rents less important in 1945 30 of government revenues than later Oil rents much higher by late 1950s 60 of government revenues Democratic Action party moderates policies 1958 quotPact of Punto Fijoquot and class compromise 1960s Oil money and support of US 9 Legitimacy Incorporation of guerrillas MAS and Causa R Seeming democratic consolidation while other countries have BA regimes From 1958 quotPact of Punto Fijoquot to construction of twoparty system Democratic Action and Social Christian Party From 1973 to 1988 the two parties worked together to receive over 77 of the total vote Decline of Punto Fijo Plunge in per capita income after 1978 By 1998 23 of Venezuelans in poverty Steady drop in oil prices Carlos Andreas Perez AD inaugurated in 1989 and economic crisis became obvious 0 EL GRAN VRAJE 9 quotThe Great Turnquot neoliberal economic program o In terms of inflation the reforms did work and to get financial support from the world bank but they put a lot of pressure on the poor because social policies were ignored because they focused solely on economic policy 0 Popular discontent Caracazo Feb 1989 o 1992 military coup Chavez in limelight o Quickly associated with his opposition to neoliberal reforms 0 Party system collapses in 1990s I AD and COPEI lose support and presidency to Caldera running as independent in 1993 I Agenda Venezuela 0 Poverty worsened over the 90s I 1998 Neither major party runs a candidate against Chavez thus allowing him to win the presidency o Chavez and Movimiento Quinta Republica I Capitalized on economic decline and sense of political and social exclusion I Won election in 1998 with 57 in 200 his support went to 60 o Supporters Revolution that replaced oligarchy that masqueraded as democracy 0 Saw Chavez as their way out of poverty and corruption he was considered a true democrat for his push for Venezuelan equality o Opponents Chavez destroyed what was left of the liberal democracy crafted in 1958 0 Groups that dominated PF regime Chavez destroyed the true democratic regime and undermines the characteristics of liberal democracy IX Turn to the Left a Two Stages 1 Depoliticization or quotend of politicsquot 0 Widespread demobilization oforganized labor and peasants Roots of ISI 0 Demise and dealignment of programmatic competition 0 Insulated and exclusive character of policymaking 2 Repoliticization or quotbeginning of new politicsquot 0 Initial cycle of mobilization of new political parties that was triggered by economic crisis 0 Response to performance failures of SAPs Argentina 0 Response to accumulated grievances I Mobilization translated into politics 57 Populism Left 1What is populism o Rarely positive of mass 39 39 by quot 39 leader who challenge political and o Topdown economic elites Ideologically eclectic I Whether you are from the left or the right both sides rule the same way 2What is left 0 The defining features of the political left are a commitment to using state power andor popular participation to alleviate socioeconomic inequalities and protect individuals and groups against market insecurities 3 Different forms of resistance 0 Formed by established parties I Marxistsocialist roots Social Democrats I Roots in ISI Populism I Sandinistas in Nicaragua 0 New Political Movements Venezuela Chavez 0 Created his own party from the topdown his movement is focused around himselfand his ideas Bolivia Morales 0 Movement towards socialism Ecuador Correa o Mixture of both Morales and Chavez 4Fernando Lugo in Paraguay Left 0 quotBishop of the Poorquot 0 quotAntiPolitics platform 0 Centrist economic policy 0 Distanced himself from the radical left in South America 0 Support Leftwing parties some conservatives social movements unions peasant groups 5 Regional Solidarity of the Left 0 Economic Reforms I ALBA Bolivarian Alternative for Latin America and the Carribean 0 Political Reforms I Centralization of power I New Constitutions 6Consequences Organization and Polarization 0 Cuba I Comite de la Defensa de la Revolucion 1959 0 Venezuela I Circulos Bolivarianos 2002 0 Ecuador I Comites de la Defensa 2009 Correa quotThe Revolutionary Committees are also to mobilize citizens because we cannot allow a powerful and organized minority without scruples or limitations to impose their agenda on the vast majority that has been expressed at the ballot boxquot 0 Return of Marxist ideas in Latin America XLatin American Revolutions a 57 Nicaragua 1Augusto Sandino s Movement 0 Challenge power of dictator Anastasio Somoza 0 Movement started small but grew Especially late 1960s 0 Importance grew with popular sentiment against