Introduction to European Government
Introduction to European Government POLI 239
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European Politics Readings British Politics 3 Reasons for Reformism in British Historical Development 1 b Most Important Reasons for Reformism in Britain 1 c What Leads Individuals and Groups to Compromise Rather than Fight Over Their Political Differences 1 N French Politics 3 Causes ofthe French Revolution 1 French democrats struggled against supporters of Monarchy Foreign Invaders and their own Destructive Factions 2 Need for the state to play greater role in preserving France s rights and interests 3Value of citizenship SansCulattes9 Political equality in midst of social inequality 0 Emerging middle class Professionals and Entrepreneurs who felt disadvantaged 0 Briefly France allowed advancement of men through bureaucracy and military I Stopped because of Aristocratic protest o Peasants gaining land holdings and wanting more b Implications of Revolution and Democracy 17891870 1 France subjecting The Church to its authority 0 Church became antidemocratic and antiliberal 2 Newly enriched property owners and wealthy peasants to restore some Monarchial powers 0 They were overwhelmed by lack of control and the Monarchy promised to restore order and allow peasants to keep new wealth 3Class wars between moderate republican government and working class 2nd Republic 4PenduumDevelopment 0 French governments alternate between republics monarchies and empires 0 The pendulum has stabilized and maintained since the Fifth Republic 1981Present 5Normaized French Democracy German Politics 3 German Beginnings 1 FrancoPrussian War 2War of 187196ermany becomes a world power and a problem b Authoritarianism in German Historical Development Rothman amp Wilson 1 Lutheranism Emphasis on selfdiscipline and submission to secular authority 2German efforts to modernize their economy 3 Political Power in hands of PrussiansParliament of German Males 0 New and Old elements coexisting uneasily c Main Characteristics of Nazism 1National inferiority Continually frustrated national ambitions S3 quot f39D E 57 Squot 2Exposed position of German Jews9 Liberalism ampUrban culture Alien 3 Lower amp Middle classes legitimize equality with upper class through nationality 4Consolidation of political and social power through force by Hitler Did Nazism rise to power because it was strong or was the Weimar Republic weak 1Weimar Republic could not make effective policy decisions and it was incapable of action 2Nazism Hope for return to traditional institutions 0 Monarchy Stable and effective political order 3 Hitler symbolized the strength Germany and Germans lacked and needed 0 Hitler s strength proved to be another pitfall for Germany Changes Needed for Democracy Between WWI and WWII Differences Between British and German Political Development 1Liberalism indigenous in Britain and forced by invaders in Germany The Allied Interregnum Goldman Optimism for Democracy in West Germany postWWII 1Ally force s domestic devastation in WWII far exceeded that of WWI 0 Peace through total physical exhaustion instead of surrender o Germans felt a collective responsibility for the outcome of the war 0 Nazi regime and political thought were diminished 9 No turning back 2Created a mood that was agreeable with the transformation of the political system 0 Germans accepted substantial social and economic changes in order to begin anew Most Important In uences that Contributed to Germany s Democratic Success 1Germany was left with no successor government 0 Allied military commanders organized the new administration of Germany 0 No one German party had to negotiate with the victorious enemy I The case of the Weimar Republic Great costs to Germany s domestic image and support 20ccupation of Germany 0 Initial losses of sovereignty and terrain could be disguised as provisional 0 Raised the fear of a fragmented Germany 0 Prussia was eliminated as an entity and each zone pursued their own political agenda I Zone leadership adapted policies of occupy power Expedite German Reunification Factors Contributing to the Communist Regime in East Germany GDR 1Substantial opposition to communism in GDR 0 Millions of EGs fled the USSR zone 194961 2The GDR continued to fall further behind West Germany economically o The GDR had the strongest economy of all communist ruled nations 3GDR Social Contract 0 A generally free personal private sphere o A tolerable standard of living and consumption compared to other communist societies 0 Social Security Guaranteed job security cheap housing free health care and pension 0 Some social mobility d E 0 GDR and WG pledged to respect each other s territory and to improve their economic cultural and political relations Why did German Reuni cation Proceed so Rapidly and Peacefully 1The llNew Reformquot9 First formal opposition group to apply to the GDR government for recognition Declared antistate and application was denied 0 Influenced similar groups to openly oppose the GDR government 2The growing opposition movement and the Protestant Church to demonstrate peacefully 3 Honecker resigned and his successor Krenz concedes to opposition Weak party leadership weakened the GDR government GDR people wanted freedom and prosperity among other demands from the O 0 government 40nly way to give the people freedom Unify GDR with West Germany Similarities and Differences Between Nazi and Communist Regimes Economic Markets Central Features of Liberal and CoordinatedMarket Economies 1Liberal Markets More Strikes in USA Depending on the strength of labor unions Spend more PPP per student after high school Spend more on health care of GDP and money per