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Chapter three lecture notes continued

by: Andie Gargiulo

Chapter three lecture notes continued Bio 380

Marketplace > James Madison University > Biology > Bio 380 > Chapter three lecture notes continued
Andie Gargiulo
GPA 3.2
Pradeep Vasudevan

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These notes are the completed version of the notes from canvas. The filled in blanks are the words underlined.
Pradeep Vasudevan
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andie Gargiulo on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 380 at James Madison University taught by Pradeep Vasudevan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at James Madison University.

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Date Created: 10/25/15
Microbiology Lecture Chapter 3 Lecture part 2 Energy classes Metabolism Catabolism Anabolism Energy classes Chemicals 9 Chemotrophs Oxidation of m compounds 9 chemoorganotrophs Oxidation of inorganic compounds 9 chemolithotrophs Light 9 phototrophic Carbon requirement Heterotrophs9 organic Autotrophs 9 inorganic Primary producers Chemoorganotrophs heterotrophs Chemolithotrophs and phtototrophs autotrophs Bioenergetics Kilojoules In any chemical reaction some energy lost as heat Free energy 9 energy released that is able to do work The change in free energy during a reaction is referred to as AGO39 Reactions with a negative AGO39 release free energy exergonic Reaction with a positive AGO39 reguire energy endergonic AG 9 free energy that occurs under the actual conditions Enzymes Biological catalyst Many enzymes contain small nonprotein molecules that participate in catalysis but are not substrates Prosthetic groups 9 bind tightly Coenzymes 9 bind loosely Oxidation Reduction reactions OIL RIG Oxidation 9 removal of electrons Reduction 9 addition of electrons OIL 9 oxidation it loses and RIG 9 reduction it gains Reduction potentials Substance vary in tendency to be electron donors acceptor Standard reduction potential E0 measure of this tendency Expressed for half reactions volts Redox Couple Constituents on either side of arrow in half reaction expressed as reductions H2 9 2e 2H oxidation needs to be reversed 2H 2e 9 H2 2HH2 Oxidized on left reduction on right Redox couple with a more negative E0 will donate electrons to a redox couple with a more positive E0 2HH2 E0 0421 120202 E0 Redox Tower represents range of RPs for redox couples most negative at top Reduced substance of redox couple at the top donates electrons Oxidized substance of redox couple at the bottom accepts electrons Farther the fall more the difference in RP greater the amount of energy released 02 9 one of the strongest electron acceptors Electron Carriers Transfer of electrons usually involves intermediates called CARRIERS Electron carrier divided two class Prosthetic 9 tightly attached to enzyme electron transport chain Coenzyme 9 diffusible NAD and NADP NAD NADH Recycling NAD and NADH facilitate redox reactions without being consumed they are recycled The same thing does not happen to the substrate Only small amounts of NAD and NADH are required Energy Rich Compounds Chemical energy released in redox reactions is primarily stored in certain phosphorylated compounds ATP 9 primary energy currency PEP Phosphoenolpyruvate Acetyl coenzyme A Phosphate bonded to organic compounds by either ester or anhydride bonds Only anhydride bonds are energy rich 9 G0 greater than 30 kImol Longterm energy storage Involves insoluble polymer that can be oxidized to generate TP Prokaryotes 9 glycogen polyB PHB elemental sulfur Inclusion partiesD Eukaryotes9 starch lipids simple fats Energy Conservation Options Two strategies in chemoorganotrophs Fermentation Anaerobic catabolism Organic compound is oxidized electron donor Another organic compound is reduced electron acceptor Respiration Aerobic OR anaerobic catabolism 02 or an 02 substitute act as electron acceptor Fermentation Respiration Use diff methods of ATP synthesis Fermentation Substrate level phosphorylation SLP ATP directly synthesized from and energyrich intermediate Energy from the transfer of a highenergy P04 to ADP generates ATP Respiration Oxidative phosphorylation OP ATP production from PMF formed by transport of electrons WRITE OUT THE REVIEW OF FERM RESP PICTURE Glycolysis EMBDENMEYERHOFPARNAS pathway common pathway for catabolism of glucose Oxidative of glucose to pyruVic acid Reduction of NAD to NADH Production of ATP by SLP