Somoza Especially 1970s I FPLN National Patriotic Front 0 1979 Final offensive Somoza flees o FSLN takes power for 11 years 0 Ortega Reelected in 2006 El Salvador 1 Fighting between military and revolutionaries cost 75000 lives between 19751992 2 Ideal Conditions for revolution economy based on one product high concentration of wealth peasants driven from communal lands 3Farabundo Marti Military overthrow of popularly elected government in 1931 Marti leads rebellion and response is brutal 0 La Matanza 3060 thousand deaths including Marti 4Military rule into 1960s 5JN Duarte Christian Democrats wins in 1972 but military stays in power 6Guerilla groups form support from Church o Assasination of Archbishop Romero in 1980 repression of demonstration FMLN 7FMLN fought a 10year civil war between USbacked government 81992 Peace accords 92009 Presidency Cuba 1 Key Characteristics 0 Long history of external domination Dependency on Spain US and Soviet Union 0 Nationalist revolution turning communist 0 Successful social revolution social achievements protected despite economic crisis 0 Repression of internal dissent aggravated by external pressures both economic and political I Uneven distribution of wealth to the elite Agriculture was the main export 9 very dependent on a single crop sugar cane 0 US had much of the control over the sugar trade in Cuba and the price at which it was traded Most of the profits returned back to the US as well Revolutionaries primarily came from the middle class not the working class 2Background to Revolution 0 Achieved independence from Spain much later than most other LA countries 0 New constitution in 1901 included Plat Amendment 9 Protectorate until 1934 0 Cuban Economy History I One product economy sugar I High 39 of quotr from US39 0 Cuban economy was dominated almost completely on US interests I Working class allowed formation of classwide movement I Crash of Cuban sugar market due to rapidly decreasing price in the 20s and 30s 0 Cuban Political History I Dictator Gerado Machado 192533 I 1933 general strike and army overthrow of Machado I Provisional government Grau San Martin with radical reformist orientation 9 alarm in US 9 Batista overthrows government I Fidel Castro s led the first attempt for a Cuban revolution against the Batista regime 1953 o Fidel and his brother were caught and then released only to flee to Mexico 0 Meets Che Guevara who helps Castro plot and execute the second revolution of Cuba 0 1956 landing with Granama9 guerilla war 0 Went with 90 members back to Cuba but most were killed immediately but the attempt was not considered a complete failure I By 1958 the Batista government was in trouble Batista goes into exile G Castro and remaining supporters marched into Havana and took over the government I 195962 Confrontation with the US 0 January 1 1959 triumphal entry of guerillas in Havana 0 Government starts as triumvirate but Castro takes over as PM o Nationalist orientation concern in US 0 First major confrontation with the US was over agrarian reform legislation of May 1959 o 1961 Castro takes a MarxistLeninist approach to his regime 3Economic Phases in Cuba Idealism Stage Moral Incentives 196270 I Diversification failed in Cuba so Castro and Guevara decided to focus on what Cuba was good at which is sugar production I Che Guevara gets into the sugar cane business I Goal of 10 million tons of sugar I llNew Man Eraquot I Che Guevara is killed by CIA operatives in 1967 Pragmatism Stage 197088 I Goal of 10 million tons failed not a very realistic goal they did reach around 84 million tons I They had a communist idea that people would sacrifice themselves for the common good of the country but they found out that it is not human nature and people do not work for nothing I Set up a more bureaucratic managerial style control of production Fall of Soviet Union in 19909 Communism is not very effective 0 Shortages become prominent because all of Cuba s economic support was supplied by the USSR but was abruptly halted after communism fell in the Eastern Bloc so they fail back on tourism to bring in capital flow into the country 0 1996 Helms Burton Act 0 Strengthens the trade embargo the US has over Cuba the embargo extends to include private companies that are trafficking goods into Cuba that were formerly owned by US citizens 0 Cuba has some of the best qualified doctors so they start to export medical supplies and services which became very successful 4Political Phases in Cuba Committees of the Revolution Communist Party I Bring all organizations under government control Authoritarian 5Why did a