capita Higher output of goods Higher Standard of Living Lower pressure for taxation 2Coordinated Markets Retrain Workers to develop new skills needs to stay competitive in the work place Job Security is more prevalent There is a need to protect workers Seniority Status Higher percentage of collective bargaining coverage Shorter hours of work Possibly due to higher tax rate and value of leisure time Europeans don t have to work as long to earn a basic income for necessities Lower wage differentials Avg Wage of Highest 10 of WorkersAvg Wage of Lowest 10 of Workers Spend on average 80 on publicly financed health care for their citizens Fewer people die before age of expectancy 3Equality Between Markets 0 Both spend about the same on public education of GDP b Arguments and Evidence for Market Convergence 1Coordinated Markets are rapidly catching up to Liberal markets in rates of productivity 2 Liberal Markets are reaching lower budget deficits 0 Ability to provide for citizens welfare is becoming greater c OECD Measure of Social EqualityInequality 53 5 10ECD countries are represented by levels of inequality in the distribution of equivalized disposable income 2Coordinated and Liberal Market Economy Equality Differences o Coordinated markets have greater equality in terms of the welfare for their citizens Rawl s Veil of Ignorance 1A method of determining the morality ofa certain issue eg slavery based upon the principle imagine that societal roles were completely refashioned and redistributed and that from behind your veil of ignorance you do not know what role you will be reassigned Socialism in the United States 1 Failure 0 Unable to sustain a strong and durable socialist party 0 Unable to create an independent labor party in alliance with mainstream unions as in other Englishspeaking societies 0 Unable to capture one of the major parties Health Care a British Politics January 20 2010 Key Topics 1 Moderation and Gradualism 2Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe 3 Different Types of Capitalism and Its Social Implications 4Reforming Healthcare in the OECD Why was British Political Development Gradual 1What is Liberal Democracy 0 Emphasis on individualism public elections civil rights minority protection welfare 0 Liberal Rights Rulers are constrained The rule of law I Freedom of Expression and association 0 Democratic Institutions Rulers compete for office I Competitive elections and Citizenship 2WorkingClass Radicalism o No vote no voice 0 Harsh conditions quotLaissezFairequot No Safety Net Workhouses O O 0 Political Revolt Luddism 1810s 9 Movement of AntiTechnology Chartism 1838489 First mass movement of workers in the world 0 The People s Charter I I o o Male Suffrage o o o 39 Equal Electoral Districts Removal of Property Qualification for MP s Payment of MP s o o o o o o o 0 Secret Ballot 39239 Annual General Elections 0 Age expectancy in Liverpool 1830 19 yea rs 0 Sir Charles Napier General of British Army put in charge of keeping order among Charterists He was a Charterist himself 3Questions 0 Why liberal democracy in Britain 0 Why no workingclass revolution 0 Britain is the only larger European country to 4Keys to Modern Political Development 0 Did the Monarchy have an iron grip on the state No The king was beheaded in civil war 1649 Could the middle class create a liberal political order 0 I Yes The aristocracy was not reactionary 1832 Reform Act Male suffrage Was the workingclass violently repressed O I No Rights were won during the 19 h century 50utcome A moderate reformist Labour Party 1900 0 Accept Political Game quotSecure the return of an increased number of labor members to Parliamentquot 0 More Welfare eg unemployment insurance health and sickness insurance 0 Industrial Legislation 8hour workday 0 Union Legislation Legalize strikes 6 Political Toleration 0 Britain s Free Institutions Liberalism I Freedom of Association 1820s I Freedom of Combination 1825 I Freedom of Press 1830 I Extension of Voting 1832 1867 1884 o Virtuous Cycle Toleration 9 o Vicious Cycle 7Welfare Reform 0 The 1833 Factory Act Limits on child labor was the first of a series of welfare measures I Reduced economic misery at margins I Showed workers that they had allies in the ruling elite 8 Reformist Unionism 0 Trying to get better wages better treatment and respect within existing society Improvement within capitalism I Gave workers a sense they could defend themselves by their own collective efforts 0 Union Motto quotA Fair Day s Wage for a Fair Day s Work 9Early Nation 0 Britain An Island Nation 0 Last successful invasion 1066 0 England formed from the 12 h to the 16 h century 0 Union of England and Scotland 1616 0 Effect No quotnational question that could be exploited by nationalist reactionaries II French Politics January 25 2010 a 57 Squot 53 e French Political Development 1 Deep social and political divisions quotA kind of civil warquot 2Political Instability 3 Late Development of stable democracy Keys to Modern Political Development in France 1Did the Monarchy have an iron grip on the state 0 Yes Only up to the Revolution 1789 2Could the middle class create a liberal political order 0 No Divisions were too great 3Was the workingclass violently repressed 0 Yes ex The Paris Commune 1871 Religious Conflict 1Church and Ancien Regime 2Catholic church became militiantly antirepublican 3 Bakelandt RuralUrban Conflict 1Slow Pace of industrialization 2ndependent peasantry small rural communes Want stability authoritarian rule 3Paris vs the terror Paris Commune Violent Class Conflict r In 9 57 Squot 53 5 1 Revolutionary tradition 2Suppression of Labor Unions 0 Revolutionarysyndicalism 0 Paris Commune I Radicalization 1871 0 