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Introduction to Comparative Politics

by: Raegan Effertz

Introduction to Comparative Politics POLI 130

Raegan Effertz
GPA 3.83

Andrew Reynolds

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Andrew Reynolds
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Poli 130 Comparative Politics What types of communal differences exist today Ethnic Racial Religious Linguistic Geographic If an institution or democracy is successful they will overcome these differencesor at least some of them Leaders attempt to put in place Constitutions and institutions to reduce con ict Examples Ethnicity Rwanda Hutus and Tutsis Bosnia Serbs Croats and Bosnias Large segmentation between three groups can only vote for your type ofperson Tatars in the Crimea Ukraine Tatars feel shut out compared to Ukrainians Sri Lanka Tamils and Sinhalese Civil war that is coming to a close both think the Island is theirs historically and mythologically West Africa Liberia and Sierra Leone Krahn Mandingo Gio Mano Creoleall battling for control Race South Africa also some language FijiRace and Ethnicity Ireland Started between Protestants and Catholics but now just who should run the government the Republic or UK etc Belgium and Netherlands Religious divisions originally but again now just a label Sudan Geographic differences Burma Buddhist Christian Morocco Just about geography trying to control territory wanting to control desert Differences will always be there but how do we manage the differences Primordial thesis People never going to come togethershare power with everyone in as many different ways as you can Ascriptive traits Kinship ties Communities of the like Constructed thesis Allows groups to be able to come together rather than pushing groups away from eachother Colonial constructions Elite manipulations Selfinterest of rational actors How can ethnic con ict be managed Through Democratic Structures through central control through partition Reading Notes Patterns of democracy Defining democracy as quotgovernment by and for the people raises question of who will do the governing and who will government be responsive to when people are in disagreement and have different preferences One answer is the simple majority The majoriatiran model is simple and straightforward This model is exclusive competitive and adversarial One answer is the consensus model which is as many as possible Instead ofbeing satisfied with a simple majority this model says to get as many people to agree as possible Government should seek to maximize these majorities This model is characterized by inclusiveness bargaining and compromise Aka as quotnegotiation democracy Ten differences w 2 dimensions Executivesparties dimension 1 Concentration of executive power in singleparty majority cabinets versus executive powersharing in broad multiparty coalitions 2 Executivelegislative relationship in which the executive is dominant versus executivelegislative balance of power 3 Twoparty versus multiparty systems 4 Majoritarian and disproportional electoral systems versus proportional representation 5 Pluralist interest group systems with freeforall competitions among groups versus coordinated and quotcorporatistquot interest group systems aimed at compromise and concentration Federalunitary dimension 1 Unitary and centralized government versus federal and decentralized government 2 Concentration oflegislative power in a unicameral legislature versus division of legislative power between two equally strong but differently constituted houses 3 Flexible constitutions that can be amended by simply majorities versus rigid constitutions that can be changed only by extraordinary majorities 4 Systems in which legislatures have the final word on the constitutionality of their own legislation versus systems in which laws are subject to a judicial review of their constitutionalist by supreme or constitutional courts 5 Central banks that are dependent on the executive versus independent central banks Federalism has two meanings Primary meaning is a guaranteed division of power between the central government and regional governments The secondary is government that is strong bicameralism has a rigid constitution and strong judicial review Duchacek Elazar Friedrich and Wheare 83109 Class notes The importance of Democratic design 0 Free institutions are next to impossible in a country made up of different nationalities SMill 1888 o Tribalism and ethnic division the root cause for the failure of democracy in the newly independent states ofAfrica Arthur lewis 1967 0 Democracy itself operates as a system for managing and processing rather than resolving con ict Adam Przeworski 1993 0 Institutional design takes on an enhanced role in newly democratizing and divided societies because in the absence of other structures politics becomes the primary mode of communication between divergent social groups Democracy proposed to be used as a con ict resolver fiX con ict in a productive way Look at Democratization in different places will show that it does not solve all problems and some say it will make countries weaker Obama has moved from democratization and more about stabilization When people do things together or are used to be together there will be less violent con ict and con ict will not be as bad The growth and diffusion of democracy More countries than ever before in history are attempting the foundational stage of democracyover 3 