revolution succeed in Cuba 6USCuban Relations Bay of Pigs I US trained Cuban revolutionaries that had fled to Florida in order for them to go back and take over Castro s government When they were sent back to start the revolution Kennedy announces that they would not be given American air support and they were massacred US s reputation was tarnished after the event because it is an unsuccessful attempt to take over a small country I Ties between the USSR and Cuba become closer and the USSR seeked to have Cuba provide them with military weapons support Cuban Missile Crisis I USSR plant nuclear warheads in Cuba pointed directly at Florida A nuclear stand off occurred until negotiation terms were reached to take the missiles out of Cuba It is known as the closest the US has ever been to starting a nuclear war with the USSR I Kennedy comes up with a naval quarantine plan that keeps ships from entering Cuba Helms Burton Act 1996 I Tighten the the trade embargo on Cuba to US subsidiaries I Israel is the only other country to have a trade embargo on Cuban goods XI Other revolutions to keep in mind a Nicaragua 1Samosa Dictatorship A family dynasty 19361979 0 The Dictatorship enjoyed a lot of US support 0 Economic problems erupted when the earthquake struck the country in 1972 I Lose support of the majority of the population and The Church 0 Towards the end of the regime the US CIA began to train Nicaraguan National Guard 0 Samosa flees and the country is taken over by the Sandinistas Liberation Front FSLN I Daniel Ortega 1979 2 In 1984 the first free and fair elections occur in the country and Daniel Ortega becomes the first true president El Salvador 1 Power sharing agreement between 196079 in reaction to the revolutionary movement before hand look up 2 Military coup occurs 1979 57 0 They have reformist ambitions to nationalize private land and agrarian reform 0 They did not get to the agrarian reform 30pposition begins to the military regime in 1980 o Called the FMLN o Farabuno Mauti o 1992 Pact I Ending of the 12 year war which brought about the reduction of the Army and the disillusionment of the National Guard paramilitary and the Treasury Police A new police was formed 4 By 1997 the liberation movement becomes the largest party and in 2009 they win the presidency XII USLatin American Relations 1 North American Free Trade Agreement 1993 1Took effect at the beginning of 1994 2Truck Problems 0 VW Buses were made in Mexico and then driven 20 miles over the boarder to be put on a US truck to be driven around the country to American dealers 0 Now Mexican trucks are not allowed to cross over the boarder Mexican trucks are not covered under US Department of Transportation I Although it violates the DoT laws to have Mexican trucks in the US it violates the NAFTA laws not to let them into the country I Mexico took the case to the Supreme Court and President Clinton overturned the law b US Policy 1Security Latin America is weak by itself but the US has always been concerned that one of our major adversaries China NKorea will try to create military movements in LA countries against us 0 No Transfer Resolution Started from US fear right before the War of 1812 that Great Britain was going to ask and receive the territory of Florida and use it to their advantage when the war started Monroe Doctrine Mexico to give the Japanese a fishing port in the gulf underneath California We don t have a comparable rival today as we did with the USSR during the cold war The proximity to which Latin American countries are to the US is what ultimately make them dangerous 2 Economic Squot 53 0 LA has become increasineg valuable for their raw material copper coffee 3Domestic Policy 0 Florida is important as swing state and a gateway to the Caribbean LA countries 0 Presidential candidates lose votes in Florida for having a positive and diplomatic position towards Cuba I Most CubanAmericans call for a more hostel policy towards Cuba 4Cultural Constant 0 Americans think of Latin Americans as inferior to themselves Outline 11823 Monroe Doctrine 21880 1934 Dollar Diplomacy 3 193345 Good Neighbor Policy 41947 89 Cold War 51989present Pragmatic Politics Timeline of USLA relations 11823 Monroe Doctrine America for Americans 2 Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine military intervention if necessary 31880 1934 quotDollar Diplomacy o Interventions in California and Caribbean 0 Dictators 4193345 Good Neighbor Policy FDR renounces military intervention in LA 519457 US influence at all time high 0 Building of InterAmerican institutions agreement to redesign system 0 1947 