Strong Communist Party 1920 Reinforcing Divides 139 A y 2Weak middle class 3Strong independent peasantry Church 4 Radical working class 5All these things reinforce the religious ruralurban class conflicts 6 Effect Stalemate Society Right vs Left 0 Pendulum Authoritarianconservative regimes as viable alternative to democracy Stabilization of democracy after World War II 1Authoritarianism delegitimized Vichy 2Urbanization and modernization 3 Religious conflict moderated 4Key Turning Point Mitterrand election 19811995 0 Mitterrand was the first socialist president of France since German occupation German Politics Authoritarian to Democratic Discontinuous Development 1Second Empire 18711918 Authoritarian 2Weimar Republic 19181933 Democratic 3Third Reich 19331945 Dictatorial 4Two Germanies 19451990 One Democratic One Communist 5The Federal Republic of Germany Since 1990 Democratic Keys to Modern Political Thought 1Did the Monarchy have an iron grip on the state 0 Yes the Prussian monarchy created the German state 2Could the middle class create a liberal political order 0 No Subservient to the old order 3Was the working class violently repressed 0 Yes ex The AntiSocialist Laws 18781890 The German quotNational Questionquot 0 Small or large Germany 0 Federal or Centralized o A Monarchy or a republic 2Democratic revolution failed 1848 3 Unification under the Kaiser and Junkers 186270 Realpolitik Power Politics 1Building a German state by war SchleswigHolstein North 1864 2AustriaHungary South 9 1866 3France West 9 1870 Deep Divisions 1Late but rapid industrialization f In 0 Economically insecure Junkers Aristocracy Dependent peasantry o Industrialistsmiddle class dependent on state support 9 Krupp steel 0 Excluded the working class No Democracy 1Emperor has iron grip on paer o Commands military makes treaties 0 Martial Law Appointsdismisses all officials 0 Right to quotinterpretquot the constitution 2Junkers have privileges Universities courts bureaucracy army feudal land in East Prussia 3Weak Parliament No legislative initiative Repression 1Two Pronged state strategy 0 Welfare Legislation 188389 0 AntiSocialist Laws 187890 I Unions and Party activities banned I Socialist subculture I But repression fails o Socialist party membership 9 1878 500001890300000 I Socialist party largest party in parliament by 1912 2Repression 9 Radicalism 9 Repression How was Democracy established in Germany 1False Start Weimar Nazism 2 New Start On the ashes of total defeat o Nazi Legacy 0 International constraints 0 Economic miracle 3 History 0 PreWWI I Powerful Junkers and dependent middle class have no interest in democracy I Repressed working class radicalizes o Authoritarianism Persists 0 Democracy born in the revolution 0 Weimar Republic I OctNov 1918 Soldiers and workers revolt ends Second Reich Power transferred to a social democratic government 0 Split of the working class I Nov 11 1918 Armistice I 1919 Parliamentary democracy established in Weimar I 19191920s International reparations hyperinflation 0 Basic features of Nazism I Nationalism Aggressive expansionist revenge I Racism Aryanism antiSemitism I Irrationalism Leadership cult celebrate violence 0 1933 Vote for the Enabling Act Beginning of the Third Reich I Anti Democracy Communism Establishment Explaining Nazism 0 Weak Weimar Republic 4 Born in defeat during WWI and the German economic crisis 0 Bolshevik Revolution 4 The left is divided Nazism is a rightwing movement 0 Second Reich Legacy 4 Old social order preserved 4 Junkers Entrenched 4 Middle Classes Hit by economic crisis 4 Desperate from late 1920s Nazism provides shelter food jobs a Uniform and a quotsacrificial lamb Jews Democracy in Germany after 1945 Nazi Legacy 0 quotStunde Null Hour Zero 4 58 Million soldiers 4 2 Million civilians dead 4 20 Million Homeless 4 Allied Bombing 4 Hitler s scorched earth policy Nothing left to take out of Germany 0 Total defeat No false sense of betrayal No Stab in the back 0 Totalitarianism Old social order Junkers destroyed 4 Clean political slate Compare 1946 with 1919 International Constraints 0 Division ofGermany 4 4 zones 2 states 4 Germany did not become a sovereign nation until 1990 4 Germany signed nonproliferation treaty and it limits the size of its military to less than 400000 soldiers 0 Allied Interregnum 194549 0 Denazification o o o Demilitarization o Democratization o o Decentralization Cold War West Germany FrontLine States 0 1947 Recipient of Marshall Plan aid 44 Billion 0 195157 Member of the European CommunityUnion 4 Founded by both Germany and France 0 1955 Member of NATO 0 Result Centrism 4 Political extremism no longer legitimate 4 In 1949 election 0 Extreme Right 18 o Communists No Legitimacy and later banned 0 Konrad Adenauer Chancellor 194963 0 Economic Miracle 4 Economic Growth Contrast with Weimar Republic o Germans take great pride in Economic capacity for growth 0 Social Market Economy IV Why was British political development gradual a Liberal Democracy 1 Liberal Rights civil rights rule of law core to a democracy rulers are constrained freedom of expression and freedom of association 2Democratic Institutions rulers compete for office I 39 39 elections 39 39 39 39I being able to vote and have access to public accessories or benefits 3History Beginning in the 19 h century Britain highly unequal and highly unpleasant socially economically and politically state for many of the citizens in Britain there was no vote no voice with harsh conditions laisseZfairequot no safety net people living in workhouses in political revolt Luddism 1810s was a movement among weavers who were threatened by the emergence of modern technology and industrial weaving machines because people that