countries are trying multiparty competitive elections 150200 states have attempted multiparty elections since 1975 Over 90 countries hae moved into quotdemocraticquot column since 1980 Over 50 military governments have been replaced by civilian ones Hard to define who is the most democratic and stuff like that Arend Lijphart For a country to be an established Democracy it must be so for 20 years and have the normal traits ofa democracy In he 90 s he had a list of 36 which he said were very unlikely to fall back out of democracy History of Democracy First wave 18261926 roots in American and French revolutions Europe US Pacific New Zealand was the first democracy First reverse wave 192 21942 Collapse of European Sates after WW1 such as Italy Greece Poland Baltics and Germany Second Wave 19431962 Much bigger wave you have Post War countries such as Germany Austria Italy Japan and Koreamost ofwhich were imposed Consitution Soviet occupation snuffed out hopes for democracy in Czechoslovakia Hungary and Baltics Increases in democratic attempts in Latin America India Pakistan etc some African countries as well Second Reerse Wave 195 81975 Shift backwards in Latin American Peru Brazil Bolivia Argentina Ecuador etc 33 African countries become authoritarian governments Only Botswana and Mauritius survived Third Wave 1974 and on maybe over Begins with a coup in Portugual in 1974 Between 1974 1989 30 countries in Eurpoe Asia and Latin America become Democratic Former Soviet Sates etc Attempts in Iraq Afghanistant and Sudan A New Reverse Wave Asia Pakistan Malaysia venezuala Colombia the stans in Europe African and Pacific states How does democracy evolve o The evolution of dem is Western Eurpoe was messt and slow Example Switzerland very slow but got a system that worked for them 0 Does democracy need a certain level ofeconomic development Should we even be pushing it on countries like Afghanistan Can you even have democracy in poor countries Wat is most important economic upliftment or voting and elections What are the implication for quotdemocracyquot ifit is imposed from the outside Most say it will not work because it is not their system and people want to design their own systems that are cultural appropriate What does it mean to different cultures 0 In Europe 0 Social democracy and tripartite corporatism in Scandinavia 0 Arab 0 Political rights for women 0 China 0 Collective rights local participation 0 Asia 0 Asian Tigets Sinapore Malaysia etc communal responsibility vs individual rights 0 Africa 0 Indigenous something talking out problems with elders I think You have to understand how they live and work and how they make decisions in places you want to put in Democracy Majoritarian Democracy Winner take all concept If you are the biggest group and win most seats you got the power Executive type Is it a Presidential or parliamentary system If it is a parliamentary system is there a single party government coalition government or a constitutionally mandated government of national unity Legislative Type unicameral or bicameral system symmetrical or asymmetrical powers reserved seats for minorities vs not Constitutional Natures of Sate Unitary all power in the capital or Federal power in central place and small groups or regions Congruent or incongruent federalism Autonomyterritorial or non territorial Party system number or parties number of issue dimensions type of parties coherence ofparties Properties of Majoritarianism Concentration of executive power one party and bare majority cabinets Fusion of power and cabinet dominance Two party system Plurality elections Interest group pluralism Unitary and centralized government Asymmetric bicameralism or unicameralism Unwritten constitution and parliamentary sovereignty Absence ofjudicial review Central bank controlled by executive 9209 Politics in the UKMajoritarianism Democracy UK politics affect the rest of the world led to election of Hamas in Palestine 1215Magna Carta Important precedent said King is not above the law 16491660Brief experiment under Oliver Cromwell after Charles ousted Other than that it has been a strict Constitutional Monarchy Queen still has to sign law 1707Act ofUnion between Scotland and EnglandWalesunder Iames VI 1801 Inclusion ofIreland creates the United Kingdom 1832 Reform Act Drastically increased electoral participation 1911Parliament Act establishes Common s supremacy over Lord Emergence of the elected house House of Common s having more power 1918Franchise given to all men over 21 and women over 30 1921Rish Free state established6 counties left in Northern Ireland 1945 Welfare StateNHSSS Beveridge plan under Atlee s Labour Government Labour party elected in large majority 1973 Britain joince European Community under Heath Many people see the benefits ofbeing part of Europe but many do not want to loose what it means to be British by becoming more like Europe 1979 Thatcher electedFirst women elected as PM changed a lot of things in the country 1990 Thatcher force out replaced by Major 1997 Blair returned as head of first Labour government for 18 years 2001 Reelected in Landslide 2005 reelected again 2007 Steps aside in favor of Gordon Brown Concentration of executive power one party controls the stage bare majority cabinets Very Maj oritarianWinning large numb er of seats off of nonmajority votes Fusion of power and cabinet dominance They have all the power they choose PM etc Asymmetric bicameralism Lower house more powerful than the House