Riot Pact approved mutual defense against external or internal aggression o 1948 creation of Organization of American States I Controversy over whether or not the US dominates policy making in such organizations after WWII 61947 89Cold War 0 Aim containment of communism I General antileftistreformist policy Two pronged approach 0 Alliance for Progress 0 Renewed military intervention and covert operations ex Guatemala Support for rightwing dictators o Contributing to dictatorshipscivil wars 0 19769 Carter s Interlude Human Rights 71989Present Pragmatic politics 0 End of Communist Threat 0 Support for spread of democracy Support for neoliberal economic policies Preoccupation with immigration and flow of drugs New issues fighting poverty energy There are still interventions occurring US Aid to Latin America and Caribbean I Increase from 19972000 I Decrease from 20002002 Increase from 20022007 US Military train Columbian Argentinean Mexican soldiers I US has much more invested in Columbia than Mexico READINGS Bejarano and Pizarro quotFrom lrestricted to 39besieged The changing nature of the limits to democracy in Colombiaquot They talk about Colombia as a democracy The country has experienced periods ofdemocracy where competition was free and fair but it has also been quot 39 by 39 39 39 ofunfair 39 39 and negligence ofhuman rights which shift it more towards the authoritarian side and ultimately a semi democracy More recently Colombia has remained labeled a semi democracy but for different reasons which consist of the country being taken over by paramilitary and guerilla groups and also an absence of rule of law the authors call this form of democracy a quotbesieged democracy Smith Chapter 6 Electoral Arena Talks about presidential terms some LA countries have no reelection which makes presidents lame ducks and less likely to care for the well being of their citizens other countries have reelection but have to wait out a term before doing so which makes the more like to push for legislation that benefits their citizens Others pass legislation while in office that allows them to go up for reelection where previously they could not Chavez Decrees of Urgency and Necessity are also an import source of presidential power The most Legislative branches in LA use a proportional rather than single member system there also exists a mixed system Mexico and Venezuela Overall there are low levels of institutionalization in LA except in four countries two of which suffered set backs with Hugo Chavez s collapse of traditional parties and changes in electoral rules traditional parties in Colombia Neoliberal Economic Reform Duncan Green 7583 1 Neglect of rural parts of LA states by their governments have caused failure to generate jobs and widened the poorrich gap in many LA countries 0 Brazil Richest 10 increased share of total income from 28 to 48 Second most unequal country in world Richest 5 earn 32 times more than poorest 5 2 Import Substitution deepened LA lovehate 39 39 39 39I with 39 39 I o Transnationals provide LA countries with sources of technology and capital 0 Allowed LA states to neglect research and development projects 0 Increased priority to manufactured exports to fill growing trade gaps Brazil and Mexico 0 There was no competition in markets to drive prices down and make industries more efficient Moral Hazard Problem 0 Destruction of domestic industries 3 Decline ofimport substitution with the rise in world oil prices 19739 OPEC 0 Banks to lend petrodollars to LA countries who they thought could not go bankrupt 0 Many LA countries leapt at the chance to take money at low interest rates except for Chile Columbia and Argentina 0 Mexico found new oil sources at the time of OPEC crisis but borrowed big to upstart 4 Margaret Thatcher and Ronal Regan become world leaders and play a role in creating free market economies in several collapsing LA countries 0 Chile experiences a military coup from Allenda to Pinochet 0 Increasing inflation and unemployment How do they keep Industrialization going 0 Chile s Chicago Boys Milton Friedman Friedrich von Hayek and Arnold Harberger I Chicago Boys are the Technocratic Elite 0 Chicago Boys helped to change economic policy under Pinochet rule in Chile IIWhat Washington Means by Policy Reform John Williamson Fiscal Deficits Public Expenditure Priorities Tax Reform Interest Rates The Exchange Rate Trade Policy Foreign Direct Investment Privatization wwwsnsnewzve Deregulation 10 Property Rights III Successes and Failures of Neoliberalism Huber and Solt 1


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