were unskilled could take over the machines Chartism 18381848 was the first mass movement of workers in the world where workers came together and created a people s charter that called for male suffrage equal electoral districts and removal of property qualification for Members of Parliament Payment of member is of parliament a secret ballot an annual general elections all were met except male suffrage and annual general elections In addition age expectancy in Liverpool 1830 19 years think Oliver Twist workhouse environment and families were torn apart and lived in workhouses There was no revolution in Britain in the 19 h century because the people worked together and created a liberal democracy 0 Did the monarchy have an iron grip on the state No the king was beheaded in the civil war in 1649 the monarchy of Britain was handstrung France Yes forced a revolution 0 Could the middle class create a liberal political order Yes the aristocracy was not reactionary 1832 Reform Act the aristocracy wanted to make money out of capitalism because many of them were involved in the wool trade thus the aristocracy was internally divided Was the workingclass of Britain violently repressed No rights were won during the 19 h century the working class was able to achieve some of its social demands and better living standards work within the system rather than work against it 40UTCOM E a moderate reformist Labour Party 1900 0 Accept political game quotSecure the return ofan increased number of labour members to Parliament 0 More welfare eg unemployment insurance health and sickness insurance 0 Industrial legislation 8hour workday 0 Union legislation legalize strikes b Four elements why Britain avoided the violent path to democracy 1 Political Toleration 0 quotBritain s free institutionsquot liberalism freedom of association combination press and voting 0 Virtuous cycle toleration9moderation toleration o Vicious cycle repression radicalism repression o MLK quotViolence is the voice of the unheard 2 Welfare Reform 0 The 1833 Factory Act limits on child labor was the first series of a welfare measures 0 Effect Reduced economic misery at margins and showed workers they had allies in the ruling elite care for the weak if you are blessed with wealth the obligation to care for the poor the aristocratic party wanted to weaken the quotwigsquot or the middle class and building up working class strategic reasoning 3 Reformist Unionism E 57 Squot 53 0 Trying to get better wages better treatment and respect within the existing society Improvement within capitalism Union motto quotA fair day s wage for a fair day s work 0 Effect gave workers a sense they could defend themselves by their own collective efforts unions were tolerated 4 Early nation 0 Britain an island nation last successful invasion 1066 0 England formed from the 12 h to the 16 h century From Chaucer to Shakespeare Union of England and Scotland in 1616 0 Effect no quotnational question that could be exploited by nationalist reactionaries o No vex religious question Are there different types of Capitalism Characteristics of Capitalism 1Capitalism is an economic and political system in which a country s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit rather than by the state 0 Ownership of capital goods by investments that are determined by private decision rather than by state control and by prices production and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly in free markets 2Capitalism is based on selfinterest and selfesteem 3Capitalists detain control of the means of production 0 Laborers are denied independent access to means of production 4Capitalistic action as one which rests on the expectation of profit by the utilization of opportunities for exchange How countries compete Competitive vs Comparative Advantage 1USA Hightech products finance pharmaceuticals 2Britain Financial and security sector pharmaceuticals 3France Luxury goods aeronautics 4Germany Engineering automobiles Types of capitalism 1AngloAmericanLiberalmarket capitalism o Compete on price flexibility rapid innovation competitive advantage 0 Ex US Britain Ireland Canada 0 Financing Stock markets short term 0 Education and Training Universal education outside company 0 Labor Relations onetoone employers powerful 0 Government Role limited regulation residual 2 FrancoGermanCoordinatedmarket capitalism o Compete on reliability niche quality 39 39 39 r 39 U 0 Ex Germany France Japan Netherlands 0 Financing Banks longterm firms crossshareholding 0 Education and Training vocational training on the job 0 Labor Relations collective more balanced 0 Government Role more regulation investor Does the type of Capitalism make a difference Liberal vs Coordinated 1Worker s Rights 5 0 Coordinated Markets are more helpful with retraining workers to master new forms of work than the Liberal markets are I USA is at the bottom of Active Labor Market Policies funding More strikes in the United States Depends on the strengths of unions The stronger the labor Unions the less strikes occur Job security is more prevalent in Europe than North America when the Stock Market is down Europe is driven by the need to protect workers that have been in the work force for a long period of time North American liberal markets want the ability to hire and fire as they need when the economy fluctuates 0 Higher percentage of collective bargaining coverage fulltime employees covered by collective agreements in European markets than North American markets 2Size of Government 3Government Investment Education and Health Care Liberal and Coordinated Markets spend about the same amount on public education as a percent of GDP 0 Liberal Markets spend more