of Lords Highest level of appeal court is the House of Lord s Two Party systemNo many parties to win seats There are 2 main parties but other parties win significant number of seats Moving more towards multi party system Only 30 of people who voted went for one of the two main ones Labour partyworkers party socialism but has moved more to the right slightly right from middle right now probably Conservative Conservative was very strong under Thatcher but now it has moved more liberal Liberal Democratics Tolerant left social libertarians most left wing now that labour has moved More progressive Plurality elections Onedimensional party system Unitary and centralized government Used to be like this a lot Very little local and region government In recent years it has become more federal Unwritten constitution and parliamentary sovereigntytrue Exclusively representative democracy 9909 Movie 91409 Consequences of majoritarianism Easy for whoever is in power to do whatever they want basically Nothing really changes all that much don t really have checks and balances but still same why Duverger s Law When you have elections based on single member districts you get 2 party combination Party s form coalitions until you only have 2 parties competing Downs Median Voter Theorem Economic Theory ofVoting Voter in the middle thing from Kyle s class most votes in the middle for a general election West Lothian Questions Why should Ireland get to vote for their own parliament and UK parliament but English doesn t get two choices too Lijphart Ch 3 reading 0 Majoritarian democracy is actually undemocratic because it is based on principles of exclusion Sir Arthur Lewis 0 Democracy by Lewis All effected by the policy should get a voice in the formation of it And that the majority will win but the two can not work together 0 Majoritarians Yes they can 1 If the majority and minority switch power often UK 2 Countries are relatively homogeneous societies and parties platforms are not actually that different 0 Neither of these workin less homogeneous societies I Policies by parties diverge more and voters tend to be more loyal to their party I In Plural societies many different clearly defined groups this does not work a lot 0 Majoritarian rule can become undemocratic and dangerous leaving minorities always in the minority with no power Class 92309 South Africa Tried to use consensus building government designs and how they have shifted away from them Consensus or power sharing governmentsnever have perfect examples same as majoritarian Stability in democracy is importantand the choice in government impacts stabilityespecially in fragile places such as Zimbabwe Been run by the small White population for much of its history after the war in the 80 s others took over but since then it has fallen into chaos Now Mugabe must share power with Morgan Tsvangirai although they hate each other 0 Majoritarian governments are very pluralistic all trying to get quotthe ear of government The most powerful have the best chance 0 Consensus governments work towards corp oratism having groups of business leaders etc Dog Show Normal dogs have their category but then you have the rare ones that have their own categoryproblem This is how majoritarian lobbying ruined the Westminster Dog Show People have lobbied to get their own categories Labs don t have their own categories just one Cocker Spaniels have 4 categories Consensuspower sharing governments are divided up in groups 0 Executive Powersharing Grand Coalitions o ExampleFirst election in South Africa every party that won over 5 of the vote you were entitled to proportional cabinet seats Switzerland lots of different groups fighting for power power sharing government designed around decentralization power and proportional power sharing in executive government 0 Separation ofpowers formal and informal O O o Multiparty system Fragmented political system 0 Norway 0 Multidimensional party systemdivided around these things I Socio economic I Religious I Culturalethnic I Urbanrural I Regime support I Foreign policy I Postmaterialist green etc o Proportional Representationencourages fragmentation little parties can win seats easier 0 Iraq good example bringing minorities 0 Interest Group Corporatism 0 When a group outside wants to say something the government will bring in groups related to the problem or issue and formally bring them in o Territorial and Non Territorial FederalismDecentralization ofpower to states 0 Territorialdivided along territories I Spain 0 Nonterritorial I Cultural o BelgiumFlemish and Waloons I India 0 separate religious lawsMuslims can opt out of certain laws not because ofwhere they live but because of their group 0 Balanced bicameralism and minority representationtwo chambers equal power but different ways of getting elected o Reservation of seats in legislature in US drawing districts for minorities Written Constitution and minority veto Iudicial ReviewWay of restraining government Independent Bank Power sharing governments are often create as a result ofwars as a way to hush both sides and work to make the country work together BosniaParties have to divided on racial and ethnic lines disrupting the country coming together no space for multiethnic coalitions to come together Most countries have problems with changing Constitutions even if needs change for the country New Zealand example public passed thing to reduce legislature but then the legislature vetoed it Lessons from