Does not require oxygen Stage 1 9 Prep stage Stage 2 9 energy conserving stage Glycolysis Stage 1 Glucose to 2 glyceralgehyde3PO4 GP Proceeds without redox reactions Needs a minimum of ZATP to start the process it won t go through stage 1 without ATP Glycolysis Stage 2 Multiplied by two because there is two of them 2 GP are oxidized to 2 pyruvic acids Reduction of ZNAD to ZNADH Addition of inorganic P04 Energy rich intermediates 13diphosphoglyceric acid PEP phosphoenolpyruvic acid Substratelevel phosphorylation SLP Produce 4 ATPS Yield per molecule of glucose 2 ATP ZNADH Fermentation NADH produced in Stage 2 has to be oxidized back to NAD Reduction of pyruvate to fermentation products Uses an organic molecule pyruvic acid as a final e39 acceptor Products 9 ethanol lactic acid and C02 Fermentation summary Input 9 2 ATP Output 9 ATP Net gain 9 Z ATP crucial for the organism Respiration In fermentation less energy is produced Glucose is only partially oxidized Differences in RP s between the e39 donor and acceptor are small With respiration glucose is completely oxidized to C02 Aerobic 9 uses Q as final e39 acceptor Anaerobic 9 uses inorganic molecules Electron transport chain Membraneassociated 9 mediate transfer of e39 from primary donor to terminal acceptor Conserve some of the energy released for synthesis of ATP Flavoproteins Flavin ribo avin portion is a prosthetic group Accepts electrons 2e and protons 2H from NADH Donates e only to the next carrier Cytochromes heme Proteins with heme iron containing prosthetic groups Accepts and donates a single e39 via the iron atom in heme Ironsulfur proteins Contain clusters of ll and m atoms Transfer My Quinones Highly hydrophobic nonproteincontaining molecules Free to move in the membrane Accepts 2e39 and 2 protons but pass along e39 only like avoproteins Proton motive force Arranged in order of increasingly more positive reduction potential values Final carrier donates e39 and protons to the terminal e39 acceptor During electron transfer several protons are released to the outside of the membrane Results in generation of 1m and an electrochemical potential across the membrane the proton motive force Most energy in the PMF is conserved in the form of ATP but some of it is also used to do work Simple transport Flagellar rotation Flow of electrons NADH donates 2 electrons and 2 protons to avoprotein FMN Maximum extrusion of protons 3 molecules of ATP FADHZ feeds 2 electrons and 2 protons to quinone Fewer protons pumped outside 2 molecules of ATP Chemiosmosis Energy from PMF can be used to produce ATP by chemiosmosis ATP synthase 9 catalyst for conversion of the PMF into ATP ATP Synthase ATPase F1 9 multisubunit head cytoplasmic F0 9 protonconducting channel membrane spanning Proton movement through E causes conformational changes in Q Catalyzes ADP Pi 9 ATP Oxidative phosphorylation NADH 9 3 ATP FADHZ 9 2 ATP Reversibility of ATPase ase means enzyme Hydrolysis breakdown of ATP catalyzes pumping of protons from cytoplasm to outside Generates PMF Why 9 Even though it is not being used to make ATP the PMF is still used for simple transport and rotation of agellum Inhibitors and uncouplers Inhibitors 9 block electron ow Prevent cytochromes from functioning meaning no protons accumulate across the membrane therefore no PMF and no ATP Uncouplers 9 prevent ATP synthesis without affecting electron transport Make membranes y 9 no PMF is made Holes are made in the membrane that allow protons back inside the cytoplasm Kreb s Cycle Initial steps are the same as glycolysis Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA Bridge step between glycolysis and Kreb s cycle Kreb s cycle Acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetic acid to form citric acid Summary Respiration Glucose completely oxidized to m Glycolysis 9 m Bridge step and Kreb s 9 M Prokaryotes have a mgm ATP yield than eukaryotes because eukaryotes have glycolysis happen outside the cell and have to use energy to move it s products inside Anaerobic Respiration Electron acceptor is something other than oxygen Chemolithotrophs Use inorganic chemicals as electron donors Use C02 as a carbon source 9 autotrophs Phototrophy Uses light as an energy source Result 9 generation of a PMF that can be used for synthesis of ATP Photophosphorylation 9 light mediated ATP synthesis Photoautotrophs 9 use inorganic compounds C02 as carbon source Photoheterotrophs 9use organic compounds as a carbon source


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