purchasing powers parody PPP per student than coordinated markets 0 After High School 0 Liberal Markets spend more on health care as a ofGDP and S per person compared to coordinated markets 4nequality Income and Access to Health Care 0 Longer hours of work for American companies than European companies Europeans value their leisure time more Europeans don t have to work as long to earn a basic income for necessities Lower wage differentials in European Markets than in North American Markets 0 Wage Differentials Avg Wage of Highest 10 of WorkersAvg Wage of Lowest 10 of Workers Lower pressure for taxation in liberal market economies than coordinated markets Coordinated Markets spend on average 80 on publicly finance health care for their citizens Liberal markets spend on average 50 on publicly financed health care Liberal Markets have more people die before average age expectancy than coordinated markets 0 Why is their such inequality between liberal and coordinated markets 1Globalization Race to the Bottom 2Varieties of Capitalism Compete on price vs Compete on Reliability 3 Politics VI Reforming Health Care a Why have a health care system 1Heath care as a human right 0 Eg European Social Charter 1961 and 1996 o Eg Universal Declaration of Human Rights 2 Health Care to help provide comparative and competitive advantage 0 Comparative Coordinated Markets to create a stable and convenient standard of living Stabilizes relationships between the public and the government 0 Competitive 3Three Basic Models 0 Beveridge Model National Health Service Beveridge was a British minister immediately after WWII and created the first British health care system the government runs the health system in two ways I Government either pays doctors through taxes or directly The government as the single provider and single payer UK Scandinavia 0 National Health 39Insurance System Government pays through taxes but the companies that provide the healthcare and insurance are privately owned Multiple private providers government as single payer Canada and Taiwan 0 Bismark Model Social Insurance Multiple private providers multiple private payers government regulates the system Citizens pay for their healthcare through deductions from their paycheck Looks similar to the way US healthcare system is run but has differences Germany Japan Switzerland Netherlands Who Provides Care and Pays Bill Government Private Sector Beveridge Model National Health Insurance BestValue for Money Tax Financing Government SinglePayer Tax Financing Choice on Care Limited choice Government Regulates prices Government Regulation contributions ALL THREE SVSTEMS HAVE Bismarck Model UNIVERSALCOVERAGE More Expensive Private Sector MultiPayer Payroll Deduction Maximum Choice Government Regulation as BackUp 4 Lessons for US Health Care Reform 0 Universal coverage with private insurers and private care is possible 0 But requires regulation of market I Insurers must 0 Accept everyone and can t make profits on basic care I Individuals must 0 Buy insurance no opt outs and government provides for the poor I Doctors and hospitals must 0 accept fix prices 5What drives change in health care 0 Environmental change cost pressures 0 Political ideology 0 Path dependence 0 Veto points o Vested interests Medical professions private insurers pharmaceuticals manages pays insurance services amount per govern ment sets profit public assistance for prices public assistance for poor Progressive insurance company sets rich govern ment sets insurance company sets senice price government government for paid by insuranceindividuals I Ideology and Party Competition in Europe a Two lines of Conflict 1Economic Left vs Economic Right 0 How much state intervention in the market 0 How much equality How much economic freedom 0 How much social protection 2GAL vs TAN o GAL GreenAlternativeLibertarian SocialLiberalism o TAN TraditionalAuthorityNational SocialConservatism o How much control over life style choices I GayLesbian recreational drugs 0 Can the state decide who lives or dies I Death penalty euthanasia 0 Who can enter your country I Immigration Laws I Nationalism 57 Party Ideologies 1Liberalism 0 German Free Democratic Party 0 British Liberal Dems 0 Dutch VVD 0 Not quotliberalquot in the American sense 0 Political liberalism I Freedom of expression I Freedom of association 0 Economic liberalism I LaisseZfaire I Key the market Social liberalism I Personal lifestyle Basic Liberal Doctrine Selfregarding vs otherregarding Government should control only otherregarding acts Government should not control selfregarding acts Smoking Drugs Pornography 2Social Democrats Swedish Social Dems Spanish Socialists German SPD French Socialists British Labour Around 30 of vote in Europe Goals I Equal opportunity and social protection I Irrespective of social background Continuity in goals but means have changed I Greater emphasis on market I Less state ownership I Reform of welfare state 3Christian Democrats German Christian Democrats CDUCSU Dutch Belgian Christian Democrats Austrian Christian Democrats 12 plus of the European vote 4Conservatism British Conservative Party French UMP Swedish Moderates Spanish Partido Popular Around 18 of the vote across Western Europe Economic liberalism social conservatism Nationalism The Nation Bismarck De Gaulle Margaret Thatcher Catholicism or interdenominational I Social Issues Antiabortion antieuthanasia family values and traditional motherhood Coordinated Market Economy I Strong welfare state progressive not regressive taxes low employment Solidarity vs Class Christian Democracy has changed I More secular I Shift to the economic right I Shift to social conservatism 5 Have values changed since 