Medicine for Democratic DesignLooking as a doctor fixing a patient Management versus Cure South Africa Very diverse country trick is to merge melting pot into something stable etc Has had cultural steps forward in recent years but politically it is still a mess Population by race 1994 Black 76 White13 Coloured9 Asian3 Population by language Zulu22 Xhosa18 Afrikaans16 Twsana11 North Sotho9 English8 South Sotho 6 Shangaan4 Others6 Three capitals 11 languages All documents and official proceedings must be available in all languages History Dutch East India Company creates station in Cape Town 1652 1795 Brits come in to Cape 1817 Afrikaner rebellion 1830 s Great Trek Boer WarsPut Afrikaners in camps disease hate Brits Crazy legislation in the 195 0 s from the National Party South Africa had the most legally defined and organize segregationled to rebellions 1950s and 60 sNonviolent protest marches burning passbooks etc Government reacted violently often ANC became to put together a Freedom Charter a mix of parties and racial group of people Leaders put on trial for their involvement in it for treason all aquitted because of amazing defense 1960s and 70 s increasing militancy increasing aggression 10509 AnitApartheid movement appeared slowly 50 s and 60 s Government knocked down any opposition movement quickly Pan Africanist Congress ofAzania began antipass campaigns Moved Colored and Blacks to separate area with no resources land not farmable No one recognized these areas except for South Africa Socially began to split the something You have people who have to go work in the urban areas separated families Military Resistance In 1961 after the ANC was banned its leaders went underground and established Umkhono we Siswe Orientate at attacking not people but infrastructure and no deaths reallt Negotiations Mandela in late 1980 s beings to negotiate from jail Contacts while SA governmentGovernment doesn t want mendela to ie in jail 19901994 Parites negoiate governmentup and down a lot Needed power sharing homelands consensus election April 1994 ANC wins 62 NP wins 20 Executive Power Sharing Initial Constitution was rooted in power sharingfrom 199499 Any party that won more than 20 had a VP Any party with gt5 Permanent 1999 No longer mandated InformalANCIFPNNP Separation of powers Interim Const Parliamnetarsystem firly concentrated powerbut ocalition govt Constitutional Court Pernmenant Remian parliamentartnd becomes more majoritarian with loss of second vicePresident Becameralism Inter National Assembly 400 Senate 90 members10 from each province Permanent Still bicameral in congruent and asymmetricall Mulitpary Inter First elections 7 parites gained representation ENOO 22 99 13 parties win representation ENPP 21 12 parties win power Proportional representation Inter List PR can not coose interviduals only parites PerReminas the same Territorial and Non Territorial Federalism Inter Moder federalism no cultural autonomy Per unchanged Writtten Constitution and minority veto Inter Constitutional clauses required 23 Per Includes bill of rights powers of parliament how to change Constitution public recourse Challenges Economic development Foreign investment Wealth redistribution Reconciliation Local Provincial government Burgeoning crime and Corruption ANC infighting ANC dominance facg PAGAD muslim South Africans Saw national party disappearing now part of the ANC Different parties eXist so that there is a voice Truth and reconciliation commission one part of the effort to stabilize South Africa Set up to address political crimes of the past especially 70 s with a lot ofpeople fighting back against the state Bram FischerPerson of the dominant group who turns against his own Born into Afrikana Elite Grandfather was PM and father was the Judge President of the Orange Free state Married PM s niece Visited the early Soviet Union liked the ideals of the new government no elite dominance etc Became lawyer represented blacks but was still respected by all Led Treason Trial defenses 195 61961 where Mandela was acquitted Led Nelson Mandela s legal defenses team at the Rivonia Trial of 19631964 Molly killed on the way to see Mandela on Robben Island in 1963 Arrested in 1964 Granted bail to appear in the High Court In London on the second day of trial disappeared SA Truth Commission Lead my Bishop Desmond Tutu 19951999 Ifyou appeared before the commission and you told the truth and they believed it was a political act you would be pardoned 5392 refused 849 granted 101209 Afghanistan 0 The place people 0 Where NW of Pakistan Bordered on the N by the Stan s and on the West Iran No direct access to the sea One of the poorest countries in the world because of situation not many resources and poor government stability 0 Major cities include Kandahar Taliban area in S Ialalabad surrounded by warlords a lot of trade use to go through it Kabul Bagram major US base Heart in W trade with Iran o Ethnically PushtunTaliban area Hazaracenter of country decent from Mongols Shiite Tajik and Usbakin the North The Northern Alliance are more pro American Muslim Conservative country70 s a lot of women had professions jeans and Tshirts Became more conservative as the country collapsed In 2001 women were fully covered when Taliban was still in control Politics have been dominant by strong males men with biggest armies 0 Background history 0 History 1 I 17471973 Monarchy I 18391842Anglo Afghan warBritish trying to suppress failed I 1843British defeated I 