1970s Thesis Economic prosperity changes individuals priorities Maslow Hierarchy From economicphysical survival Materialist to individual improvementpersonal freedom participation postmaterialist 6Three new parties have emerged as the importance of the GalTan element has grown Green Parties I Germany France Belgium Netherlands Scandinavia I Why not in UK Parliament or in US I Around 4 of vote in W Europe I Issues Environment antinuclear power lifestyle issues Pro gay and lesbian antideath penalty pro foreign aid multiculturalism Radical Rights Populist Right Parties I France Belgium Austria Italy Denmark Switzerland I 6 plus of W European vote I Antiimmigration quotEnlightenment Values I Nationalism I Law and Order I AntiEuropean integration I Populism AntiElite Radical Lefts I Sweden Denmark Netherlands Spain Portugal Greece France Italy Germany I About 7 in W Europe I Issues Multiculturalism Gal Anticapitalism antiglobalization redistribution defense of the welfare state Are political parties losing their central role Political parties are suppose to be the intermediaries between the government and the people Make sense of all the issues government has to deal with by relating them to political ideologies Political parties are vehicles to produce office holders Research showing that political parties are losing their edge has intermediaries 2 New Politics Change in political values I From materialist values emphasizing economic and physical security to post materialist values emphasizing autonomy and selfexpression Materialist priorities economic growth fighting rising prices maintaining order fight against crime Post Materialist Priorities freedom of speech giving people more say in important government decisions giving people more say on the job a society where ideas count Change in Political Behavior I From representative democracy elections parties parliaments and trust in political institutions to declining trust more direct and advocacy activity Challenge for political parties I Values crosscut mainstream political parties 0 New Parties Radical Parties 0 Shrinking middle I Values challenge legitimacy of political parties as mediators o Floating voters independent voters issues voters 0 From trustee to delegate model Political action bypasses mainstream political parties 0 Less easy to prioritize make trade offs 0 Less easy to compromise 0 Less easy to implement comprehensive reforms Transparency and representatives 0 Who participates 0 Who is accountable for outcomes I Confidence in government institutions has quot citizens have increased dramatically as well Why is there a European Union a Who 1The Original Six 1951 Belgium Netherlands Luxemburg France Germany Italy quot 39 39 quot butthe 39 39 valuesof 2 Enlargement from 6 to 27 o 1973 UK Ireland Denmark 0 198186 Greece Spain Portugal 0 1995 Sweden Austria Finland 0 2004 quotbig bangquot eight countries in Central and Eastern Europe plus Malta and Cyprus 0 2007 Bulgaria and Romania 3Future Enlargements o 20 Croatia Macedonia Turkey 0 Balkans 0 Since January 2007 the EU has 493 million people b War Experience 1WW approx 20 million dead 2WW approx 70 million dead 3Nationalism The most deadly force in human history 4Constraining Germany 0 How was France to deal with Germany I quotI could see only one solution we must bind ourselves inextricably to Germany in a common undertaking in which our other neighbors could join A Europeanwide territory of prosperity and peace would thus be created Jean Monnet 5Churchill calls for a quotUnited States of Europe 0 European integration is necessary for future peace 0 The UK would not participate o FrancoGerman cooperation at the core 6The Schuman Declaration 1950 European Coal and Steel Community 7 How can war be averted o The European coal and steel community 0 European Defense Community 1954 o The European Economic Community 1957 c The Cold War 1No longer Western European great powers and imperial rivals 2 Unity against the Soviet threat 3US support for European integration Marshall Plan 40EEC Organization for European Economic Cooperation 1948 50ECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 1961 d MultiLevel Governance 1 Larger can be efficient Externalities 2Small is Beautiful Heterogeneity of Preference 3 Benefits of Government across Europe The Single Market Eliminating trade barriers Comparative advantage I Benefits of specialization Environmental regulation Competition authority International economic bargaining power e Deepening of the EU 1The EU has increased in size population and diversity from successive enlargements 19582007 1950 Sovereign national states National Policies Legal systems armies taxation parliaments welfare health education Inside Countries Rule of law liberty Outside of countries Supranational Collaboration I The European Coal and Steel Community ECSC o Neofunctionalism 39239 Step by step problem solving 39239 Active European elite 39239 Larger ambitions European Defense Community rejected by French National Assembly 1954 0 Focus shifts back to concrete cooperation I European Economic Community Treaty of Rome 1957 0 Key policies custom union external trade policy internal competition policy 39239 Custom Union Free trade area rules of trade are equal for all countries 39239 External Trade Policy 39239 Internal Competition Policy Single European Act 1986 0 Internal Market 1992 project 39239 Eliminates non tariff barriers to trade 39239 Mutual recognition not harmonization 0 Institutional Reform 39239 More power for European Parliament 39239 Qualified majority voting QMV in Council of Ministers 0 New noneconomic areas regional policy environmental policy 3The British Are Not Coming Britain s