18782nul Anglo Afghan war I 18801901 Abdur Khan consolidates some central power very federalized though I 1921 3ml AngloAfghan war I 1947 British withdraw from IndiaPakistan carved out of Indian and Afghani land 0 Post WWII I 1949Pahtun s declared Pashtunistan but are ignored I 1955Russian support I 1969Afghan Communist Party comes into being I 1973 King Zahir Shah is overthrown while abroad I 1975 Daoud Khan promotes progressive constitution I 1978Communist coupbloody violent I Mujahideen movement bornUSSR help I 1979Soviet invasionPresident killed I War leads to 64 million refugees 4000050000 Red Army deaths Muhahideen growth in refuges camps Pakistan and US support for antiSoviet forces I 1986 Najibullah installed as leader I 1989Soviets withdraw I 1992 Mujahideen take Kabul from remaining puppet regime I 1994 Taliban born move against Rabbani government I Dostum and Hekmatyar attack Kabul I 1996Taliban take Kabul o Taliban19962001 I Massive oppression ofwomen I Women must be fully veiled I No longer allowed to work or go to school I Never go out alone or wear white scocks I Men forced to grow beards I Buzkashi the Afghan national sport is outlawed I Massive human rights violations 0 O Extreme Sharia 9798 Bin Laden settles in SE Taliban blow up giant Bamiyan Buddhas from the 5th century Assassination of Ahmed Shah MassoudNorthern Alliance on Sept 9th 2001 The Taliban and bin Laden International intervention 0 The war in Oct 2001 quickly took cities Mullah Omar and Bin Laden ee to Pakistan border region 0 3600 Afghans killed 10000 tons ofbombs dropped 42 coalition soldiers killed 0 Massive infrastructure damage New Constitution 0 No good plan after that just not the Taliban 0 Set up Temp Constitution Unitary Presidential Single Nontransferable Vote SNFV bad Rationale 0 Weak centerneeded a stronger one 0 Strong regions 0 Advantage the center Problems 0 Highly Majoritarian we have a very divided society 0 After Karzai The president must stay good 0 Lack of party system 0 No decentralization Danger of Warlordism o Warlords still run the country even with new country because they are now in the government 0 Problems Elections Private armies Corruptions Clientelism Clan loyalty AntiUS warlords 0 First elections people turned out to vote both men and women Not as awed political parties tried to meet and act as parties Karzai W011 Fragmented parliament completely 25 different parties with the largest one only having 10 ofvote 0 2nd Karzai with 546 againt but votes are getting recounted Tournout38 15 million suspect 2 7 0 New Government 0 Challenges 0 Drug trade 0 Future scenarios 101909 One big prize that you either win or lose w a lot of groups can be dangerous Fragmentation of Parliament is a problem too 25249 seats is the largest group Current electiona lot of bad votes Runoff Build legitimacy more fair more democratic and international support But Cost danger more fraud winter still might not be legitimate Properties of Afghan Democracy Grand coalitions or single party govt Separation or concentrations of powers Party system don t really have parties Issue dimensions because of chaos security is really only issue Electoral system American Idol SystemHuge differences between the first people elected and the last people elected Ballot 400 candidates long You have to find your one candidates you like Interest groups FederalUnityall unitary all power in Kabul Legislature and minority representation 2 chamber upper is meaningless lower house to reserve minority seats legislature too weak Constitutionminority veto clause udicial reviewyes but highly religious and not much power Central Bank Inpendencesno The curse of Poppies 8200 tons 2007 95 ofworld production of heroine 53 national income 10k opium 1 k heroin 250 farmer 2000 border 1000000 street Problems Finances warlord Finances Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Finances TalibanAl Qaeda Solutions Pay not to grow Harsh crack down Spraying Replacementsaffron The Future what is likely to happen in Afghanistan How are Iraq and Afghansitant different ExecutiveIraqpower sharing between 3 major groups Party System Iraqmuch more organized parties Electoral systemPR in Iraq FederalIraq Similarities Ethnic divides Lack of basic security Limite democratic precedent US occupationmolding of process elements of Islamic fundamentalism Wide informal militarization Differences A single majoritiy ehthnic group in Iraq Wealthier more delvoped Iraq Stronger Iraqi infrastructure Larger middleprofessional class in Iraq Oil revenues versus drug revenues Better establish partiesmovementes in Iraq October 28 2009 Single NonTransferable Vote ordan America and Afghanistan use this Point is that it is very simple just voting for one candidate Problem electing lots of people from the same district Dangerous for parties Retards party system development Exaggerates clientelismmuch more likely to get elected with a village link more likely to be corrupt Election is a lottery weakening legitimacy Increases of fraud heighten because marginal s of winning and losing are so small Large number of quotwastedquot votes make people less likely to vote Single Transferable Vote Used in Ireland Northern Ireland Malta Indian Senate Cambridge MA Oscar nominations Much more proportional vote Get parties elected in correct proportions American Idol third largest election in the world behind India and USA Penalized the constitutiony that had to split the vote Executive Type Presidentialism Advantages Executive stability Avoid multiparty gridlock Fixed term of office Direct legitimacyunifying figurehead Can involve separation of powers Cultural norms Disadvantages Can be supermajoritarian Weakened if elected on plurality Dangerous in ethnically divided societies Leads to personalized politics 39Dualdemocratic legitimacy If a parliamentary system is there Single party government coalition government or a constitutionally mandated government of national unity Choices of Election systemsPresident Plurality Majority Run Off AValternative vote Legislature Distribution requirementsNigeria and Kenya you must win votes in all districts Which countries are Presidential but might be better as Parliamentary AfghanistanFragmented politics hard to bring everyone together therefore hard to reach stability The CongoWhen the guy lost the election he just restarted the war Which countries are Parliamentary but might be better as Presidential Iapanone party dominates cabinet really strong Are there other options November 2 2009 Northern Ireland Size of the triangle with a million and a halfpeople 6 provinces British Isles is the geographical landmass Great Britain is England Scotland and Wales UK is those three and Northern Ireland Religious DivideProtestants and Catholics C s are increasing and P s are decreasing wise Before 1980 C s were leaving a lot After 1980 s C s not leaving as much higher birth rate means they are catching up In 1200 s given right to control Ireland by Pope Large number of P s were brought into Ireland to settle The Normans and P s began to dominant C s King in Ireland ask English for help gives daughter to knight Knight becomes king when he dies English king over Irish people Becomes battle field for religious wars of Europe Big battle in 1690 againsts William of Orange P and James II C and Orange wonOrange Parades where some many people got killed in modern times Irish ParliamentDominated by English land owners many of which didn t live there but had seatscreated a legal system that hurt a specific group Catholics C s couldn t go over seas couldn t get an education couldn t own land C s were 80 90 of pop Anglo English land ownersPresbyterians from ScotlandIrish Catholics Wolfe ToneUprising between C s and Presbyterians 1829 Penal laws revoked 1800s ag combined Irish cultural sucked after years of oppression Potatoes cultural was created because of how hard it was Depended on the Potatoes because it was hardy and could be grown in small areas Blight wipes out potatoes1 million either die or immigrate No assistance from England to help People in Brit 30 or 40 years later1886 begin to see Ireland as a problem Push for autonomous Ireland but defeated by House of Lords 1893Put up again but defeated again by the Lords Irish C s become more organizedcreation of Shang Fai Daivd Loud GeoergePM tries to give independence to Ireland Passes a parliament acts that restricts Lords power Two years after its proposed it gets enacted in 1912 only 2 years before WWI Two opposing groups begin to arm themselves over home rule British group doesn t want itunionist Great War breaks out Because Irish think they will be giving home rule Irish Republic Army joins British to fight Germany Irish C s mobilize at home to kick out British try to take control of central things in Dublin Lead by Padre Pierce and others Uprising lasted a week proclaimed a Provional Government Took control of college post office ect Well armed but small in number 450 killed 3000 wounded British shelled from ships so a lot were civilians The British managed to turn a positive situation for them and then f ed it up Ireland population wasn t all behind uprising but it went down on the uprising so hard that population became more behind uprising and against British British brought back troops and rounded up leaders and executed them This fed the neXt wave of Irish uprisings 1918 declared their own free state and made their own parliament England proclaimed it was all illegal This led to the Anglo Irish war IRA strategy was hit and run tactics 1922Negogiating tableDecided to do what they have today26 Counties of the south of Ireland will be given home rule and those top 6 will go to UK Only 6 because UK didn t want the catholics in the other 3 Devoliera and Collins divide the Irish movementCollins is killed Collins is the with the treaty and Devoliera party against the treaty November 4 2009 Temporary line drawn between them kept permanent Fully seceded from England in the 1920 s Secession of 6 countiespartly economic thingthe Republic is now economically stronger Prots controlled the N Ireland state Advantaged the 23 Prots over Caths Used very majoritarian ways Gave housing to Prots so they could votes and Cath s couldn t Cathos adapted same stuff as black civil rights movement ofUSleading marches for civil rights This started to create retalitiaion from Prots Marchs started peaceful but son become rocks and fire bombs Started to create revenge Violence spreadbegan to see Police and Army as being part of Prot snot as much ofprotectors Paramilitary group split from Catholics Brits sent more troops killing increased Sunningdale 1973 Britsh wanted to create a government that will include both groups IRA want C s out of N Irelandsme terrorist stuff 86 agreement but did not adrdress stus ofN Ireland IRA not happy enough May 1996 Peace Forum PR Electoral system 110 seats 18 by 5 member constituencies parties lies Remiain 202 each to 10 largest