ambiguous attitude toward Europe UK creates a competitor in 1960 European Free Trade Agreement UK applies for EEC membership in 1961 and 1967 but is rejected Joins in 1973 57 Squot 4The Gaulle s Intergovernmental Plan 0 De Gaulle wants and intergovernmental organization on defense and foreign policy 0 quotempty chair crisis 196566 French government boycotts EC meetings for six months 0 Luxembourg compromise 1966 if vital national interests national veto How Does the EU Work 1 Most of EU income is from contributions from member states 0 Contribution is percentage of national income I Wealthier countries pay more 2 EU budget also comes from Valueadded tax N to sales tax amp traditional own resources customsexcise tax agricultural levies 3No national equivalent to European Council 4European Commission Euro exec initiates legislation 0 Then sends to Euro leg Council of Ministers amp Euro Parliament The European Council 1 Heads of state amp government foreign ministers meet approx 4xyear 2 Decides by consensus 3 Functions 0 Issues broad guidelines 0 Settles contentious issues 0 Final treaty negotiations accession of new members 0 Proposes Commission President President of Euro Central Bank 4Chaired by new EU President elected for 2 years 0 Gives Council more formal role 50ften called EU summit 0 Most informal branch European Commission 1 Political tier College of Commissioners 0 President proposed by European Council confirmed by European Parliament 2Commissioners 1 per MS portfolios set by President confirmed by European Parliament 0 European Parliament CANNOT reject individual candidate but can reject ENTIRE group of candidates 0 European Parliament can dissolve Commission if necessary 0 Oath of independence from national issues 3Civil service tier 14000 career officials 0 Career officials exam oath of independence 0 Appointed for life 0 Diverse unusual people 0 Not just a civil service bureaucracy I Dynamic constantly changing 4 Functions 0 Power of initiative I Drafts legislation 0 Execute law amp manages finances 0 Usually passes laws onto national governments for final implementation European Commission oversees implementation 5Strong powers in 0 Competition policy 0 Trade 0 Enlargement negotiations d 5 1 Council of Ministers 1 Multiple specialist councils agriculture finance foreign policy economic policy social policy etc 2nstitutional representation 1 minister per MS 3Somewhat akin to upper house of leg 4Function Legislator New voting rule form 2014 Majority 55 of MS representing 65 of Euro pop Majority voting on most issues Unanimity on treaty revisions taxation foreign amp defense policy new policies accession 0 European Parliament 1 Directly elected since 1979 Every 5 years 2Proportional representation 3Sits in Strasbourg holds committee meetings in Brussels 4 MEPs sit by ideology NOT country 5 Executive Oversight Veto on Commission president veto on whole College Can censure the Commission Can hold committees of inquiry Q amp A Commissioners Council of Ministers Legislative Authority 1957 consultation 1986 cooperation 1993 codecision 2010 full budgetary control After Lisbon national parliaments may ask to review a proposal if 13 or 14 on justice of parliament finds it in violation of subsidiary Multilevel Governance Multilevel Governance Shift to the Regions Measuring Regional Authority 142 countries OECDEU CEEC 219502006 30ne two or three regional tiers 4Self rule and shared rule 5384 Reforms Where and When Belgium Regions communities created in 1970 Strengthened 1980 1989 Federal country since 1993 Britain Scottish Welsh parliaments 1997 2001 2008 London 2001 France Elected regions 1982 Strengthened in 1986 Why Cultural Shift 0 Reform Intensified from 1970 0 Late 1960s Antiauthority anticentralization participation Functional Shift From War to Peace 0 War is national 0 Modern development requires scale flexibility 39239 Welfare microeconomic policy environment education health transport 0 Populous countries should see greatest pressure for regionalization Regional Identity 0 Regional community language culture traditions 0 quotWe want selfgovernmentquot From Dictatorship to Democracy 0 Dictators want to centralize o Democracies are open to decentralization o Pent up pressures fro regionalization Spain Greece Central and Eastern Europe European Integration 0 Reduces the economic cost of independence overarching market 0 Competition among regions 0 Weak regions learn from strong ones 0 European Union pressures Party Ideology and Party Integration V 1Mainstream parties tend to support European integration and extreme parties tend to oppose European integration 2 Mainstreamleft parties prefer more Europe and mainstreamright parties prefer to keep Europe as it is Mainstream Right Wants more Europe on single market Wants less in Mainstream Left Wants more Europe in employment cohesion social environmental policy cohesion employment social environmental policy Left wants stronger European authority across the board Social Democrats and Christian Democrats from EU nations have high support for European integration Right wants selective European authority 0 while radical parties do not 3 Rise of Nationalism o What do nationalists want I Defend national sovereignty I Limit immigration Christian Heritage enlightenment values I Defend national culture 4West vs East Different structure of political competition same causality Communist Legacy LeftTAN American political thought against European integration European Union RightGAL American political thought for European integration Political thought is beginning to shift up and to the right more and more as new generations enter the O O 0 political arena 5Conclusions Radical left