parties UUP30 DUP Multiparty talk under chairship of George Mitchell But continuing clashes around marching season Good Friday Accord Full Power Sharing 108 MPPreferential voting STV in 17 multimember districts Mandate powersharing in the executive First PM UUP Deputy Seamus Malon SDLP Minority veto clause over legislation deemd to be relevan to communal interests A council of British Isles NorthSouth Ministerial Council IRA put down arms to see what would happensome did not believe call the Real IRA and Continuing IRA August 1998 Omagh Bombing Fovourable Conditions for Power Sharing No Overarching loyalty to the state NO Clear Boundaries N0 No single group is dominant NO Identifiable leaders Some Some tradition of accommodation and compromise NO Other porblem such as economic Yes International pressurewill make it a yes for sure The waning con ict The IICD confirmed in its final report ofSept 2005 that the iRA had decommissioned all of its weapons The DUP and Sinn Fein formed a government in May 2007 July 2007 British army formally pulled out March 2009 two masked men killed soldiers Two days later a 48 year old policeman was shot after his unit responded to an emergency call Ongoing Issues Transferring ofpolice and justice powers Truth commissions Community distrust Lawlessness Economic downturn 112309 Criteria for Design Ensuring a Representative ParliamentDifferent ways for defining quotrepresentativequot Making Elections Accessible and Meaningful Providing incentives for conciliation Hold the government and Representatives accountable Encourage quotcrosscutting political parties Facilitation stable and efficient government Generic Advantages and Disadvantages ofpluralitymajority systems Advantages of FPTP Clearcut choice Single party government Coherent opposition Broadlybased political partieshas to reach out to moderates too Excludes extremists Retains geographical linkmost importantyou know who your rep is Local issues given to someone Allows for independents simple to us Disadvantages of FPTP Excludes minority parties Excludes minority ethnic groups Excludes women Encourages chauvinistic parties Exaggerates regional fiefdoms Leaves wasted vote Unresponsive to changes in opinion Manipulation of ethnic boundaires Advantages of PR Faithfully translate votes into seats Give rise to fewer wasted votes Gives minority parties access to rep Encourages inclusive campaigning More likely to see minorities More like to see women Curtails quotregional fiefdoms More efficient governmentnot changing more stable Makes powersharing more Visible Disadvantages Coalitions legislative gridlock Fragments the party system Provides platform for extremists Coalitions of convenience are weak Nov 30 2009 BurmaUprisings are often by students and monks Monks are the most revered Most men are in the monasteries at some point of their lives Monks are most politically active Military cracked down on monk 2007 protestkilled some monks The PlaceBurma has a high level of literacy and political sophistication despite having years of failed education systems and authoritative rule Golden trianglesecond largest opium and heroin production The government runs the druge trade Pop of 43 million life expectancy is 61 years HIVAids is about 12 of the populations may be much higher Literacy is 85 GDP pc is 1800 Huge military 2 101 largest producer of opium declining health imbalanced economy The PeopleEthnically diverse 23 is Burmese in center On borders you have different groups Long suppressed by Burmese center Most ethnic groups have their own armies Shan State Army Karen National Union still oppose Burmese national army Kachin N Most of country is Buddhist Christians are the Karens less than 10 Development and Economy History 10441077 First Myanmar Empire founded by King Anawrahtar 1287 Dagan Dynasty falls Many pagodas in Bagan destroyed 1287175 2 Variety of dynasties rule Burma 1752 3ml Myanmar empire 18 241826First Anglo Burmese war 1852 Second Anglo Burmese War 1885 3ml AngloBurma War Britain captures all country Standard Oil starts production 14th largest oil producer 193945 Burmese front oin WWII 1942 Japanese occupations 194445 Batlle for Burm Aung San joins Japanese in driving out British 1945Allie and Aung Sans Burmese army drive out Iapnese 194547 Liberation period with Aung San taking British 1948 Union ofBurma founded 194858 U Nu and New Win govern 1960 Ne Win takes over in military coup Bogyoke Aung San The quotGeorge Washington of the Nation 1915Born in Central Burma 1938 President of Rangoon University Student s Union 1939 Helped found nationalist FreedomBloc 1940 Went underground to avoid arrestby British 1941 japan for military training 1942 Helps Iapanese take Rangoon 1943 C in Chief Killed in Cabinet 12209 Single biggest reason Burma has failed Aung San assassination and failed implementation of federalism Colonial was rooted in British Iapanese internal con ict over control of the land 19581960Caretake government under Ne Win 1960 U Nu wins elections but his promotion of Buddhism as the state religion and his tolerance of separatism angers the military 1962General Ne Win mounts coup Abolishes federalism Institutes 39Burmese way to socialism Nationalized economy Single party state Independent media banned Mysticismastrology 1974New Constitutionmilitary retains powers Student demonstrations repressin in Rangoon 19750 Guerrilla insurgencies by ethnic groups Shan Karen Kachin uly 23 1988Ne Win announces tertirement 8 8 