opposes European Integration in East and West Anticapitalist O Radical TAN opposes European Integration in East and West Pronationalism anticosmopolitan anti 0 immigrant 0 Left and TAN combine in same parties in East different parties in West 0 Reasons for East s difference communist legacy VII Europe s Blues Why does the public not love the EU very much 1ElitePublic gap Elites tend to be more in favor of the EU integration than the average EU citizen b Defeat of the Constitutional Treaty 2005 1Simplify decision making 0 European Council President smaller Commission simpler voting rule 55 member states65 of population 2Raise Foreign Policy Profile 0 EU Minister for Foreign Affairs 3Bill of Rights 0 Rejected in French and Dutch Referendums c Lisbon Treaty 2007 1 No Constitution 20ptOuts for member states 3No Bill of Rights 4No new voting system until 2014 5The treaty was rejected in Irish referendum in 2008 d Two Developments 1More and more matters are being decided by the European Union MoneyCredit Taxes Goodsservices Agriculture Capital flow 0 There are also no longer any policies that are regulated solely on a national level All policy has some EU involvement 2More and more matters are being decided by a majority 0 There is no national veto looks as though the national state and it s sole interests are being eroded 33 Reactions to these changes 0 Elitepublic gap becomes a problem 0 Referendums 30 since the Maastricht Treaty 7 with proEuropean defeat 0 Exclusive National Identity Mobilized e Elites and Public in Europe 1Elites in most EU nations consistently have a higher percentage saying their country has benefited from EU integration as opposed to public opinion 0 Smallest difference between elite and public in Poland 0 Largest gap between the elites and public are located in UK Austria and Italy 2 Identity What do you see yourself as 0 EU I Majority Regional Only Regional first Central second 0 Include those that align with the radical left and right parties I l 39 ullu D 0 Reasons of 1 u Europe to antibig business and central free market economy I Minority Central first Regional second Central only 0 USA I Majority and Minority identity opinion distribution is the exact opposite of the EU population 3Peek into the Future EuroPessimism nurtures common Creates more VIII EU a Copenhagen Criteria 1 Membership requires that the candidate country has achieved stability of institutions guaranteeingquot o The rule of law human rights and respect for and protection of minorities 0 Democracy 0 The existence of a functioning market economy 2These requirements enable the EU to come down hard on countries that do not follow the criteria the countries have to absorb without to much conflict all of the EU legislation that has already passed Why does Central East European Countries CEEC want EU membership 57 1Geopolitics security Russia global weight 2Economics aid market access European capitalism 3 Politics consolidate democracy Squot Why do 15 EU members support enlargement 1Geopolitics Stable borders 2Economics Cheaper labor consumers growth 3Politics Moral obligation to stitch Europe back together 53 Problems with EU enlargement 1Regional disparities in the enlarged EU 0 Western European countries are 3 times richer than those of the East 0 Cohesion Policy to reduce disparities among regions in the EU I About 13 of EU spending 2Corruption o Balkan and former Soviet Union countries have high levels of corruption in their governments 0 Western and Northern European countries have very low levels of corruption I Exceptions of Italy and Greece 0 Turkey Croatia Macedonia Montenegro Serbia and Bosnia need to work on their corruption prevention 3Minority Rights 0 Not in EU treaties mainly Council of Europe Commissioner of Human Rights 0 Copenhagen criteria 0 Commission annual monitoring reports during accession 0 EU agency for fundamental rights 0 Private associations 0 Problems I Russian minorities in Baltic states I Roma Gypsies esp Central and Eastern Europe I Muslims esp Western Europe 5 Next Enlargement Candidates 1Turkey Croatia Macedonia 2Rest of Balkans Serbia Montenegro Kosovo Albania 3Beyond Enlargement European Neighborhood Policy 0 Mediterranean Israel Syria Lebanon Jordan Palestinian Authority Egypt Libya Tunisia Morocco 0 Caucasia Azerbaijan Armenia Belarus 0 Budget for 20072012 12 Billion Euros EXAM OVERVIEW I Exam Setting a Friday April 30 40m b GEC Auditorium c 3 hours d Bring PID two blue books extra pencil NO BAGS II What is covered a Lectures recitations videos readings pwrpnts b Whole semester but more on postmidterm c Read the questions on the syllabus III Structure a Essays of Max 3 pages b 5 essays limited choice on topics c Two Parts i Part I Political development varieties of capitalism healthcare ii Part II Party Ideologies post materialism EU Integration IV Topics a Paths to democracy i Why have moderation and gradualism prevailed in Britain but failed in France and Germany ii Why and how did communism collapse in East Germany Film Lives of Others iii Look at the Keys to Modern Political Development in notes b Creating Public Goods i Are there still different types of capitalism and are there any social implications ii Reforming health care in the OECD Sick around the world documentary iii Look at Liberal and Coordinated Market Capitalism Table and Health Care Model Table c Ideology and Party Competition i Left Right TAN and GAL ii Are political parties losing their role in European politics iii Look at Spatial Map d European Union i Why How and Whence ii Why have multilevel governance iii Parties and public opinion about the EU iv Why have enlargement
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