88Pro democracy uprising begins 8 26ASSK speaks to 500000at Shwedagon pagdoda 918 Militar restablishes powerdrives out students THousnads killed More Flee 924 National League for Democracy is formed 7881090Mass NLD rallies across country ASSKa lot of stuff Tatmadaw army Mindset Nationalist Protectors Paranoia MysticalRelgioguos Structure of leadership top heavy all descision made at top internal power stuggle between top 3 guys Triangle Fragile Distrustful USDA Mobilized for elections Incentive to hold to power Reasons to extricate Constitutional Convention Process1990 on Membersip 700 Details Military power unitary state eligibility or office Future When Leading to what Elections Military Constitutinoal Proposals A lot of military reservations Restrictions on who can run for Pres Human Rights Issues Drugs Obsession ofwoman SeX trade Suppression of workers Etf December 7 2009 Importance of Democratic Design quotFree institutions are neXt to impossible in a country made up of different nationalities S Mill 1888 Tribalism and ethnic division the root cause for the failure of democracy in the newly independent states ofAfrica Arthur Lewis 1967 Democracy itself operates as a system for managing and processing rather than resolving con ict Adam Przeworski Institutional design takes on an enhanced role in newly democratizing and divided societies because in the absence of other structures politics becomes the primary mode of communication between divergent social groups But should we push Dem so much money is used supporting and building institutions of Democracy Some argue that that is money down the drain It is not our place we do it badly and it is counter productive Kaplan says we should focus on other things stability not democracy Problems Democracy is inefficient Dumb guy in the back Types ofDemocracy Majoritarion Winner take all Westminster Anglo Homogeneous States Consociational Power sharing Consensus Continental Europe Divided societies What should we think about promoting democratic diffusion Robert Kaplan quotWas Democracy just a moment Is Democracy the answer Or even one answer Christianity in the 4th century onward made the world not less compleX and warlike but more so Now in 20th century democracy is doing the same Benevolent dictator is actually what you need Examples like Singapore Obama is moving more to Kaplan ideas Bush was more liberal fundamentalist Talking more about stabilization now Democracies are valuenaturalnot necessarily more progressive Hitler nad Mussolini came to power in democracy Algerias new democracy led to anarchy First create economic growth then democracy eg Uganda Democracy only endures when other social and economic strides have been made The return of oligarchy Democracy is a fraud in poor countries that eXist outside a narrow band ofwealth and development Oligarchy is the norwhether power rests with corporations or elites or both And that is the way the US is heading In the end Democracies do better on average than other societies What institutions are needed Demographic context Is there a majority segment of the population How ethnically fragmented is society How larges is the population Are communal segments geographical concentrated or integrated Sociopolitical Context Unity in the face of external threat Belief in the nation Multiethnic cleavages The focus of the fight Economic Context Overall wealth Overall development Socioeconomic inequality Dependence on natural resources Type of resources tat are in dispute Historical Context Colonial legacy The nature of the ancient regime the military threat to democracy culture ofaccommodation type of transition Severity of symptoms Level of violence Antigovernment demonstrations Review Session Majoritarian vs Consensus And how they are applied Parliamentary vs Presidential systems 2 aspects1St what causes the choice A lot of colonial inheritance depends on who settled you a lot of times Many got parliamentary system from Britian Presidential is sometimes inherited but comes from a type of social structure that is hierarchy Want a head person who is very powerful in the center 2ndWhich is appropriate for what Not a hard rule but there are trends Ifyou have a very divided society split up my hostile ethnic groups Presidential system could be dangerous One group would control all of the power Often not good for divided societies But people still use it many African states like Nigeria Parliamentarylism especially suited to fragmented societies Ifyou have a parliamentary system that is too divided you might have gridlock and you wont be get anything done Don t connect with Maj and con without proofdont really line up with either majcon Whats the difference between consensus and consociationlism At one level they are basically the same thing The restraint of the majority empowerment of the minority and powersharing If you want to take it further there is a difference Consociationism is the specific idea of sharing power between ethnic groups on the 4 lines segmented autonomy minority rights in executive PR and something else Consensus is broader idea not solely on ethnic groups Election systembuilding blocks study these Closed vs Open list PR You have list of canidates for the party You know that if the party wins a certain number of seats the top certain number ofpeople of seats In open list you have some way as a voter to push an individual up on the list when you vote


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